Novel Means (novel + mean)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Growth hormone deficiency and vascular risk

Roland W. McCallum
Summary The importance of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adult life has become more apparent over the last decade. As well as a distinct clinical syndrome there is a significant excess risk of cardiovascular disease. Although it is difficult to ascertain what part is played by the original pituitary disorder and the concomitant replacement hormonal therapies, there is clear evidence that GHD is associated with known cardiovascular risk factors such as body shape, lipid profile, insulin resistance, blood pressure, vessel wall morphology and haemostatic factors. Novel means of assessing vascular risk such as pulse wave velocity and flow-mediated dilatation can also estimate the risk without invasive procedures. The role of possible mediators of endothelial function such as nitric oxide and free radicals is being investigated further. Replacement of GH in GH-deficient patients leads to many effects on the above indices, some but not all of which are associated with reduced vascular risk. Long-term follow-up studies of morbidity and mortality are required for an accurate assessment of the beneficial effects of therapy. [source]

Implicit Surface Modelling with a Globally Regularised Basis of Compact Support

C. Walder
We consider the problem of constructing a globally smooth analytic function that represents a surface implicitly by way of its zero set, given sample points with surface normal vectors. The contributions of the paper include a novel means of regularising multi-scale compactly supported basis functions that leads to the desirable interpolation properties previously only associated with fully supported bases. We also provide a regularisation framework for simpler and more direct treatment of surface normals, along with a corresponding generalisation of the representer theorem lying at the core of kernel-based machine learning methods. We demonstrate the techniques on 3D problems of up to 14 million data points, as well as 4D time series data and four-dimensional interpolation between three-dimensional shapes. Categories and Subject Descriptors (according to ACM CCS): I.3.5 [Computer Graphics]: Curve, surface, solid, and object representations [source]

The clinical significance of sialoderiveratives in the search for novel means of antipathogen therapy

No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Mechanisms and consequences of bladder cell invasion by uropathogenic Escherichia coli

B. K. Dhakal
ABSTRACT Strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are the major cause of urinary tract infections worldwide. Multiple studies over the past decade have called into question the dogmatic view that UPEC strains act as strictly extracellular pathogens. Rather, bacterial expression of filamentous adhesive organelles known as type 1 pili and Afa/Dr fibrils enable UPEC to invade host epithelial cells within the urinary tract. Entry into bladder epithelial cells provides UPEC with a protected niche where the bacteria can persist quiescently for long periods, unperturbed by host defences and protected from many antibiotic treatments. Alternately, internalized UPEC can rapidly multiply, forming large intracellular inclusions that can contain several thousand bacteria. Initial work aimed at defining the host and bacterial factors that modulate the entry, intracellular trafficking, and eventual resurgence of UPEC suggests a high degree of host-pathogen crosstalk. Targeted disruption of these processes may provide a novel means to prevent and treat recurrent, relapsing and chronic infections within the urinary tract. [source]

Anti-adhesion therapy of bacterial diseases: prospects and problems

Itzhak Ofek
Abstract The alarming increase in drug-resistant bacteria makes a search for novel means of fighting bacterial infections imperative. An attractive approach is the use of agents that interfere with the ability of the bacteria to adhere to tissues of the host, since such adhesion is one of the initial stages of the infectious process. The validity of this approach has been unequivocally demonstrated in experiments performed in a wide variety of animals, from mice to monkeys, and recently also in humans. Here we review various approaches to anti-adhesion therapy, including the use of receptor and adhesin analogs, dietary constituents, sublethal concentrations of antibiotics and adhesin-based vaccines. Because anti-adhesive agents are not bactericidal, the propagation and spread of resistant strains is much less likely to occur than as a result of exposure to bactericidal agents, such as antibiotics. Anti-adhesive drugs, once developed, may, therefore, serve as a new means to fight infectious diseases. [source]

Investigation of air gaps entrapped in protective clothing systems

Young Kim Il
Air gaps entrapped in protective clothing are known as one of the major factors affecting heat transfer through multiple layers of flexible clothing fabrics. The identification and quantification of the air gaps are two aspects of a multidisciplinary research effort directed toward improving the flame/thermal protective performance of the clothing. Today's three-dimensional (3-D) whole body digitizers, which provide accurate representations of the surface of the human body, can be a novel means for visualizing and quantifying the air gaps between the wearer and his clothing. In this paper we discuss how images from a 3-D whole body digitizer are used to determine local and global distributions of air gaps and the quantification of air gap sizes in single and multilayer clothing systems dressed on a thermal manikin. Examples are given that show concordance between air gap distributions and burn patterns obtained from full-scale manikin fire tests. We finish with a discussion of the application of air gap information to bench-scale testing to improve the protective performance of current flame/thermal protective clothing. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Liquid Crystal Emulsions as the Basis of Biological Sensors for the Optical Detection of Bacteria and Viruses

