Novel Proteins (novel + protein)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts

SWP25, A Novel Protein Associated with the Nosema bombycis Endospore,

ABSTRACT. Microsporidia are eukaryotic, obligate intracellular, spore-forming parasites. The resistant spores, which harbor a rigid cell wall, are critical for their host-to-host transmission and persistence in the environment. The spore wall comprises two major layers: the exospore and the endospore. In Nosema bombycis, two spore wall proteins have been characterized,an endosporal protein, SWP30, and an exosporal protein, SWP32. Here, we report the identification of the third spore wall protein of N. bombycis, SWP25, the gene of which has no known homologue. SWP25 is predicted to posses a signal peptide and a heparin-binding motif. Immunoelectron microscopy analysis showed that this protein is localized to the endospore. This characterization of a new spore wall protein of N. bombycis may facilitate our investigation of the relationship between N. bombycis and its host, Bombyx mori. [source]

Combinatorial Approaches To Novel Proteins

CHEMBIOCHEM, Issue 2 2004
Tomoaki Matsuura Dr.
The Nature of the fold: The number of folds found in nature is most likely to be limited and therefore two fundamental questions arise: did nature realize all possible folds and can we select for novel folded proteins? Here we review experimental approaches to explore areas in protein-sequence space not sampled by nature. [source]

Lineage-independent mosaic expression and regulation of the Ciona multidom gene in the ancestral notochord

Izumi Oda-Ishii
Abstract The transcription factor Ciona Brachyury (Ci-Bra) plays an essential role in notochord development in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. We characterized a putative Ci-Bra target gene, which we named Ci - multidom, and analyzed in detail its expression pattern in normal embryos and in embryos where Ci - Bra was misexpressed. Ci - multidom encodes a novel protein, which contains eight CCP domains and a partial VWFA domain. We show that an EGFP-multidom fusion protein localizes preferentially to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and is excluded from the nucleus. In situ hybridization experiments demonstrate that Ci - multidom is expressed in the notochord and in the anterior neural boundary (ANB). We found that the expression in the ANB is fully recapitulated by an enhancer element located upstream of Ci - multidom. By means of misexpression experiments, we provide evidence that Ci-Bra controls transcription of Ci - multidom in the notochord; however, while Ci-Bra is homogeneously expressed throughout this structure, Ci - multidom is transcribed at detectable levels only in a random subset of notochord cells. The number of notochord cells expressing Ci - multidom varies among different embryos and is independent of developmental stage, lineage, and position along the anterior,posterior axis. These results suggest that despite its morphological simplicity and invariant cell-lineage, the ancestral notochord is a mosaic of cells in which the gene cascade downstream of Brachyury is differentially modulated. Developmental Dynamics 236:1806,1819, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Pinocchio, a novel protein expressed in the antenna, contributes to olfactory behavior in Drosophila melanogaster

Stephanie M. Rollmann
Abstract Most organisms depend on chemoreception for survival and reproduction. In Drosophila melanogaster multigene families of chemosensory receptors and putative odorant binding proteins have been identified. Here, we introduce an additional distinct protein, encoded by the CG4710 gene, that contributes to olfactory behavior. Previously, we identified through P[lArB] -element mutagenesis a smell impaired (smi) mutant, smi21F, with odorant-specific defects in avoidance responses. Here, we show that the smi21F mutant also exhibits reduced attractant responses to some, but not all, of a select group of odorants. Furthermore, electroantennogram amplitudes are increased in smi21F flies. Characterization of flanking sequences of the P[lArB] insertion site, complementation mapping, phenotypic reversion through P -element excision, and expression analysis implicate a predicted gene, CG4710, as the candidate smi gene. CG4710 produces two transcripts that encode proteins that contain conserved cysteines and which are reduced in the smi21F mutant. Furthermore, in situ hybridization reveals CG4710 expression in the third antennal segment. We have named this gene of previously unknown function and its product "Pinocchio (Pino)". © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol., 2005 [source]

Integron-associated gene cassettes in Halifax Harbour: assessment of a mobile gene pool in marine sediments

