Novel Ligands (novel + ligand)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Binol-Derived Monodentate Phosphites and Phosphoramidites with Phosphorus Stereogenic Centers: Novel Ligands for Transition-Metal Catalysis.

CHEMINFORM, Issue 21 2005
Manfred T. Reetz
Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]

3,4-Dihydronaphthalen-1(2H)-ones: Novel Ligands for the Benzodiazepine Site of ,5-Containing GABAA Receptors.

CHEMINFORM, Issue 38 2004
Helen J. Szekeres
Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]

P-Chiral, Monodentate Ferrocenyl Phosphines, Novel Ligands for Asymmetric Catalysis.

CHEMINFORM, Issue 21 2003
Elizabeth A. Colby
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

The DC-SIGN family member LSECtin is a novel ligand of CD44 on activated T cells

Li Tang
LSECtin, a novel member of the C-type lectin DC-SIGN family, not only acts as an attachment factor for pathogens, but also recognizes "endogenous" activated T cells. The endogenous ligands of LSECtin, however, have remained unclear. In this study, we identified CD44 on Jurkat T cells as a candidate ligand of LSECtin, and confirmed the specific interaction between LSECtin and CD44. Moreover, we showed that LSECtin selectively bound CD44s, CD44v4 and CD44v8-10 by screening a series of typical CD44 isoforms. By deletion of the carbohydrate-recognition domain region and mutation of crucial amino acids involved in carbohydrate-recognition of LSECtin and by inhibition of the N-linked glycosylation of CD44, we further demonstrated that the interaction between CD44 and LSECtin is dependent on protein-glycan recognition. Our findings indicate that CD44 is the first identified endogenous ligand of LSECtin, and similarly, that LSECtin is a novel ligand of CD44. These findings provide important new perspectives on the biology of both LSECtin and CD44 in the immune system. [source]

NMR elucidation of a novel (S)-pentacyclo-undecane bis-(4-phenyloxazoline) ligand and related derivatives

Grant A. Boyle
Abstract The NMR elucidation of a novel ligand (S)-pentacyclo-undecane bis-(4-phenyloxazoline) and related pentacyclo-undecane (PCU) derivatives is reported. Two-dimensional NMR proved to be a powerful technique in overcoming the difficulties associated with the elucidation of these compounds when only one-dimensional NMR data is utilized. A chiral substituent was introduced to both ,arms' of the PCU skeleton to produce derivatives 1,3. These derivatives display C1 symmetry with all thecage atoms being nonequivalent. Owing to overlapping of peaks in the 1H spectra, identification of these diastereomeric protons was very difficult. The 13C spectra gave rise to clear splitting of the nonequivalent carbons. This is unusual compared to similar PCU derivatives with chiral substituents as splitting of all the diastereomeric cage carbons has not yet been reported. Nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (NOESY) correlations of derivatives 1,3 confirm the different conformations of the molecule in which the side ,arms' occupy different orientations with respect to cage moiety. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The myeloid-related proteins 8 and 14 complex, a novel ligand of toll-like receptor 4, and interleukin-1, form a positive feedback mechanism in systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Michael Frosch
Objective Fever of unknown origin is a diagnostic challenge in children, especially for differentiation of systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (systemic-onset JIA) and infectious diseases. We undertook this study to analyze the relevance of myeloid-related proteins (MRPs) 8 and 14, endogenous activators of Toll-like receptor 4, in diagnosis and pathogenesis of systemic-onset JIA. Methods Serum concentrations of MRP-8/MRP-14 were analyzed in 60 patients with systemic-onset JIA, 85 patients with systemic infections, 40 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 5 patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia, 18 patients with neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID), and 50 healthy controls. In addition, we investigated the link between interleukin-1, (IL-1,) and MRP-8/MRP-14 in systemic-onset JIA. Results Serum MRP-8/MRP-14 concentrations were significantly (P < 0.001) elevated in patients with active systemic-onset JIA (mean ± 95% confidence interval 14,920 ± 4,030 ng/ml) compared with those in healthy controls (340 ± 70 ng/ml), patients with systemic infections (2,640 ± 720 ng/ml), patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (650 ± 280 ng/ml), patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (840 ± 940 ng/ml), and patients with NOMID (2,830 ± 580 ng/ml). In contrast to C-reactive protein levels, MRP-8/MRP-14 concentrations distinguished systemic-onset JIA from infections, with a specificity of 95%. MRP-14 in serum of patients with systemic-onset JIA was a strong inducer of IL-1, expression in phagocytes. Conclusion The analysis of MRP-8/MRP-14 in serum is an excellent tool for the diagnosis of systemic-onset JIA, allowing early differentiation between patients with systemic-onset JIA and those with other inflammatory diseases. MRP-8/MRP-14 and IL-1, represent a novel positive feedback mechanism activating phagocytes via 2 major signaling pathways of innate immunity during the pathogenesis of systemic-onset JIA. [source]