Sri Sivakumar
Abstract A versatile sensing method based on monodisperse liquid crystal (LC) emulsion droplets detects and distinguishes between different types of bacteria (Gram +ve and ,ve) and viruses (enveloped and non-enveloped). LCs of 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl transition from a bipolar to radial configuration when in contact with Gram ,ve bacteria (E. coli) and lipid-enveloped viruses (A/NWS/Tokyo/67). This transition is consistent with the transfer of lipid from the organisms to the interfaces of the micrometer-sized LC droplets. In contrast, a transition to the radial configuration is not observed in the presence of Gram +ve bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus) and non-enveloped viruses (M13 helper phage). The LC droplets can detect small numbers of E. coli bacteria (1,5) and low concentrations (104,pfu mL,1) of A/NWS/Tokyo/67 virus. Monodisperse LC emulsions incubated with phosholipid liposomes (similar to the E. coli cell wall lipid) reveal that the orientational change is triggered at an area per lipid molecule of ,46,2 on an LC droplet (,1.6,,108 lipid molecules per droplet). This approach represents a novel means to sense and differentiate between types of bacteria and viruses based on their cell-wall/envelope structure, paving the way for the development of a new class of LC microdroplet-based biological sensors. [source]

Detection of Visible and Latent Fingerprints Using Micro-X-ray Fluorescence Elemental Imaging,

Christopher G. Worley Ph.D.
ABSTRACT: Using micro-X-ray fluorescence (MXRF), a novel means of detecting fingerprints was examined in which the prints were imaged based on their elemental composition. MXRF is a nondestructive technique. Although this method requires a priori knowledge about the approximate location of a print, it offers a new and complementary means for detecting fingerprints that are also left pristine for further analysis (including potential DNA extraction) or archiving purposes. Sebaceous fingerprints and those made after perspiring were detected based on elements such as potassium and chlorine present in the print residue. Unique prints were also detected including those containing lotion, saliva, banana, or sunscreen. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the potential for visualizing fingerprints by MXRF on surfaces that can be problematic using current methods. [source]

A novel means of feedback for the Emergency Response Team

Gautam Ramakrishna
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Resonant tunneling through a dilute nitride quantum well

N. Mori
Abstract We have developed a theory for resonant tunneling through a dilute nitride quantum well in the presence of a tilted magnetic field. We show that magneto-tunneling spectroscopy provides a novel means of probing the scattering potential due to randomly distributed nitrogen impurities. This technique can be extended to probe other types and sources of disordered potential. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Phage display selection of efficient glutamine-donor substrate peptides for transglutaminase 2

PROTEIN SCIENCE, Issue 11 2006
Zsolt Keresztessy
Abstract Understanding substrate specificity and identification of natural targets of transglutaminase 2 (TG2), the ubiquitous multifunctional cross-linking enzyme, which forms isopeptide bonds between protein-linked glutamine and lysine residues, is crucial in the elucidation of its physiological role. As a novel means of specificity analysis, we adapted the phage display technique to select glutamine-donor substrates from a random heptapeptide library via binding to recombinant TG2 and elution with a synthetic amine-donor substrate. Twenty-six Gln-containing sequences from the second and third biopanning rounds were susceptible for TG2-mediated incorporation of 5-(biotinamido)penthylamine, and the peptides GQQQTPY, GLQQASV, and WQTPMNS were modified most efficiently. A consensus around glutamines was established as pQX(P,T,S)l, which is consistent with identified substrates listed in the TRANSDAB database. Database searches showed that several proteins contain peptides similar to the phage-selected sequences, and the N-terminal glutamine-rich domain of SWI1/SNF1-related chromatin remodeling proteins was chosen for detailed analysis. MALDI/TOF and tandem mass spectrometry-based studies of a representative part of the domain, SGYGQQGQTPYYNQQSPHPQQQQPPYS (SnQ1), revealed that Q6, Q8, and Q22 are modified by TG2. Kinetic parameters of SnQ1 transamidation (KMapp = 250 ,M, kcat = 18.3 sec,1, and kcat/KMapp = 73,200) classify it as an efficient TG2 substrate. Circular dichroism spectra indicated that SnQ1 has a random coil conformation, supporting its accessibility in the full-length parental protein. Added together, here we report a novel use of the phage display technology with great potential in transglutaminase research. [source]