J. E. Koenig
Summary The integron/gene cassette systems identified in bacteria comprise a class of genetic elements that allow adaptation by acquisition of gene cassettes. Integron gene cassettes have been shown to facilitate the spread of drug resistance in human pathogens but their role outside a clinical setting has not been explored extensively. We sequenced 2145 integron gene cassettes from four marine sediment samples taken from the vicinity of Halifax Nova Scotia, Canada, increasing the number of gene cassettes obtained from environmental microbial communities by 10-fold. Sequence analyses reveals that the majority of these cassettes encode novel proteins and that this study is consistent with previous claims of high cassette diversity as we estimate a Chao1 diversity index of ,3000 cassettes from these samples. The functional distribution of environmental cassettes recovered in this study, when compared with that of cassettes from the only other source with significant sampling (Vibrio genomes) suggests that alternate selection regimes might be acting on these two gene pools. The majority of cassettes recovered in this study encode novel, unknown proteins. In instances where we obtained multiple alleles of a novel protein we demonstrate that non-synonymous versus synonymous substitution rates ratios suggest relaxed selection. Cassette-encoded proteins with known homologues represent a variety of functions and prevalent among these are isochorismatases; proteins involved in iron scavenging. Phylogenetic analysis of these isochorismatases as well as of cassette-encoded acetyltransferases reveals a patchy distribution, suggesting multiple sources for the origin of these cassettes. Finally, the two most environmentally similar sample sites considered in this study display the greatest overlap of cassette types, consistent with the hypothesis that cassette genes encode adaptive proteins. [source]

SLIC-1/sorting nexin,20: A novel sorting nexin that directs subcellular distribution of PSGL-1

Abstract P-Selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) is a mucin-like glycoprotein expressed on the surface of leukocytes that serves as the major ligand for the selectin family of adhesion molecules and functions in leukocyte tethering and rolling on activated endothelium and platelets. Previous studies have implicated the highly conserved cytoplasmic domain of PSGL-1 in regulating outside-in signaling of integrin activation. However, molecules that physically and functionally interact with this domain are not completely defined. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen with the cytoplasmic domain of PSGL-1 as bait, a novel protein designated selectin ligand interactor cytoplasmic-1 (SLIC-1) was isolated. Computer-based homology search revealed that SLIC-1 was the human orthologue for the previously identified mouse sorting nexin,20. Direct interaction between SLIC-1 and PSGL-1 was specific as indicated by co-immunoprecipitation and motif mapping. Colocalization experiments demonstrated that SLIC-1 contains a Phox homology domain that binds phosphoinositides and targets the PSGL-1/SLIC-1 complex to endosomes. Deficiency in the murine homologue of SLIC-1 did not modulate PSGL-1-dependent signaling nor alter neutrophil adhesion through PSGL-1. We conclude that SLIC-1 serves as a sorting molecule that cycles PSGL-1 into endosomes with no impact on leukocyte recruitment. [source]

Interaction of a novel mitochondrial protein, 4-nitrophenylphosphatase domain and non-neuronal SNAP25-like protein homolog 1 (NIPSNAP1), with the amyloid precursor protein family

Hemachand Tummala
Abstract Amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its paralogs, amyloid precursor-like protein-1 and amyloid precursor-like protein-2, appear to have redundant but essential role(s) during development. To gain insights into the physiological and possibly pathophysiological functions of APP, we used a functional proteomic approach to identify proteins that interact with the highly conserved C-terminal region of APP family proteins. Previously, we characterized an interaction between APP and ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase. Here, we describe an interaction between APP and a novel protein, 4-nitrophenylphosphatase domain and non-neuronal SNAP25-like protein homolog 1 (NIPSNAP1). The interaction between APP and NIPSNAP1 was confirmed both in transiently transfected COS7 cells and in the mouse brain, where NIPSNAP1 is expressed at a high level. We demonstrate that NIPSNAP1 is targeted to the mitochondria via its N-terminal targeting sequence, and interacts with mitochondrial chaperone translocase of the outer membrane 22. Mitochondrial localization of NIPSNAP1 appears to be critical for its interaction with APP, and overexpression of APP appeared to disrupt NIPSNAP1 mitochondrial localization. Moreover, APP overexpression resulted in downregulation of NIPSNAP1 levels in cultured cells. Our data suggest that APP may affect mitochondrial function through a direct interaction with NIPSNAP1 as well as with other mitochondrial proteins. [source]

Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) and signal transduction: additional roles beyond cell death

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 1 2010
Yao Lin
Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a stress-regulated protein kinase that mediates a range of processes, including signal-induced cell death and autophagy. Although the kinase domain of DAPK has a range of substrates that mediate its signalling, the additional protein interaction domains of DAPK are relatively ill defined. This review will summarize our current knowledge of the DAPK interactome, the use of peptide aptamers to define novel protein,protein interaction motifs, and how these new protein,protein interactions give insight into DAPK functions in diverse cellular processes, including growth factor signalling, the regulation of autophagy, and its emerging role in the regulation of immune responses. [source]

Fission yeast decaprenyl diphosphate synthase consists of Dps1 and the newly characterized Dlp1 protein in a novel heterotetrameric structure

