Novel Source (novel + source)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha): a Novel Source of L-asparaginase

Vishal P. Oza
Abstract Different parts of plant species belonging to Solanaceae and Fabaceae families were screened for L-asparaginase enzyme (E.C. Among 34 plant species screened for L-asparaginase enzyme, Withania somnifera L. was identified as a potential source of the enzyme on the basis of high specific activity of the enzyme. The enzyme was purified and characterized from W. somnifera, a popular medicinal plant in South East Asia and Southern Europe. Purification was carried out by a combination of protein precipitation with ammonium sulfate as well as Sephadex-gel filtration. The purified enzyme is a homodimer, with a molecular mass of 72 ± 0.5 kDa as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresisand size exclusion chromatography. The enzyme has a pH optimum of 8.5 and an optimum temperature of 37 °C. The Km value for the enzyme is 6.1 × 10,2 mmol/L. This is the first report for L-asparaginase from W. somnifera, a traditionally used Indian medicinal plant. [source]

Commercial Innovations from Consulting Engineering Firms: An Empirical Exploration of a Novel Source of New Product Ideas

Ian Alam
Industrial firms interact with many outside organizations such as the customers, suppliers, competitors, and universities to obtain input for their new product development (NPD) programs. The importance of interfirm interactions is reflected in a large number of interdisciplinary studies reported in a wide variety of literature bases. As a result, several sources of new product ideas have been investigated in the extant literature. Yet given the growing complexity and risks in new product development, there seems to be a need for managers to obtain input from new and unutilized sources. Apparently, one source that industry has not tapped adequately for its NPD efforts is the consulting engineering firms (CEFs). To fill the aforementioned gap in the literature, this article explores the roles and suitability of CEFs in new product development by conducting a rigorous in-depth case research of new product idea generation in a large Australian firm manufacturing a variety of industrial products. To generate ideas for the sponsoring firm, longitudinal field interviews with 64 managers and engineers from 32 large CEFs were conducted over a one-and-one-half year period. The findings of the field interviews were combined with the documentary evidences and the archival data. This longitudinal data collection enabled the author to generate new product ideas over real time and to gain access to the information that otherwise might have been difficult to obtain. The results suggest that CEFs are a rich source of new product ideas of potential commercial value. However, industry is making little use of CEFs, which underscores the need for industrial firms to collaborate and to establish an effective idea transfer relationship with them. Moreover, the services of CEFs are not restricted to idea generation but can stretch across the entire NPD process. These findings of the study encourage product managers to conceptualize NPD as a highly synergistic mutually interdependent process between CEFs and industrial firms rather than simply an arm's-length consulting transactions. Given the dearth of research on idea generation with CEFs, this study highlights the findings that are novel and that go beyond the techniques of new product idea generation established in the extant literature. [source]

Measuring the Time Inconsistency of US Monetary Policy

ECONOMICA, Issue 297 2008
This paper offers an alternative explanation for the great inflation of the 1970s by measuring a novel source of monetary policy time inconsistency. In the presence of asymmetric preferences, the monetary authorities generate a systematic inflation bias through the private-sector expectations of a larger policy response in recessions than in booms. The estimated Fed's implicit target for inflation has declined from the pre- to the post-Volcker regime. The average inflation bias was about 1% before 1979, but this has disappeared over the last two decades, because the preferences on output stabilization were large and asymmetric only in the former period. [source]

