Novel Products (novel + products)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

2H -Pyran-2-one-3-carbothioamide derivatives: Synthesis and reaction with hydrazine hydrate

Malika Makhloufi-Chebli
N -Aryl-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H -pyran-2-one-3-carbothiamides and N -aryl-4-hydroxycoumarin-3-carbothiamides were synthesized by the reaction of arylisothiocyanates with 4-hydroxy-6-methylpyran-2-one and 4-hydroxycoumarin, respectively. Novel products 3-[bis(arylamino)methylene]-6-methyl-2H,4H -pyran-2,4-diones and N,N,-diaryl-4-hydroxycoumarin-3-carboximidamides have also been obtained in the same reactions. Novel 4-acetoacetyl-3-phenylamino-4,5-dihydro-5H -pyrazol-5-ones were synthesized from the reaction of N -aryl-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H -pyran-2-one-3-carbothiamides with an excess of hydrazine. The structure of all compounds was established by NMR and mass spectra. J. Heterocyclic Chem., (2009). [source]

Synthesis and Characterisation of Novel Complexes Containing Group 15 Elements and Their Potential Use as Molecular Precursors for the Formation of Transition Metal Pnictides

Manfred Scheer
Abstract The reaction of [{W(CO)5}2PCl] with K[Co(CO)4] yields the novel compounds [{W(CO)4Co2(CO)6}{µ3 -PW(CO)5}2] (3) and [{(CO)4WCo3(CO)6}{µ3 -PW(CO)5}3] (4) along with known derivatives [Co2(CO)6{,,,2 -PW(CO)5}2] (1) and [Co3(CO)9{,3 -PW(CO)5}] (2). The complex [{W2(CO)8(,-CO)}{,,,2:,1:,1 -PW(CO)5}2)] (5) was synthesised by treating Na2[W2(CO)10] with PBr3. Reaction of K[Mn(CO)5] with SbCl3 affords [Sb{Mn(CO)5}3] (6) in high yields. The spectroscopic and structural characterisation of the novel products is discussed, as well as the thermolytic behaviour of 2, 3 and 6 for the potential formation of novel phases of transition metal pnictides. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2005) [source]

Ethics of studies involving human volunteers.


The importance to the personal products industry of testing novel products in healthy human volunteers and the need to ensure the trials were both safe and ethical were addressed in part I. The historical development of ethical standards for human testing was also summarized. The present paper highlights the ethical principles to be considered when testing novel non-medicinal products on human volunteers, and it describes how they can be implemented in a pragmatic manner to avoid delay to the sponsor's research program. The structure and function of ethics committees is discussed. [source]


Miroslav Gantar
In non-Western civilizations, cyanobacteria have been part of the human diet for centuries. Today, microalgae and cyanobacteria are either produced in controlled cultivation processes or harvested from the natural habitats and marketed as food supplements around the world. Cyanobacteria produce a vast array of different biologically active compounds, some of which are expected to be used in drug development. The fact that some of the active components from cyanobacteria potentially have anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and other effects is being used for marketing purposes. However, introduction of these products in the form of whole biomass for alimentary purposes raises concerns regarding the potential toxicity and long-term effects on human health. Here, we review data on the use of cyanobacteria and microalgae in human nutrition and searched for available information on legislature that regulates the use of these products. We have found that, although the quality control of these products is most often self-regulated by the manufacturers, different governmental agencies are introducing strict regulations for placing novel products, such as algae and cyanobacteria, on the market. The existing regulations require these products to be tested for the presence of toxins, such as microcystin; however, other, sometimes novel, toxins remain undetected, and their long-term effects on human health remain unknown. [source]


ABSTRACT A study was carried out to identify consumers' previous expectations of chocolate milk desserts enriched with antioxidants and to determine if these expectations affected product perception. Seventy-five consumers participated in the study and were asked to complete a word association task before the evaluation. Then, consumers tried six milk desserts with different polyphenolic concentration, scored their overall liking and willingness to purchase and provided up to four words to describe each of the samples. Cluster analysis performed on consumer-elicited terms in the word association task allowed the identification of three consumer segments with different expectations and motivations toward chocolate milk desserts enriched with antioxidants. These groups also differed in their evaluation of the desserts when tasting them, showing different overall liking, willingness to purchase and sensory description of the samples. This suggests that consumers' prior expectations and motivations significantly affected their response when tasting the desserts. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Word association was used to get an insight on consumer expectations of chocolate milk desserts enriched with antioxidants, proving to be a useful methodology. This approach could be a simple technique to understand consumer expectations before tasting a product, and to study how these expectations affect their response after tasting the product, particularly interesting when novel products are considered. Consumer segmentation based on their previous thoughts about a product could help to assure that a product meets consumer expectations appropriately, leading to a higher satisfaction. [source]

Incidence of inhibitors in a cohort of 838 males with hemophilia A previously treated with factor VIII concentrates