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 20 2003
Ryoichi Saiki
The analysis of the structure and function of long chain-producing polyprenyl diphosphate synthase, which synthesizes the side chain of ubiquinone, has largely focused on the prokaryotic enzymes, and little is known about the eukaryotic counterparts. Here we show that decaprenyl diphosphate synthase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe is comprised of a novel protein named Dlp1 acting in partnership with Dps1. Dps1 is highly homologous to other prenyl diphosphate synthases but Dlp1 shares only weak homology with Dps1. We showed that the two proteins must be present simultaneously in Escherichia coli transformants before ubiquinone-10, which is produced by S. pombe but not by E. coli, is generated. Furthermore, the two proteins were shown to form a heterotetrameric complex. This is unlike the prokaryotic counterparts, which are homodimers. The deletion mutant of dlp1 lacked the enzymatic activity of decaprenyl diphosphate synthase, did not produce ubiquinone-10 and had the typical ubiquinone-deficient S. pombe phenotypes, namely hypersensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, the need for antioxidants for growth on minimal medium and an elevated production of H2S. Both the dps1 (formerly dps) and dlp1 mutants could generate ubiquinone when they were transformed with a bacterial decaprenyl diphosphate synthase, which functions in its host as a homodimer. This indicates that both dps1 and dlp1 are required for the S. pombe enzymatic activity. Thus, decaprenyl diphosphate from a eukaryotic origin has a heterotetrameric structure that is not found in prokaryotes. [source]

Identification of tudor repeat associator with PCTAIRE 2 (Trap)

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 7 2000
A novel protein that interacts with the N-terminal domain of PCTAIRE 2 in rat brain
PCTAIRE 2 is a Cdc2-related kinase that is predominantly expressed in the terminally differentiated neuron. To elucidate the function of PCTAIRE 2, proteins that associate with PCTAIRE 2 were screened by the yeast two-hybrid system. A positive clone was found to encode a novel protein that could bind to PCTAIRE 2 in vitro as well as in vivo, and was designated as Trap (tudor repeat associator with PCTAIRE 2). The overall structure of Trap shows no significant homology to any proteins, but contains five repeated domains (the tudor-like domain), conserved in Drosophila tudor protein. Trap associates with the N-terminal domain of PCTAIRE 2 through its C-terminal domain, which contains two tudor-like domains. PCTAIRE 1, but not PCTAIRE 3, can also associate with Trap. Trap is predominantly expressed in brain and testis, and gradually increases during brain development throughout life, consistent with the expression pattern of PCTAIRE 2. Immunoreactivities for PCTAIRE 2 and Trap were colocalized to the mitochondria in COS 7 cells. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that PCTAIRE 2 and Trap were distributed in the same cell layer of the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. These findings suggest that Trap is a physiological partner of PCTAIRE 2 in terminally differentiated neurons. [source]

Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts: an update and extended mutation analysis of MLC1,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 6 2006
P. K. Ilja Boor
Abstract Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is an autosomal recessive cerebral white matter disorder in children. This disease is histopathologically characterized by myelin splitting and intramyelinic vacuole formation. MLC is caused by mutations in the gene MLC1, which encodes a novel protein, MLC1. Since the first report, 50 mutations in this gene have been found. Mutations occur throughout the entire coding region and include all different types: 11 splice-site mutations; one nonsense mutation; 24 missense mutations; and 14 deletions and insertions. Until now, six polymorphisms within the coding sequence of MLC1 had been reported. In about 20% of the patients with a typical clinical and MRI picture, no mutations in the MLC1 gene are found. Several of the families, in which no mutations are found, also do not show linkage with the MLC1 locus, which suggests a second gene involved in MLC. The absence of mutations may also be the consequence of performing standard mutation analysis that can miss heterozygous deletions, mutations in the promoter, 3, and 5, untranslated regions (UTRs), and intron mutations, which may influence the amino acid composition of the end product. In this work we describe 13 novel mutations, including those found with extended mutation analysis on MLC patients. This study shows that extended mutation analysis is a valuable tool to identify at least some of the missing mutations. Therefore, we suggest extended mutation analysis for the MLC1 gene, if no mutations are found during standard analysis. Hum Mutat 27(6), 505,512, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The transcriptional programme of contact-inhibition

Monika Küppers
Abstract Proliferation of non-transformed cells is regulated by cell,cell contacts, which are referred to as contact-inhibition. Vice versa, transformed cells are characterised by a loss of contact-inhibition. Despite its generally accepted importance for cell-cycle control, little is known about the intracellular signalling pathways involved in contact-inhibition. Unravelling the molecular mechanisms of contact-inhibition and its loss during tumourigenesis will be an important step towards the identification of novel target genes in tumour diagnosis and treatment. To better understand the underlying molecular mechanisms we identified the transcriptional programme of contact-inhibition in NIH3T3 fibroblast using high-density microarrays. Setting the cut off: ,1.5-fold, P,,,0.05, 853 genes and 73 cDNA sequences were differentially expressed in confluent compared to exponentially growing cultures. Importing these data into GenMAPP software revealed a comprehensive list of cell-cycle regulatory genes mediating G0/G1 arrest, which was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot. In a narrow analysis (cut off: ,2-fold, P,,,0.002), we found 110 transcripts to be differentially expressed representing 107 genes and 3 cDNA sequences involved, for example, in proliferation, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, cell adhesion and communication. Interestingly, the majority of genes was upregulated indicating that contact-inhibition is not a passive state, but actively induced. Furthermore, we confirmed differential expression of eight genes by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and identified the potential tumour suppressor transforming growth factor-, (TGF-,)-1-induced clone 22 (TSC-22; tgfb1i4) as a novel protein to be induced in contact-inhibited cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 110: 1234,1243, 2010. Published 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Identification of a novel protein from glial cells based on its ability to interact with NF-,B subunitsr