Alterations of pre-mRNA splicing in cancer

Zane Kalnin
Recent genomewide analyses of alternative splicing (AS) indicate that up to 70% of human genes may have alternative splice forms, suggesting that AS together with various posttranslational modifications plays a major role in the production of proteome complexity. Splice-site selection under normal physiological conditions is regulated in the developmental stage in a tissue type-specific manner by changing the concentrations and the activity of splicing regulatory proteins. Whereas spliceosomal errors resulting in the production of aberrant transcripts rarely occur in normal cells, they seem to be an intrinsic property of cancer cells. Changes in splice-site selection have been observed in various types of cancer and may affect genes implicated in tumor progression (for example, CD44, MDM2, and FHIT) and in susceptibility to cancer (for example, BRCA1 and APC). Splicing defects can arise from inherited or somatic mutations in cis -acting regulatory elements (splice donor, acceptor and branch sites, and exonic and intronic splicing enhancers and silencers) or variations in the composition, concentration, localization, and activity of regulatory proteins. This may lead to altered efficiency of splice-site recognition, resulting in overexpression or down-regulation of certain splice variants, a switch in splice-site usage, or failure to recognize splice sites correctly, resulting in cancer-specific splice forms. At least in some cases, changes in splicing have been shown to play a functionally significant role in tumorigenesis, either by inactivating tumor suppressors or by gain of function of proteins promoting tumor development. Moreover, cancer-specific splicing events may generate novel epitopes that can be recognized by the host's immune system as cancer specific and may serve as targets for immunotherapy. Thus, the identification of cancer-specific splice forms provides a novel source for the discovery of diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers and tumor antigens suitable as targets for therapeutic intervention. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Evolution of balanced genetic polymorphism

Adam Richman
Abstract Extreme genetic polymorphism maintained by balancing selection (so called because many alleles are maintained in a balance by a mechanism of rare allele advantage) is intimately associated with the important task of self/non-self-discrimination. Widely disparate self-recognition systems of plants, animals and fungi share several general features, including the maintenance of large numbers of alleles at relatively even frequency, and persistence of this variation over very long time periods. Because the evolutionary dynamics of balanced polymorphism are very different from those of neutral genetic variation, data on balanced polymorphism have been used as a novel source for inference of the history of populations. This review highlights the unique evolutionary properties of balanced genetic polymorphism, and the use of theoretical understanding in analysis and application of empirical data for inference of population history. However, a second goal of this review is to point out where current theory is incomplete. Recent observations suggest that entirely novel selective forces may act in concert with balancing selection, and these novel forces may be extremely potent in shaping genetic variation at self-recognition loci. [source]

WRR4, a broad-spectrum TIR-NB-LRR gene from Arabidopsis thaliana that confers white rust resistance in transgenic oilseed brassica crops

SUMMARY White blister rust caused by Albugo candida (Pers.) Kuntze is a common and often devastating disease of oilseed and vegetable brassica crops worldwide. Physiological races of the parasite have been described, including races 2, 7 and 9 from Brassica juncea, B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively, and race 4 from Capsella bursa-pastoris (the type host). A gene named WRR4 has been characterized recently from polygenic resistance in the wild brassica relative Arabidopsis thaliana (accession Columbia) that confers broad-spectrum white rust resistance (WRR) to all four of the above Al. candida races. This gene encodes a TIR-NB-LRR (Toll-like/interleukin-1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat) protein which, as with other known functional members in this subclass of intracellular receptor-like proteins, requires the expression of the lipase-like defence regulator, enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1). Thus, we used RNA interference-mediated suppression of EDS1 in a white rust-resistant breeding line of B. napus (transformed with a construct designed from the A. thaliana EDS1 gene) to determine whether defence signalling via EDS1 is functionally intact in this oilseed brassica. The eds1-suppressed lines were fully susceptible following inoculation with either race 2 or 7 isolates of Al. candida. We then transformed white rust-susceptible cultivars of B. juncea (susceptible to race 2) and B. napus (susceptible to race 7) with the WRR4 gene from A. thaliana. The WRR4-transformed lines were resistant to the corresponding Al. candida race for each host species. The combined data indicate that WRR4 could potentially provide a novel source of white rust resistance in oilseed and vegetable brassica crops. [source]

The synthesis and accumulation of stearidonic acid in transgenic plants: a novel source of ,heart-healthy' omega-3 fatty acids