From Molecular Shape to Potent Bioactive Agents I: Bioisosteric Replacement of Molecular Fragments

CHEMMEDCHEM, Issue 1 2009
Ewgenij Proschak
Ligand-based virtual screening: By means of shape- and pharmacophore-based virtual screening, a potent PPAR,-selective activator was identified from a large compound collection with minimal experimental effort. This compound represents a scaffold-hop from known PPAR agonists and provides proof-of-concept for a novel ligand-based virtual screening approach. [source]

Novel estrogen receptor ligands and their structure,activity relationship evaluated by scintillation proximity assay for high-throughput screening

Ling He
Abstract The estrogen receptor (ER) is an important drug target with allosteric characteristics that binds orthotopic hormones and other ligands. A recently developed scintillation proximity (SPA)-based assay for high-throughput screening (HTS) of compound libraries was used to identify novel estrogen receptor ligands that might have ER subtype selective binding activity. Radioligand binding was determined in a multi-detector scintillation counter designed for microtitration plates. Equilibrium binding experiments and kinetic competition tests were performed with [3H]-estradiol and human ER, and ER, receptors. A library of 6,000 structurally diverse compounds was screened. From this, several novel ligands were identified that showed pronounced subtype-selective differences in ligand binding for ER, and ER,. The observed equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) for the binding of [3H]estradiol to ER, and ER, receptors were approximately 0.25 and 0.64 nM, respectively. When 17,-estradiol, raloxifene and daidzein were tested for binding affinity to ER, in a competition assay, the IC50 values were 0.34, 1.31, and 75.6 nM, respectively. When tested for binding affinity to ER,, the IC50 values were 1.05, 11.4, and 10.6 nM, respectively. The results obtained show that the methodology is valid in comparison to previously published data regarding estradiol and other standard compounds (raloxifene and daidzein) binding characteristics of estrogen receptors. The assay is also well suited to applied research as a tool in HTS of compound libraries in the search of ER ligands. Several novel active compounds were identified and selected as potent ER subtype ligands. Drug Dev Res 64:203,212, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Synthesis, Protonation and CuII Complexes of Two Novel Isomeric Pentaazacyclophane Ligands: Potentiometric, DFT, Kinetic and AMP Recognition Studies

Andrés G. Algarra
Abstract The synthesis and coordination chemistry of two novel ligands, 2,6,9,12,16-pentaaza[17]metacyclophane (L1) and 2,6,9,12,16-pentaaza[17]paracyclophane (L2), is described. Potentiometric studies indicate that L1 and L2 form a variety of mononuclear complexes the stability constants of which reveal a change in the denticity of the ligand when moving from L1 to L2, a behaviour that can be qualitatively explained by the inability of the paracyclophanes to simultaneously use both benzylic nitrogen atoms for coordination to a single metal centre. In contrast, the formation of dinuclear hydroxylated complexes is more favoured for the paraL2 ligand. DFT calculations have been carried out to compare the geometries and relative energies of isomeric forms of the [CuL]2+ complexes of L1 and L2 in which the cyclophane acts either as tri- or tetradentate. The results indicate that the energy cost associated with a change in the coordination mode of the cyclophane from tri- to tetradentate is moderate for both ligands so that the actual coordination mode can be determined not only by the characteristics of the first coordination sphere but also by the specific interactions with additional nearby water molecules. The kinetics of the acid promoted decomposition of the mono- and dinuclear CuII complexes of both cyclophanes have also been studied. For both ligands, dinuclear complexes convert rapidly to mononuclear species upon addition of excess acid, the release of the first metal ion occurring within the mixing time of the stopped-flow instrument. Decomposition of the mononuclear [CuL2]2+ and [CuHL2]3+ species occurs with the same kinetics, thus showing that protonation of [CuL2]2+ occurs at an uncoordinated amine group. In contrast, the [CuL1]2+ and [CuHL1]3+ species show different decomposition kinetics indicating the existence of significant structural reorganisation upon protonation of the [CuL1]2+ species. The interaction of AMP with the protonated forms of the cyclophanes and the formation of mixed complexes in the systems Cu,L1 -AMP, Cu,L2 -AMP, and Cu,L3 -AMP, where L3 is the related pyridinophane containing the same polyamine chain and 2,6-dimethylpyridine as a spacer, is also reported. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2009) [source]

Novel Cyclic 1,2-Diacetals Derived from (2R,3R)-(+)-Tartaric Acid: Synthesis and Application as N,O Ligands for the Enantioselective Alkylation of Benzaldehyde by Diethylzinc

