Novel Mediator (novel + mediator)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Differential expression of ,B-crystallin and evidence of its role as a mediator of matrix gene expression in osteoarthritis

Stijn Lambrecht
Objective Alpha B,crystallin belongs to the family of small heat-shock proteins (HSPs). The role of this protein family in chondrocytes is not well understood. The present study was undertaken to investigate expression levels of ,B-crystallin in chondrocytes isolated from healthy subjects and patients with osteoarthritis (OA), and to explore the functional role of this potentially interesting protein in chondrocyte metabolism. Methods Western blot and real-time reverse transcriptase,polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses were performed to determine expression levels of ,B-crystallin in healthy and OA chondrocytes cultured in alginate beads. RNA interference,mediated gene knockdown was used to explore the role of this small HSP in chondrocyte biology, by transfecting low concentrations of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in cultured chondrocytes. Results We initially identified ,B-crystallin as a small HSP that was differentially expressed between healthy and OA-affected chondrocytes. The decreased abundance of this protein in OA chondrocytes was confirmed by Western blotting. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR confirmed the differential expression between chondrocytes isolated from visibly intact and visibly damaged zones of OA cartilage. The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1, and tumor necrosis factor , both down-regulated ,B-crystallin expression. Transfection of low concentrations of siRNA in cultured chondrocytes resulted in efficient knockdown of ,B-crystallin gene expression. This was accompanied by altered expression of the chondrocyte-specific bone morphogenetic protein 2, aggrecan, and type II collagen genes. Conclusion The present findings identify the small HSP ,B-crystallin as a novel mediator of chondrocyte matrix gene expression that may contribute to altered chondrocyte metabolism during the development of OA. [source]

The Society of Academic and Research Surgery

Article first published online: 6 SEP 200
The 6th meeting of The Society of Academic and Research Surgery was held at the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, 11,13th January 2006. The Patey Prize was won by S-S Liau et al. (Eastern Deanery, UK and Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA) for a paper entitled ,Characterization of a novel mediator of malignant phenotype in pancreatic adenocarcinoma'. All Patey Prize abstracts are reproduced in the British Journal of Surgery (Br J Surg 2006; 93: 896,902). To view all other abstracts from this meeting, please click the pdf link on this page. Copyright 2006 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Identification of prospective factors promoting osteotropism in breast cancer: a potential role for CITED2

Wen Min Lau
Abstract Breast cancer metastases develop in the bone more frequently than any other site and are a common cause of morbidity in the form of bone pain, pathological fractures, nerve compression and life-threatening hypercalcemia. Despite ongoing research efforts, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate breast cancer cell homing to and colonization of the bone as well as resultant pathological bone alteration remain poorly understood. To identify key mediators promoting breast cancer metastasis to bone, we utilized an immunocompetent, syngeneic murine model of breast cancer metastasis employing the mammary tumor cell line NT2.5. Following intracardiac injection of NT2.5 cells in neu-N mice, metastases developed in the bone, liver and lung, closely mimicking the anatomical distribution of metastases in patients with breast cancer. Using an in vivo selection process, we established NT2.5 sublines demonstrating an enhanced ability to colonize the bone and liver. Genome-wide cDNA microarray analysis comparing gene expression between parental NT2.5 cells and established sublines revealed both known and novel mediators of bone metastasis and osteolysis, including the transcriptional co-activator CITED2. In further studies, we found that expression of CITED2 was elevated in human primary breast tumors and bone metastasis compared to normal mammary epithelium and was highest in breast cancer cell lines that cause osteolytic bone metastasis in animal models. In addition, reducing CITED2 expression in NT2.5 cells inhibited the establishment of bone metastasis and osteolysis in vivo, suggesting a potential role for CITED2 in promoting breast cancer bone metastasis. [source]

Dexamethasone suppresses monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production via mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 dependent inhibition of Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in activated rat microglia

Yan Zhou
Abstract Microglial cells release monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) which amplifies the inflammation process by promoting recruitment of macrophages and microglia to inflammatory sites in several neurological diseases. In the present study, dexamethasone (Dex), an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drug has been shown to suppress the mRNA and protein expression of MCP-1 in activated microglia resulting in inhibition of microglial migration. This has been further confirmed by the chemotaxis assay which showed that Dex or MCP-1 neutralization with its antibody inhibits the microglial recruitment towards the conditioned medium of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated microglial culture. This study also revealed that the down-regulation of the MCP-1 mRNA expression by Dex in activated microglial cells was mediated via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. It has been demonstrated that Dex inhibited the phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAP kinases as well as c-jun, the JNK substrate in microglia treated with LPS. The involvement of JNK and p38 MAPK pathways in induction of MCP-1 production in activated microglial cells was confirmed as there was an attenuation of MCP-1 protein release when microglial cells were treated with inhibitors of JNK and p38. In addition, Dex induced the expression of MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), the negative regulator of JNK and p38 MAP kinases in microglial cells exposed to LPS. Blockade of MKP-1 expression by triptolide enhanced the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK pathways and the mRNA expression of MCP-1 in activated microglial cells treated with Dex. In summary, Dex inhibits the MCP-1 production and subsequent microglial cells migration to the inflammatory site by regulating MKP-1 expression and the p38 and JNK MAPK pathways. This study reveals that the MKP-1 and MCP-1 as novel mediators of biological effects of Dex may help developing better therapeutic strategies for the treatment of patients with neuroinflammatory diseases. [source]