Thersa Sweet
Abstract Nuclear factor ,B (NF-,B) represents a family of inducible DNA-binding transcription factors whose activity is critical for expression of the HIV-1 genome in a broad range of cells. In addition to its interaction with the ,B DNA sequence, the association of NF-,B subunits with other cellular proteins plays an important role in stimulation of HIV-1 gene transcription in astrocytic cells. Here, we utilized a yeast two-hybrid system to screen a cDNA library from a human astrocytic cell line and were able to isolate a partial cDNA belonging to a gene with an open reading frame of 1,871 amino acid residues which binds to both the p50 and p65 subunits of NF-,B. This gene, named NF-,B-binding protein (NFBP) is located on chromosome 10q24.2-25.1 and hybridized to a single transcript of nearly 6 kb in size. It is localized to the nucleus, specifically the nucleolus of cells. Extensive computer analysis was performed with the sequence of the full length NFBP and significant homology was found between NFBP, and yeast and mouse proteins. A discussion of the potential roles of NFBP in normal and viral infected cells is included. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

p38SJ, a novel DINGG protein protects neuronal cells from alcohol induced injury and death

Shohreh Amini
Ethanol induces neuronal cell injury and death by dysregulating several signaling events that are controlled, in part, by activation of MAPK/ERK1/2 and/or inactivation of its corresponding phosphatase, PP1. Recently, we have purified a novel protein of 38,kDa in size, p38SJ, from a callus culture of Hypericum perforatum, which belongs to an emerging DINGG family of proteins with phosphate binding activity. Here, we show that treatment of neuronal cells with p38SJ protects cells against injury induced by exposure to ethanol. Furthermore, pre-treatment of neuronal cells with p38SJ diminishes the level of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and some events associated with apoptosis such as caspase 3 cleavage. In addition, by inducing stress, alcohol can elevate production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that leads to a decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Our results showed that p38SJ restores the activity of SOD in the ethanol treated neuronal cells. These observations provide a novel biological tool for developing new approaches for preventing neuronal cell death induced by ethanol and possibly treatment of neurological disorders associated with alcohol abuse. J. Cell. Physiol. 221: 499,504, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Purification and initial characterization of a novel protein with factor Xa activity from Lonomia obliqua caterpillar spicules

S. Lilla
Abstract A novel protein with factor Xa-like activity was isolated from Lonomia obliqua caterpillar spicules by gel filtration chromatography and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The protein had a mass of 20745.7 Da, as determined by mass spectrometry, and contained four Cys residues. Enzymatic hydrolysis followed by de novo sequencing by tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine the primary structure of the protein and the cysteine residues linked by disulfide bridges. The positions of 24 sequenced tryptic peptides, including the N-terminal, were deduced by comparison with a homologous protein from the superfamily Bombycoidea. Approximately 90% of the primary structure of the active protein was determined. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Intracellular localization of the Epstein-Barr virus BFRF1 gene product in lymphoid cell lines and oral hairy leukoplakia lesions

Antonella Farina
Abstract A novel protein encoded by the BFRF1 gene of the Epstein-Barr virus was identified recently [Farina et al. (2000) J Virol 74:3235,3244], which is antigenic "in vivo" and expressed early in the viral replicative cycle. In the present study, its subcellular localization was examined in greater detail comparing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) induced producing and nonproducing cell lines by immunofluorescence: in 12-0-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced Raji and B95-8 cells, as well as in anti-IgG-stimulated Akata cells, the protein appeared to be localized over the cell nuclear membrane. A similar nuclear membrane localization was observed in epithelial cells of oral hairy leukoplakia, a pathological manifestation of permissive EBV infection. In contrast, upon transfection of BFRF1 in the EBV-negative Burkitt's lymphoma cell line DG75, the protein was localized predominantly over the plasma membrane. The membrane localization was abolished when DG75 cells were transfected with a C-terminal deletion mutant of BFRF1 lacking the transmembrane domain. Because induced Raji cells do not produce virus, the above observations indicate that the nuclear membrane localization is not associated with viral production, but requires the expression of EBV genes, and suggest that additional proteins, expressed early during viral lytic infection, might be necessary to target the protein to the nuclear membrane. Immunogold electron microscopy on ultrathin cryosections of induced B95-8 cells showed that BFRF1 on the nuclear membranes was concentrated over multilayered domains representing areas of active viral replication or at the sites of viral budding, suggesting that BFRF1 is involved in the process of viral assembly. J. Med. Virol. 72:102,111, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Delineating protein,protein interactions via biomolecular interaction analysis,mass spectrometry