Noemí Ruiz-López
Summary Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have a proven role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and precursor disease states such as metabolic syndrome. Although most studies have focussed on the predominant omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oils (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid), recent evidence suggests similar health benefits from their common precursor, stearidonic acid. Stearidonic acid is a ,6-unsaturated C18 omega-3 fatty acid present in a few plant species (mainly the Boraginaceae and Primulaceae) reflecting the general absence of ,6-desaturation from higher plants. Using a ,6-desaturase from Primula vialii, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis and linseed lines accumulating stearidonic acid in their seed lipids. Significantly, the P. vialii,6-desaturase specifically only utilises ,-linolenic acid as a substrate, resulting in the accumulation of stearidonic acid but not omega-6 ,-linolenic acid. Detailed lipid analysis revealed the accumulation of stearidonic acid in neutral lipids such as triacylglycerol but an absence from the acyl-CoA pool. In the case of linseed, the achieved levels of stearidonic acid (13.4% of triacylglycerols) are very similar to those found in the sole natural commercial plant source (Echium spp.) or transgenic soybean oil. However, both those latter oils contain ,-linolenic acid, which is not normally present in fish oils and considered undesirable for heart-healthy applications. By contrast, the stearidonic acid-enriched linseed oil is essentially devoid of this fatty acid. Moreover, the overall omega-3/omega-6 ratio for this modified linseed oil is also significantly higher. Thus, this nutritionally enhanced linseed oil may have superior health-beneficial properties. [source]

Mung bean lipoxygenase in the production of a C6-aldehyde.

Natural green-note flavor generation via biotransformation
Abstract Mung bean was investigated as a novel source of lipoxygenase in the natural production of the green-note aroma compound hexanal. Lipoxygenase extracted from mung bean catalyzed the oxidative reaction of linoleic acid, after which the intermediate hydroperoxide compound was split via green bell pepper hydroperoxide lyase to produce hexanal. In comparison to soybean lipoxygenase, mung bean lipoxygenase was found to be a good substitute as it produced 15.4 mM (76% yield) hexanal while soybean gave 60% yield. The mung bean pH profile comprised a wide peak (optimum pH 6.5) representing lipoxygenase-2 and lipoxygenase-3 isozymes, whereas two narrower peaks representing lipoxygenase-1 and lipoxygenase-2/3 isozymes were observed for soybean (optimum pH 10). Extraction at pH 4.5 was preferred, at which specific lipoxygenase activity was also the highest. [source]

Kidneys from patients with small renal tumours: a novel source of kidneys for transplantation

David L. Nicol
OBJECTIVE To report the use of a novel donor source as a further option to increase the number of patients who might be able to receive a renal transplant. PATIENTS AND METHODS Between May 1996 and July 2007, 43 kidneys were transplanted using kidneys obtained from patients with small (<3 cm diameter) incidentally detected tumours. After bench surgery to excise the tumour, they were all successfully transplanted into patients who were elderly or had significant comorbidities. RESULTS Apart from four patients who died from unrelated illnesses, all grafts continued to function with a median and mean follow-up of 25 and 32 months. The follow-up, which included 3-monthly renal ultrasonography and chest X-rays, showed only one case of tumour recurrence, which occurred 9 years after transplantation; the patient remains stable under observation after 18 months. CONCLUSIONS From our experience we consider that where nephrectomy is used for small, localized, incidentally detected renal tumours, the kidney should be considered for transplantation into carefully selected patients. Such patients with numerous medical comorbidities might benefit from renal transplantation, but not survive the waiting period if they are dependent on a deceased donor graft. Paradoxically the use of these marginal kidneys has the potential to increase the quality and length of life of these patients, despite the apparent contradiction of an intuitive principle of organ transplantation and immunosuppression. [source]

Proliferation and pluripotency potential of ectomesenchymal cells derived from first branchial arch