M. Teresa Barros
Abstract A chiral cyclic 1,2-diacetal derived from tartaric acid was used as the basic structural unit for novel ligands. Monooxazoline carbinols in which the degree of substitution of the alcohol and the nature of the stereocentre in the oxazoline ring were varied were synthesized in moderate to good yields. The influence of these structural factors on asymmetric induction was examined in the enantioselective addition of diethylzinc to benzaldehyde. Up to 60% ee was observed with a secondary or a tertiary alcohol as the metal-chelating group. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2004) [source]

Insight into the molecular mechanisms of glucocorticoid receptor action promotes identification of novel ligands with an improved therapeutic index

Heike Schäcke
Abstract:, Glucocorticoids are highly effective in the therapy of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Their beneficial action is restricted because of their adverse effects upon prolonged usage. Topical glucocorticoids that act locally have been developed to significantly reduce systemic side effects. Nonetheless, undesirable cutaneous effects such as skin atrophy persist from the use of topical glucocorticoids. There is therefore a high medical need for drugs as effective as glucocorticoids but with a reduced side-effect profile. Glucocorticoids function by binding to and activating the glucocorticoid receptor that positively or negatively regulates the expression of specific genes. Several experiments suggest that the negative regulation of gene expression by the glucocorticoid receptor accounts for its anti-inflammatory action. This occurs through direct or indirect binding of the receptor to transcription factors such as activator protein-1, nuclear factor- ,B or interferon regulatory factor-3 that are already bound to their regulatory sites. The positive action of the receptor occurs through homodimer binding of the receptor to discrete nucleotide sequences and this possibly contributes to some of the adverse effects of the hormone. Glucocorticoid receptor ligands that promote the negative regulatory action of the receptor with reduced positive regulatory function should therefore show improved therapeutic potential. A complete separation of the positive from the negative regulatory activities of the receptor has so far not been possible because of the interdependent nature of the two regulatory processes. Nevertheless, considerable improvement in the therapeutic action of glucocorticoid receptor ligands is being achieved through the use of key molecular targets for screening novel glucocorticoid receptor ligands. [source]

Synthesis of 6-Substituted 7-Bomoazabicyclo[2.2.1]heptanes via Nucleophilic Addition to 3-Bromo-1-azoniatricyclo[]-heptane Bromide

Arnaud Gayet
Abstract We describe herein an efficient method for the preparation of a functionalised bicyclic framework (6-substituted 7-bromo-aza-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane) through the selective opening of the aziridium 2 with organocuprates in up to 90% yield. These interesting chiral building blocks were then utilised as novel ligands in the rearrangement of epoxides to afford chiral allylic alcohols. [source]

Discovery and design of novel inhibitors of botulinus neurotoxin A: targeted ,hinge' peptide libraries

J. Hayden
Abstract Intoxication by the zinc protease botulinus neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) results from cleavage of a single Q,R bond in the neuronal protein SNAP-25, which disables the docking mechanism required for neurotransmitter release. In the present study, potential inhibitors of BoNT-A were assessed from their effects on the BoNT-A cleavage of a synthetic 17-mer peptide (SNAP-25, residues 187,203) spanning the Q,R cleavage site. Compounds that inhibited BoNT-A included thiols (zinc chelators) such as dithiothreitol, dimercaptopropanesulfonic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid and captopril. In addition, compounds containing multiple acidic functions, such as the SNARE motif V2 (ELDDRADALQ), the tripeptide Glu-Glu-Glu and the steroid glycoside glycyrrhizic acid, were effective inhibitors. ,Hinge' peptide mini-libraries (PMLs) having the structure acetyl-X1 -X2 -linker-X3 -X4 -NH2 or X1 -X2 -linker-X3, where X1,X4 were mixtures of selected amino acids and the flexible linker was 4-aminobutyric acid, also provided effective inhibition. Targeted PMLs containing the acidic amino acids Asp and Glu, the scissile-bond amino acids Gln and Arg and the zinc chelators His and Cys produced pronounced inhibition of BoNT-A. Deconvolution of these libraries will provide novel ligands with improved inhibitory potency as leads in the design of peptide mimetics to treat BoNT poisoning. Copyright ? 2003 Crown in the right of Canada. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. [source]

Synthesis of 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-cyano-5-(4-[11C]methoxyphenyl)- N -(piperidin-1-yl)-1H -pyrazole-3-carboxamide ([11C]JHU75528) and 1-(2-bromophenyl)-4-cyano-5-(4-[11C]methoxyphenyl)- N -(piperidin-1-yl)-1H -pyrazole-3-carboxamide ([11C]JHU75575) as potential radioligands for PET imaging of cerebral cannabinoid receptor