Dobrin Nedelkov
Abstract The utility of biomolecular interaction analysis,mass spectrometry (BIA/MS) in screening for protein,protein interactions was explored in this work. Experiments were performed in which proteins served as ligands for screening of possible interactions with other proteins from human plasma and urine. The proteins utilized were beta-2-microglobulin, cystatin C (cysC), retinol binding protein (RBP), transthyretin (TTR), alpha-1-microglobulin, C-reactive protein, transferrin and papain. The immobilization of functionally active proteins was confirmed via interactions with antibodies to the corresponding proteins. Various dilutions of human urine and plasma were injected over the protein-derivatized surfaces. It was observed that the urine injections generally yielded smaller SPR responses than those observed after the plasma injections. The BIA/MS experiments did not reveal novel protein,protein interactions, although several established interactions (such as those between RBP and TTR, and cysC and papain) were validated. Few protein ligand deficiencies (such as truncations) leading to false negative and false positive BIA/MS results were also discovered. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Identification of a novel SNAP25 interacting protein (SIP30)

Ho-Ki Lee
Abstract Soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs), including synaptosome-associated proteins of 25 kDa (SNAP25), syntaxins, and vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMP), are essential for regulated exocytosis of synaptic vesicles in neurotransmission. We identified a cDNA coding for a novel protein of 266 amino acids that we have named SIP30 (SNAP25 interacting protein of 30 kDa). SIP30 is expressed abundantly in brain and slightly in testis and kidney. In brain, SIP30 is highly expressed in the inferior and superior colliculi, which contain important relay nuclei of the auditory and visual systems. GST,pull-down and immunoprecipitation assays showed direct binding of SIP30 to SNAP25. Although SIP30 does not directly interact with syntaxin based on pull-down assays, syntaxin does co-immunoprecipitate with SIP30 suggesting that syntaxin is indirectly associated with SIP30, perhaps through SNAP25. [source]

Ataxin 10 induces neuritogenesis via interaction with G-protein ,2 subunit

Masaaki Waragai
Abstract Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10) is a dominantly inherited disorder caused by an intronic ATTCT pentanucleotide repeat expansion. The ATXN10 gene encodes a novel protein, ataxin 10, known previously as E46L, which is widely expressed in the brain. Ataxin 10 deficiency has been shown recently to cause increased apoptosis in primary cerebellar cultures, thus implicated in SCA10 pathogenesis. The biologic functions of ataxin 10 remain largely unknown. By using yeast-two-hybrid screening of a human brain cDNA library, we identified the G-protein ,2 subunit (G,2) as an ataxin 10 binding partner, and the interaction was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization in mammalian cells in culture. Overexpression of ataxin 10 in PC12 cells induced neurite extension and enhanced neuronal differentiation induced by nerve growth factor (NGF). Moreover, coexpression of ataxin 10 and G,2 potently activated the Ras-MAP kinase-Elk-1 cascade. Dominant negative Ras or inhibitor of MEK-1/2 (U0126) aborted this activation, and blocked morphologic changes, whereas inhibition of TrkA receptor by K252a had no effects. Our data suggest that the ataxin 10-G,2 interaction represents a novel mechanism for inducing neuritogenesis in PC12 cells by activating the Ras-MAP kinase-Elk-1 cascade. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Abstracts of the 8th Meeting of the Italian Peripheral Nerve Study Group: 65

E Bellone
Mutations in a gene encoding a novel protein of unknown function, the ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 gene (GDAP1), are associated with one of the autosomal recessive forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT4A). Mutations in GDAP1 can cause both axonal and demyelinating inherited peripheral neuropathies. The GDAP1 gene maps on chromosome 8q21.1, encompassing 13.9 kb of genomic DNA. The coding sequence is comprised of six exons. Little is known about the function of GDAP1. The mouse homologue Gdap1 is highly expressed in brain. Northern-blot analysis showed that GDAP1 is also expressed in peripheral nerves, both in neurons and in Schwann cells. A series of Italian patients with demyelinating (n = 42) and axonal (n = 39) peripheral neuropathy with possible recessive inheritance was screened for mutations in the GDAP1 gene. The entire coding region, including exon-intron boundaries, was examined by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and direct sequencing. All patients were negative for the 17p11.2 duplication and for mutations in the MPZ, GJB1, PMP22 and EGR2 genes. SSCP analysis showed a few electrophoretic variants, in the exon 1, exon 3 and exon 4, respectively. Direct sequencing demonstrated the presence of a common single nucleotide polymorphism in the exon 4 (c.507T > G) and a nucleotide substitution in the exon 3. The latter was found in four patients, belonging to three families, and was not detected in a series of normal subjects. Further studies are in progress to evaluate the possible role of this variant in the pathophysiology of the disease. This work was partially supported by grants MURST 2000 to F.A. and Ministero della Sanità to P.M. [source]