Yunfeng Lin
Their potential to be expanded in culture as a monolayer and to be induced into different cell lineages in vitro has not been previously reported in detail. In this study, the ectomesenchymal cells in the first branchial arch were enzymatically isolated from the mandibular processes of BALB/c mice and were maintained in an intact state in a medium containing leukaemia inhibitory factor. Here, we first evaluated the proliferative activity of the cells after the third passage, using bromodeoxyuridine labelling and in situ hybridization of telomerase mRNA. Positive staining for expression of HNK-1, S-100 and vimentin confirmed that the population of stem cells originated from the ectomesenchyme, which did not express cytokeratin. Then we investigated the molecular and cellular characteristics of the ectomesenchymal cells during their differentiation towards neurogenic, endothelial, myogenic and odontogenic lineages. Expression of multiple lineage-specific genes and proteins was detected by utilizing a range of molecular and biochemical approaches when the cells were transferred to inductive medium. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis of the induced cells at various intervals indicated obvious phenotypic alteration and presence of specific proteins for the differentiated lineages, for example nestin, factor VIII, ,-SMA and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), respectively. Correlatively, results of reverse transcription,PCR corroborated at mRNA level the expression of the characteristic molecules during differentiation. Therefore, it is suggested that the ectomesenchymal cells derived from the first branchial arch may represent a novel source of multipotential stem cells capable of undergoing expansion and variant differentiation in vitro. [source]

Antimutagenic and antioxidant activities of cascalote (Caesalpinia cacalaco) phenolics

Rafael A Veloz-García
Abstract There is an increasing awareness and interest in the antioxidant behaviour and potential health benefits of phenolic acids. The identification of novel sources of phenolic acids has been also of scientific interest. Cascalote (Caesalpinia cacalaco) pods are known to be a good source of ,tannins', the name by which industry in Mexico recognizes phenolic extract. Phenolics were determined as gallic acid equivalents g,1. The antimutagenic activity against aflatoxin B1 and the antioxidant activity, using two different methods, of the extract were also evaluated. Gallic acid accounts for almost 90% of the phenolic extract of cascalote, the remaining 10% was tannic acid. Antimutagenic activity of cascalote phenolics was dose-dependent, showing an inhibition level of 64.42% at the highest dose assayed. Antioxidant and antiradical activities were also dose-dependent. The highest antioxidant activity showed by cascalote phenolics was 73.5%, higher than that of Trolox. The highest antiradical activity of cascalote phenolics was 75.3%, higher than that of BHT and Trolox. Cascalote pods are an outstanding source of gallic and tannic acids. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Differential seedling resistance to the eyespot pathogens, Oculimacula yallundae and Oculimacula acuformis, conferred by Pch2 in wheat and among accessions of Triticum monococcum

C. Burt
Eyespot is an economically important stem-base disease of wheat caused by two fungal species: Oculimacula yallundae and Oculimacula acuformis. This study investigated the efficacy of two sources of resistance, viz. the genes Pch1, introgressed into hexaploid wheat from Aegilops ventricosa, and Pch2, identified in wheat cv. Cappelle Desprez, against O. yallundae and O. acuformis separately. In a series of seedling bioassays Pch1 was found to be highly effective against both species. Although Pch2 was found to confer resistance against both pathogen species, it was significantly less effective against penetration from O. yallundae than O. acuformis. Furthermore, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was not able to locate any resistance to O. yallundae on chromosome 7A of Cappelle Desprez. This has important implications for the use of Pch2 in commercial cultivars as it is necessary to have genes that confer resistance to both pathogens for effective eyespot control. In addition, a set of 22 T. monococcum accessions was screened for resistance to both O. yallundae and O. acuformis to identify potentially novel resistances and to assess the accessions for evidence of differential resistance to the eyespot species. Significant differences in resistance to the two pathogens were identified in four of these lines, providing evidence for differential resistance in T. monococcum. This study demonstrates that future screening for novel sources of eyespot resistance should investigate both pathogen species. [source]