Novel Mathematical Model (novel + mathematical_model)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2000
Michael A. D. Goodisman
Abstract., Recent studies of the introduced fire ant Solenopsis invicta suggest that introduced polygyne (with multiple queens per nest) populations are strongly influenced by male-mediated gene flow from neighboring monogyne (single queen per nest) populations and selection acting on a single locus, general protein-9 (Gp-9). This investigation formally tests this hypothesis and determines if these processes can account for the genotypic structure of polygyne S. invicta. To increase the statistical power of this test, we considered the genotypes of polygyne queens and workers at both Gp-9 and the closely linked, selectively neutral locus Pgm-3. We then constructed and analyzed a novel mathematical model to delimit the effects of monogyne male gene flow and selection on the joint genotypes at the Pgm-3/Gp-9 superlocus. Using this framework, a hierarchical maximum-likelihood method was developed to estimate the best-fitting gene flow and selection parameters based on the fit of our model to data from both the current study and an earlier one of the same population. In each case, selection on polygyne queens and workers alone, with no monogyne male gene flow, provides the most parsimonious explanation for the observed genotype frequencies. The apparent discrepancy between this result and the empirical evidence for monogyne male gene flow indicates that undocumented factors, such as other forms of selection in polygyne males or workers, are operating in introduced polygyne S. invicta. [source]

Numerical simulation grounding system buried within horizontal multilayer earth in frequency domain

Zhong-Xin Li
Abstract A novel mathematical model for accurately calculating the currents flowing along the conductors of grounding system below high voltage a.c. substations and nearby floating metallic structure buried in horizontal multilayer earth model has been developed in this paper. Not only the mutual conductive and capacitive coupling influences of leakage currents, but also mutual inductive coupling influence of network currents flowing along the conductors of grounding system and nearby floating metallic structure in the horizontal multilayer earth model have been considered in this model, and only propagation effect of electromagnetic wave within limited area of the substation has been neglected. The quasi-static complex image method and closed form of Green's function are introduced into this model to accelerate the calculation. The model is then implemented in a computer program, which can be used to calculate currents distribution along the conductors of any configuration of grounding system, and with or without floating metallic structure under some hundreds of kHz frequency harmonic wave. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Solid lipid microparticles produced by spray congealing: Influence of the atomizer on microparticle characteristics and mathematical modeling of the drug release

Nadia Passerini
Abstract The first aim of the work was to evaluate the effect of atomizer design on the properties of solid lipid microparticles produced by spray congealing. Two different air atomizers have been employed: a conventional air pressure nozzle (APN) and a recently developed atomizer (wide pneumatic nozzle, WPN). Milled theophylline and Compritol® 888ATO were used to produce microparticles at drug-to-carrier ratios of 10:90, 20:80, and 30:70 using the two atomizers. The results showed that the application of different nozzles had significant impacts on the morphology, encapsulation efficiency, and drug release behavior of the microparticles. In contrast, the characteristics of the atomizer did not influence the physicochemical properties of the microparticles as differential scanning calorimetry, Hot Stage microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis demonstrated. The drug and the lipid carrier presented in their original crystalline forms in both WPN and APN systems. A second objective of this study was to develop a novel mathematical model for describing the dynamic process of drug release from the solid lipid microparticles. For WPN microparticles the model predicted the changes of the drug release behavior with particle size and drug loading, while for APN microparticles the model fitting was not as good as for the WPN systems, confirming the influence of the atomizer on the drug release behavior. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 99:916,931, 2010 [source]

Mathematics-aided quantitative analysis of diffusion characteristics of pHEMA sponge hydrogels

X. Lou
Abstract This study reports the current progress in quantitative analysis of the release characteristics of pHEMA spongy hydrogels using prednisolone 21-hemisuccinate sodium salt as a model drug. Extraction of effective diffusion coefficients of the drug from various pHEMA matrices was made using a novel mathematical model that handles both boundary layer and initial burst effects. Drug loading level and entrapment efficiency were also determined. The computed diffusion coefficients and the drug loading capacity in relation to the device porous structure and drug concentration of the loading solution, as well as the size of device are discussed. Mathematical modelling proves to be a powerful tool not only for establishing and interpreting structure and performance relationships but also for handling experimental ambiguity. Copyright © 2007 Curtin University of Technology and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]