Expression of contactin associated protein-like 2 in a subset of hepatic progenitor cell compartment identified by gene expression profiling in hepatitis B virus-positive cirrhosis

Huafeng Wang
Abstract Background: Hepatic progenitor cells (HPC), a cell compartment capable of differentiating into hepatocytic and biliary lineages, may give rise to the formation of intermediate hepatobiliary cells (IHBC) or ductular reactions (DR). Aims: The aim of this study was to analyse the gene expression profiles of DR in cirrhosis and further investigate novel proteins expressed by HPC and their intermediate progeny. Methods: DR in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive cirrhotic liver tissues adjacent to hepatocellular carcinoma and interlobular bile ducts (ILBDs) in normal liver tissues were isolated by laser capture microdissection and then subjected to microarray analysis. Differential gene expression patterns were verified by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry on serial sections. HPC and their intermediate progeny were recognized by immunostaining with hepatocytic and biliary markers [HepPar1, cytokeratin (CK)7, CK19, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)]. Results: A total of 88 genes showed upregulation in DR compared with ILBDs. Gene ontology analyses revealed that these upregulated genes were mostly associated with cell adhesion, immune response and the metabolic process. Contactin associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2) was first confirmed to be a novel protein expressed in a subpopulation of DR that was positive for CK7, NCAM or EpCAM. In addition, immunoreactivity for CNTNAP2 was also noted in a subset of isolated CK7-positive HPC as well as some ductular IHBC positive for CK19 and HepPar1 in DR. Conclusion: CNTNAP2 is specifically associated with the emergence of ductular populations and may be identified as a novel protein for defining a subset of HPC and their intermediate progeny in cirrhosis. [source]

Differential transcriptome profiling identifies Plasmodium genes encoding pre-erythrocytic stage-specific proteins

Karine Kaiser
Summary Invasive sporozoite and merozoite stages of malaria parasites that infect mammals enter and subsequently reside in hepatocytes and red blood cells respectively. Each invasive stage may exhibit unique adaptations that allow it to interact with and survive in its distinct host cell environment, and these adaptations are likely to be controlled by differential gene expression. We used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) of Plasmodium yoelii salivary gland sporozoites versus merozoites to identify stage-specific pre-erythrocytic transcripts. Sequencing of the SSH library and matching the cDNA sequences to the P. yoelii genome yielded 25 redundantly tagged genes including the only two previously characterized sporozoite-specific genes encoding the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP). Twelve novel genes encode predicted proteins with signal peptides, indicating that they enter the secretory pathway of the sporozoite. We show that one novel protein bearing a thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR) exhibits an expression pattern that suggests localization in the sporozoite secretory rhoptry organelles. In addition, we identified a group of four genes encoding putative low-molecular-mass proteins. Two proteins in this group exhibit an expression pattern similar to TRAP, and thus possibly localize in the sporozoite secretory micronemes. Proteins encoded by the differentially expressed genes identified here probably mediate specific interactions of the sporozoite with the mosquito vector salivary glands or the mammalian host hepatocyte and are not used during merozoite,red blood cell interactions. [source]

Identification and characterization of NleA, a non-LEE-encoded type III translocated virulence factor of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

Samantha Gruenheid
Summary Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 uses a specialized protein translocation apparatus, the type III secretion system (TTSS), to deliver bacterial effector proteins into host cells. These effectors interfere with host cytoskeletal pathways and signalling cascades to facilitate bacterial survival and replication and promote disease. The genes encoding the TTSS and all known type III secreted effectors in EHEC are localized in a single pathogenicity island on the bacterial chromosome known as the locus for enterocyte effacement (LEE). In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of proteins secreted by the LEE-encoded TTSS of EHEC. In addition to known LEE-encoded type III secreted proteins, such as EspA, EspB and Tir, a novel protein, NleA (non- LEE-encoded effector A), was identified. NleA is encoded in a prophage-associated pathogenicity island within the EHEC genome, distinct from the LEE. The LEE-encoded TTSS directs translocation of NleA into host cells, where it localizes to the Golgi apparatus. In a panel of strains examined by Southern blot and database analyses, nleA was found to be present in all other LEE-containing pathogens examined, including enteropathogenic E. coli and Citrobacter rodentium, and was absent from non-pathogenic strains of E. coli and non-LEE-containing pathogens. NleA was determined to play a key role in virulence of C. rodentium in a mouse infection model. [source]

Activity-guided isolation of a novel protein from Croton tiglium with antifungal and antibacterial activities