Spectral filters for the control of Botrytis cinerea

Summary Experiments performed in vitro examined the sporulation of Botrytis cinerea (grey mould) under different spectral distributions. Eighty-three isolates, taken from plants of primula (Primula vulgaris) at different locations throughout the UK, were incubated in the dark, with visible light only and visible plus near-ultraviolet (nUV) light. On average, compared to isolates not exposed to nUV, sporulation was increased 54-fold following illumination with nUV light. No isolates showed complete insensitivity to near ultraviolet. New polyethylene materials with different optical properties were then tested on two typical isolates. A film which removed nUV up to 405 nm, compared to a film with nUV absorption up to 384 nm, resulted in the lowest production of conidia (by 5-fold). The former film was used to clad horticultural polyethylene tunnels in which crops of P. vulgaris and strawberry were grown for two seasons and the incidence of B. cinerea assessed throughout the growth of the crops. The incidence of infection on the P. vulgaris and strawberries was reduced by c. 50% and c. 26% respectively with the nUV blocking film compared to a standard film. The results are discussed in terms of the potential of spectral filters as a novel means of grey mould control in greenhouse-produced crops. [source]

Functional Generalized Linear Models with Images as Predictors

BIOMETRICS, Issue 1 2010
Philip T. Reiss
Summary Functional principal component regression (FPCR) is a promising new method for regressing scalar outcomes on functional predictors. In this article, we present a theoretical justification for the use of principal components in functional regression. FPCR is then extended in two directions: from linear to the generalized linear modeling, and from univariate signal predictors to high-resolution image predictors. We show how to implement the method efficiently by adapting generalized additive model technology to the functional regression context. A technique is proposed for estimating simultaneous confidence bands for the coefficient function; in the neuroimaging setting, this yields a novel means to identify brain regions that are associated with a clinical outcome. A new application of likelihood ratio testing is described for assessing the null hypothesis of a constant coefficient function. The performance of the methodology is illustrated via simulations and real data analyses with positron emission tomography images as predictors. [source]

Outcome measures in acne vulgaris: systematic review

H. Barratt
Summary Background, Clinical trials require valid and reliable outcome measures to facilitate the interpretation and communication of results, and the secondary use of data for systematic reviews. There are numerous tools available to assess the severity of acne vulgaris in clinical trials, and extensive debate about the merits of these. Objectives, To review the literature about investigator-assessed outcome measures used in clinical trials for acne vulgaris; and to evaluate the measurement properties of these tools. Methods, A systematic literature review was conducted of articles outlining and evaluating investigator-assessed outcome measures for acne. Results, Thirty-one papers met the criteria for inclusion in the literature review, including nine papers proposing a novel means of assessing acne, and five evaluating existing outcome measures. Variable attempts had been made to evaluate these tools. Conclusions, The array of evaluation tools used in acne trials prohibits good secondary analysis of trial data, and complicates the interpretation of study results, potentially compromising clinical care. Existing outcome measures need to be assessed further and agreement reached about which should be used more widely. Other innovative methods of assessing acne should also be explored. [source]

Stochasticity of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase mRNA Expression in Breast Carcinoma Cells by Molecular Beacon Imaging

CHEMBIOCHEM, Issue 11 2005
Timothy J. Drake
Abstract Visual and quantitative monitoring of cell-to-cell variation in the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) mRNA by using novel ratiometric imaging with molecular beacons (MB) reveals a distinct change in patterns following induction of human breast-carcinoma cells with lipopolysaccharide. Interestingly, the pattern of cell-to-cell variation in a cell line stably transfected with a plasmid bearing a cDNA clone of MnSOD and overproducing the enzyme is significantly different from the pattern associated with MnSOD induction. The levels and the patterns of cell-population heterogeneity for ,-actin mRNA expression do not show distinct changes either following induction or in stably transfected cells. These results are significant in light of the reported relationship between this enzyme and malignant phenotype of breast-carcinoma cells. Use of MBs in ratiometric image analyses for cytoplasmic mRNAs represents a novel means of directly examining the stochasticity of transcription of MnSOD and other genes implicated in cellular phenotype regulation. [source]