Summary.,Background:,Development of an inhibitory antibody to factor VIII is currently the most serious complication of hemophilia A treatment. The rate of inhibitor development in those that have been previously treated with factor concentrates is poorly defined. Understanding the baseline rate of inhibitor development in the population of previously treated patients (PTPs) is important when evaluating the effect of exposure to new factor replacement products on inhibitor formation. Objectives:,To determine the rate of inhibitor development in PTPs with hemophilia A. Methods:,A cohort of males with hemophilia A who had data collected on four or more occasions prior to 30 March 2003, as part of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Universal Data Collection Project, were eligible for inclusion in the cohort. Patients were included in the cohort if they had at least two Bethesda assay measurements and did not have an inhibitor prior to or at the start of the study period. The overall incidence rate was estimated as the number of verified incident inhibitor cases divided by the total follow-up time in years multiplied by 1000 (cases per 1000 person-years). Results:,A total of 838 patients were included in the study. The overall incidence rate was calculated to be 2.14 cases per 1000 person years. All incident cases had more than 50 exposure days prior to inhibitor development. Conclusions:,Given the low rate of inhibitor development in PTPs with hemophilia A, small, non-randomized studies are inadequate to determine the rate of inhibitor development after exposure to novel products. Ongoing, standardized, postmarketing surveillance is needed to determine if novel factor products pose an increased risk of inhibitor development. [source]

Science, Ethics, and the "Problems" of Governing Nanotechnologies

Linda F. Hogle
Commentators continue to weigh in on whether there are ethical, social, and policy issues unique to nanotechnology, whether new regulatory schemes should be devised, and if so, how. Many of these commentaries fail to take into account the historical and political environment for nanotechnologies. That context affects regulatory and oversight systems as much as any new metrics to measure the effects of nanoscale materials, or organizational changes put in place to facilitate data analysis. What comes to count as a technical or social "problem" says much about the sociotechnical and political-historical networks in which technologies exist. This symposium's case studies provide insight into procedural successes and failures in the regulation of novel products, and ethical or social analyses that have attended to implications of novel, disruptive technologies. Yet what may be needed is a more fundamental consideration of forms of governance that may not just handle individual products or product types more effectively, but may also be flexible enough to respond to radically new technological systems. Nanotechnology presents an opportunity to think in transdisciplinary terms about both scientific and social concerns, rethink "knowns" about risk and how best to ameliorate or manage it, and consider how to incorporate ethical, social, and legal analyses in the conceptualization, planning, and execution of innovations. [source]

Research to realisation: the challenging path for novel pest management products in Australia

Peter C Gregg
Abstract In this Overview, we explore the linkages between basic research and the commercial development of novel pest management products in Australia. Despite the large volume of research in fundamental and applied aspects of entomology, very few new pest management products are developed and commercialised in Australia. Reasons for this include demanding and expensive regulatory requirements which (as in many other countries) mean that commercial development is the province of large multinational agrochemical companies. We describe the Australian regulatory system and the opportunities and difficulties it can present, using examples from recently registered Australian products, Magnet® moth attractant and the MOOV® range of insect repellents. The science behind these products is described in a series of papers in this issue of Australian Journal of Entomology. We also explore some of the commercial imperatives in novel product development, and aspects of the interactions between researchers and commercial partners. Finally, we discuss potential advantages of Australia as a locale for commercial development of novel products. [source]

Type II Thioesterase Restores Activity of a NRPS Module Stalled with an Aminoacyl-S-enzyme that Cannot Be Elongated

CHEMBIOCHEM, Issue 9 2004
Ellen Yeh
Fidelity and efficiency. Nonribosomal peptide synthetases, which contain domains for the activation (A), thiolation (T), and condensation (C) of amino acids (AA), are high-efficiency, high-fidelity assembly lines for synthesizing peptide natural products. Errors in a single step can have serious consequences for product formation. Type II thioesterases (TEII) might play a critical role in ensuring efficiency and accuracy in these systems, essential features in any attempt to engineer NRPSs to produce novel products. [source]

Inorganic Layers on Polymeric Films , Influence of Defects and Morphology on Barrier Properties

M. Hanika
Abstract Flexible polymeric films are not only widely used in conventional packaging as substitute for glass and aluminum foil packaging but are also proposed as encapsulation for novel products, like flexible solar cells or organic light-emitting devices. The two essential properties of the polymeric packaging are flexibility and good permeation barrier properties against gases and vapors. This article deals with vacuum web coating as a common way of increasing barrier properties of polymeric films and the problems related to this procedure. Defects caused by particles and surface imperfections are found to dominate the permeation rate for such coated polymeric films. Atomic force microscopy, electron and also optical microscopy was used for analysis of the coating layer. Three-dimensional numerical simulations were performed for modeling of the influence of defect size, spacing and film thickness. Results of numerical modeling and of many practical experiments show that the permeability is almost independent of the substrate film thickness when a critical thickness is exceeded. In most cases the defects can be treated as independent of each other. The gas permeability of vacuum web-coated polymeric films can be quantitatively predicted by a simple formula. For gases, like oxygen, it is shown that a statistic analysis of the defect sizes by optical microscopy is sufficient. For water vapor transmission, however, the structure of the coating layer itself has also to be taken into account. [source]