Muhammad Shahid
Abstract This study describes the activity-guided isolation and purification of a novel antimicrobial protein from the seed of Croton tiglium Linn. Purification was carried out by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, gel filtration and DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography. Antifungal and antibacterial activities were determined after each purification step. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the purified protein was a monomer with molecular mass of 50 kDa. This is a first report on purification of a protein from Croton tiglium, which possesses a strong and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A novel protein from Brassica napus has a putative KID domain and responds to low temperature

Ming-Jun Gao
Summary To identify factors that interact with histone deacetylase (HDAC) in Brassica napus, a yeast two-hybrid library was screened using the Arabidopsis HDA19 as bait. A novel protein, bnKCP1, containing a putative kinase-inducible domain (KID) was found to interact with HDA19. Southern blot analysis indicated that the bnKCP1 gene belongs to a small gene family of at least three members. Northern blot analysis showed bnKCP1 to be strongly expressed in stems, flowers, roots, and immature siliques, but not in leaf blades of seedlings. The accumulation of bnKCP1 transcript in the leaf blades was induced significantly within 4 h of exposure of B. napus seedlings to cold stress, whereas treatment of leaf blades with inomycin, an ionophore of Ca2+, caused a rapid (30 min) but transient induction of bnKCP1 expression. In contrast to that observed in leaf blades, expression of bnKCP1 in the stems was repressed upon cold treatment. In vitro and in vivo protein-binding assays showed that bnKCP1 interacts with HDA19 via the KID domain, and that S188 is critical for bnKCP1,HDA19 interaction. BnKCP1 also exerted modest transactivation of the lacZ reporter gene in yeast through its N-terminal region. These assays suggest that bnKCP1 may function as a transcription factor, which regulates gene expression through interaction with HDA19. [source]

Granulin-epithelin precursor binds directly to ADAMTS-7 and ADAMTS-12 and inhibits their degradation of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein

Fengjin Guo
Objective To determine 1) whether a protein interaction network exists between granulin-epithelin precursor (GEP), ADAMTS-7/ADAMTS-12, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP); 2) whether GEP interferes with the interactions between ADAMTS-7/ADAMTS-12 metalloproteinases and COMP substrate, including the cleavage of COMP; 3) whether GEP affects tumor necrosis factor , (TNF,),mediated induction of ADAMTS-7/ADAMTS-12 expression and COMP degradation; and 4) whether GEP levels are altered during the progression of arthritis. Methods Yeast two-hybrid, in vitro glutathione S-transferase pull-down, and coimmunoprecipitation assays were used to 1) examine the interactions between GEP, ADAMTS-7/ADAMTS-12, and COMP, and 2) map the binding sites required for the interactions between GEP and ADAMTS-7/ADAMTS-12. Immunofluorescence cell staining was performed to visualize the subcellular localization of GEP and ADAMTS-7/ADAMTS-12. An in vitro digestion assay was employed to determine whether GEP inhibits ADAMTS-7/ADAMTS-12,mediated digestion of COMP. The role of GEP in inhibiting TNF,-induced ADAMTS-7/ADAMTS-12 expression and COMP degradation in cartilage explants was also analyzed. Results GEP bound directly to ADAMTS-7 and ADAMTS-12 in vitro and in chondrocytes, and the 4 C-terminal thrombospondin motifs of ADAMTS-7/ADAMTS-12 and each granulin unit of GEP mediated their interactions. Additionally, GEP colocalized with ADAMTS-7 and ADAMTS-12 on the cell surface of chondrocytes. More importantly, GEP inhibited COMP degradation by ADAMTS-7/ADAMTS-12 in a dose-dependent manner through 1) competitive inhibition through direct protein,protein interactions with ADAMTS-7/ADAMTS-12 and COMP, and 2) inhibition of TNF,-induced ADAMTS-7/ADAMTS-12 expression. Furthermore, GEP levels were significantly elevated in patients with either osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. Conclusion Our observations demonstrate a novel protein,protein interaction network between GEP, ADAMTS-7/ADAMTS-12, and COMP. Furthermore, GEP is a novel specific inhibitor of ADAMTS-7/ADAMTS-12,mediated COMP degradation and may play a significant role in preventing the destruction of joint cartilage in arthritis. [source]

Structure determination of a novel protein by sulfur SAD using chromium radiation in combination with a new crystal-mounting method

