Novel Lineages (novel + lineage)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Active bacterial community structure along vertical redox gradients in Baltic Sea sediment

Anna Edlund
Summary Community structures of active bacterial populations were investigated along a vertical redox profile in coastal Baltic Sea sediments by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis. According to correspondence analysis of T-RFLP results and sequencing of cloned 16S rRNA genes, the microbial community structures at three redox depths (179, ,64 and ,337 mV) differed significantly. The bacterial communities in the community DNA differed from those in bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labelled DNA, indicating that the growing members of the community that incorporated BrdU were not necessarily the most dominant members. The structures of the actively growing bacterial communities were most strongly correlated to organic carbon followed by total nitrogen and redox potentials. Bacterial identification by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from clones of BrdU-labelled DNA and DNA from reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that bacterial taxa involved in nitrogen and sulfur cycling were metabolically active along the redox profiles. Several sequences had low similarities to previously detected sequences, indicating that novel lineages of bacteria are present in Baltic Sea sediments. Also, a high number of different 16S rRNA gene sequences representing different phyla were detected at all sampling depths. [source]

Novel microbial diversity adherent to plant biomass in the herbivore gastrointestinal tract, as revealed by ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and rrs gene sequencing

Ross Larue
Summary It is well recognized that a dynamic biofilm develops upon plant biomass in the herbivore gastrointestinal tract, but this component of the microbiome has not previously been specifically sampled, or directly compared with the biodiversity present in the planktonic fraction of digesta. In this study, the digesta collected from four sheep fed two different diets was separated into three fractions: the planktonic phase, and the microbial populations either weakly or tightly adherent to plant biomass. The community DNA prepared from each fraction was then subjected to both ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Both types of analysis showed that dietary factors influence community structure, and that the adherent fractions produced more complex profiles. The RIS-clone libraries prepared from the planktonic and adherent populations were then subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequence analyses, which resulted in a far greater degree of discrimination among the fractions. Although many of the sequenced clones from the adherent populations were assigned to various clusters within the low G+C Gram-positive bacteria, the clone libraries from animals consuming an all-grass diet were largely comprised of novel lineages of Clostridium, while in animals consuming the starch-containing diet, Selenomonas and Ruminococcus spp. were the dominant low G+C Gram-positive bacteria. Additionally, the libraries from hay-fed animals also contained clones most similar to asaccharolytic Clostridia, and other Gram-positive bacteria that specialize in the transformation of plant phenolic compounds and the formation of cinnamic, phenylacetic and phenylpropionic acids. These results reveal, for the first time, the phylogeny of adherent subpopulations that specialize in the transformation of plant lignins and other secondary compounds, which potentiate polysaccharide hydrolysis by other members of the biofilm. [source]

Diversity of functional genes of methanogens, methanotrophs and sulfate reducers in deep-sea hydrothermal environments

Olivier Nercessian
Summary To contribute to the identification of methanogens, methanotrophs and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in microbial communities from the 13°N (East Pacific Rise) and Rainbow (Mid-Atlantic Ridge) hydrothermal vent fields, we investigated the diversity of mcrA, pmoA and dsrAB genes sequences. Clone libraries were obtained using DNA isolated from fragments of diffuse vents, sediment and in situ samplers. The clones were categorized by restriction fragment length polymorphism, and representatives of each group were sequenced. Sequences were related to that of hyperthermophilic (order Methanopyrales and family Methanocaldococcaceae), thermophilic and mesophilic (family Methanococcaceae) methanogens, thermophilic (proposed genus ,Methylothermus') and mesophilic type I methanotrophs, and hyperthermophilic (order Archaeoglobales), thermophilic (order Thermodesulfobacteriales) and mesophilic (family Desulfobulbaceae) SRB. Several of the obtained sequences were distantly related to the genes of cultivated organisms, providing evidence of the existence of novel lineages in the three functional groups. This study provides for the first time an insight into the diversity of several functional genes of deep-sea hydrothermal system microorganisms. [source]

Phylogenetic diversity of Synechococcus strains isolated from the East China Sea and the East Sea

Dong Han Choi
Abstract Phylogenetic relationships among 33 Synechococcus strains isolated from the East China Sea (ECS) and the East Sea (ES) were studied based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and 16S,23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Pigment patterns of the culture strains were also examined. Based on 16S rRNA gene and ITS sequence phylogenies, the Synechococcus isolates were clustered into 10 clades, among which eight were previously identified and two were novel. Half of the culture strains belonged to clade V or VI. All strains that clustered into novel clades exhibited both phycoerythrobilin and phycourobilin. Interestingly, the pigment compositions of isolates belonging to clades V and VI differed from those reported for other oceanic regions. None of the isolates in clade V showed phycourobilin, whereas strains in clade VI exhibited both phycourobilin and phycoerythrobilin, which is in contrast to previous studies. The presence of novel lineages and the different pigment patterns in the ECS and the ES suggests the possibility that some Synechococcus lineages are distributed only in geographically restricted areas and have evolved in these regions. Therefore, further elucidation of the physiological, ecological, and genetic characteristics of the diverse Synechococcus strains is required to understand their spatial and geographical distribution. [source]

Diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria from an extreme hypersaline sediment, Great Salt Lake (Utah)

Kasper Urup Kjeldsen
Abstract The diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) inhabiting the extreme hypersaline sediment (270 g L,1 NaCl) of the northern arm of Great Salt Lake was studied by integrating cultivation and genotypic identification approaches involving PCR-based retrieval of 16S rRNA and dsrAB genes, the latter encoding major subunits of dissimilatory (bi) sulfite reductase. The majority (85%) of dsrAB sequences retrieved directly from the sediment formed a lineage of high (micro) diversity affiliated with the genus Desulfohalobium, while others represented novel lineages within the families Desulfohalobiaceae and Desulfobacteraceae or among Gram-positive SRB. Using the same sediment, SRB enrichment cultures were established in parallel at 100 and at 190 g L,1 NaCl using different electron donors. After 5,6 transfers, dsrAB and 16S rRNA gene-based profiling of these enrichment cultures recovered a SRB community composition congruent with the cultivation-independent profiling of the sediment. Pure culture representatives of the predominant Desulfohalobium -related lineage and of one of the Desulfobacteraceae -affilated lineages were successfully obtained. The growth performance of these isolates and of the enrichment cultures suggests that the sediment SRB community of the northern arm of Great Salt Lake consists of moderate halophiles, which are salt-stressed at the in situ salinity of 27%. [source]

Out of Arabia,The settlement of Island Soqotra as revealed by mitochondrial and Y chromosome genetic diversity

Viktor, ernư
Abstract The Soqotra archipelago is one of the most isolated landmasses in the world, situated at the mouth of the Gulf of Aden between the Horn of Africa and southern Arabia. The main island of Soqotra lies not far from the proposed southern migration route of anatomically modern humans out of Africa ,60,000 years ago (kya), suggesting the island may harbor traces of that first dispersal. Nothing is known about the timing and origin of the first Soqotri settlers. The oldest historical visitors to the island in the 15th century reported only the presence of an ancient population. We collected samples throughout the island and analyzed mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal variation. We found little African influence among the indigenous people of the island. Although the island population likely experienced founder effects, links to the Arabian Peninsula or southwestern Asia can still be found. In comparison with datasets from neighboring regions, the Soqotri population shows evidence of long-term isolation and autochthonous evolution of several mitochondrial haplogroups. Specifically, we identified two high-frequency founder lineages that have not been detected in any other populations and classified them as a new R0a1a1 subclade. Recent expansion of the novel lineages is consistent with a Holocene settlement of the island ,6 kya. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]