Yu Kitago
A novel and easy crystal-mounting technique was developed for the sulfur SAD method using Cr,K, radiation (2.29,Å). Using this technique, the cryo-buffer and cryoloop around the protein crystal can be removed before data collection in order to eliminate their X-ray absorption. The superiority and reproducibility of the data sets with this mounting technique were demonstrated using tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme crystals. The structure of a novel protein, PH1109, from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 was solved using this technique. At the wavelength of Cr,K, radiation, the anomalous signal ,|,F|,/,|F|, of PH1109 is expected to be 1.72% as this protein of 144 residues includes four methionines and two cysteines. Sulfur SAD phasing was performed using SHELXD and SHELXE. In the case of the data set obtained using this novel crystal-mounting technique, 54.9% of all residues were built with side chains automatically by RESOLVE. On the other hand, only 16.0% were built with side chains for the data set collected using the standard cryoloop. These results indicated that this crystal-mounting technique was superior to the standard loop-mounting method for the measurement of small anomalous differences at longer wavelength and yielded better results in sulfur-substructure solution and initial phasing. The present study demonstrates that the sulfur SAD method with a chromium source becomes enhanced and more practical for macromolecular structure determination using the new crystal-mounting technique. [source]

When machines get stuck,obstructed RNA polymerase II: displacement, degradation or suicide

BIOESSAYS, Issue 9 2002
Vincent van den Boom
The severe hereditary progeroid disorder Cockayne syndrome is a consequence of a defective transcription-coupled repair (TCR) pathway. This special mode of DNA repair aids a RNA polymerase that is stalled by a DNA lesion in the template and ensures efficient DNA repair to permit resumption of transcription and prevent cell death. Although some key players in TCR, such as the Cockayne syndrome A (CSA) and B (CSB) proteins have been identified, the exact molecular mechanism still remains illusive. A recent report provides new unexpected insights into TCR in yeast.1 The identification and characterisation of a novel protein co-purifying with the yeast homologue of CSB (Rad26) imposes reassessment of our current understanding of TCR in yeast. What about humans? BioEssays 24:780,784, 2002. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Functional studies of an evolutionarily conserved, cytochrome b5 domain protein reveal a specific role in axonemal organisation and the general phenomenon of post-division axonemal growth in trypanosomes

CYTOSKELETON, Issue 1 2009
Helen Farr
Abstract Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are highly conserved structures composed of a canonical 9+2 microtubule axoneme. Several recent proteomic studies of cilia and flagella have been published, including a proteome of the flagellum of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Comparing proteomes reveals many novel proteins that appear to be widely conserved in evolution. Amongst these, we found a previously uncharacterised protein which localised to the axoneme in T. brucei, and therefore named it Trypanosome Axonemal protein (TAX)-2. Ablation of the protein using RNA interference in the procyclic form of the parasite has no effect on growth but causes a reduction in motility. Using transmission electron microscopy, various structural defects were seen in some axonemes, most frequently with microtubule doublets missing from the 9+2 arrangement. RNAi knockdown of TAX-2 expression in the bloodstream form of the parasite caused defects in growth and cytokinesis, a further example of the effects caused by loss of flagellar function in bloodstream form T. brucei. In procyclic cells we used a new set of vectors to ablate protein expression in cells expressing a GFP:TAX-2 fusion protein, which enabled us to easily quantify protein reduction and visualise axonemes made before and after RNAi induction. This establishes a useful generic technique but also revealed a specific observation that the new flagellum on the daughter trypanosome continues growth after cytokinesis. Our results provide evidence for TAX-2 function within the axoneme, where we suggest that it is involved in processes linking the outer doublet microtubules and the central pair. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Integron-associated gene cassettes in Halifax Harbour: assessment of a mobile gene pool in marine sediments

J. E. Koenig
Summary The integron/gene cassette systems identified in bacteria comprise a class of genetic elements that allow adaptation by acquisition of gene cassettes. Integron gene cassettes have been shown to facilitate the spread of drug resistance in human pathogens but their role outside a clinical setting has not been explored extensively. We sequenced 2145 integron gene cassettes from four marine sediment samples taken from the vicinity of Halifax Nova Scotia, Canada, increasing the number of gene cassettes obtained from environmental microbial communities by 10-fold. Sequence analyses reveals that the majority of these cassettes encode novel proteins and that this study is consistent with previous claims of high cassette diversity as we estimate a Chao1 diversity index of ,3000 cassettes from these samples. The functional distribution of environmental cassettes recovered in this study, when compared with that of cassettes from the only other source with significant sampling (Vibrio genomes) suggests that alternate selection regimes might be acting on these two gene pools. The majority of cassettes recovered in this study encode novel, unknown proteins. In instances where we obtained multiple alleles of a novel protein we demonstrate that non-synonymous versus synonymous substitution rates ratios suggest relaxed selection. Cassette-encoded proteins with known homologues represent a variety of functions and prevalent among these are isochorismatases; proteins involved in iron scavenging. Phylogenetic analysis of these isochorismatases as well as of cassette-encoded acetyltransferases reveals a patchy distribution, suggesting multiple sources for the origin of these cassettes. Finally, the two most environmentally similar sample sites considered in this study display the greatest overlap of cassette types, consistent with the hypothesis that cassette genes encode adaptive proteins. [source]