Hong Fan
Abstract Two novel ligands for cerebral cannabinoid receptor (CB1), 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-cyano-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)- N -(piperidin-1-yl)-1H -pyrazole-3-carboxamide (JHU75528) and 1-(2-bromophenyl)-4-cyano-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)- N -(piperidin-1-yl)-1H -pyrazole-3-carboxamide (JHU75575) have been synthesized. Both JHU75528 and JHU75575 display a combination of higher binding affinity and lower lipophilicity than those of Rimonabant (SR141716), a high affinity CB1 selective antagonist, and AM281, the only available ligand for emission tomography imaging of CB1 in human subjects. Radiolabeled [11C]JHU75528 and [11C]JHU75575 were prepared by reaction of [11C]methyl iodide with nor-methyl precursors. The average radiochemical yield, specific radioactivity, and radiochemical purity of [11C]JHU75528 were 16%, 235 GBq/µmol (6360 mCi/µmol), and 99%, respectively; those of [11C]JHU75575 were 8%, 196 GBq/µmol (5308 mCi/µmol), and 99%, respectively. Both ligands hold promise as PET radioligands for imaging CB1 receptor. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Synthesis of two novel oxocyclam-binding technetium complexes containing an analogue of cocaine

F. Turpin
Abstract In order to visualize and quantify dopamine transporters, the synthesis of two novel ligands labelled with technetium-99 m (99mTc) has been investigated. A multi-step synthesis afforded two target ligands with a tropane skeleton and a macrocyclic complexing moiety. The choice and the position of substituents are in adequation with dopamine transporter structure. The radiolabelling of these ligands with 99mTc has been studied and the results make them good candidates for SPECT imaging. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Characterization of conantokin Rl -A: molecular phylogeny as structure/function study

Konkallu H. Gowd
Abstract A multidisciplinary strategy for discovery of new Conus venom peptides combines molecular genetics and phylogenetics with peptide chemistry and neuropharmacology. Here we describe application of this approach to the conantokin family of conopeptides targeting NMDA receptors. A new conantokin from Conus rolani, ConRl -A, was identified using molecular phylogeny and subsequently synthesized and functionally characterized. ConRl -A is a 24-residue peptide containing three ,-carboxyglutamic acid residues with a number of unique sequence features compared to conantokins previously characterized. The HPLC elution of ConRl -A suggested that this peptide exists as two distinct, slowly exchanging conformers. ConRl -A is predominantly helical (estimated helicity of 50%), both in the presence and absence of Ca++. The order of potency for blocking the four NMDA receptor subtypes by ConRl -A was NR2B > NR2D > NR2A > NR2C. This peptide has a greater discrimination between NR2B and NR2C than any other ligand reported so far. In summary, ConRl -A is a new member of the conantokin family that expands our understanding of structure/function of this group of peptidic ligands targeted to NMDA receptors. Thus, incorporating phylogeny in the discovery of novel ligands for the given family of ion channels or receptors is an efficient means of exploring the megadiverse group of peptides from the genus Conus. Copyright © 2010 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Emerging views on tmRNA-mediated protein tagging and ribosome rescue

Reynald Gillet
Transfer- messenger RNA (tmRNA), also known as SsrA or 10Sa RNA, is a bacterial ribonucleic acid that recycles 70S ribosomes stalled on problematic messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and also contributes to the degradation of incompletely synthesized peptides. tmRNA acts initially as transfer RNA (tRNA), being aminoacylated at its 3,-end by alanyl-tRNA synthetase, to add alanine to the stalled polypeptide chain. Resumption of translation ensues not on the mRNA on which the ribosomes were stalled but at an internal position in tmRNA. Termination soon occurs, tmRNA recruiting the appropriate termination factors allowing the release of the tagged protein that is subsequently recognized and degraded by specific cytoplasmic and periplasmic proteases, and permits ribosome recycling. Recent data suggest that tmRNA tags bacterial proteins in three other instances; when ribosomes stall at internal sites; during ,readthrough' of canonical termination codons; and when ribosomes are at the termination codon of intact messages. The importance of bacterial tmRNAs for survival, growth under stress, and pathogenesis is also discussed. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies have identified novel ligands of tmRNA. Based on the available experimental evidences, an updated model of tmRNA mediated protein tagging and ribosome rescue in bacteria is presented. [source]

Indoloquinolizidine,Peptide Hybrids as Multiple Agonists for D1 and D2 Dopamine Receptors

CHEMMEDCHEM, Issue 9 2009
Marc Vendrell
Abstract Multiple-specificity ligands are considered promising pharmacological tools that may show higher efficacy in the treatment of diseases for which the modulation of a single target is therapeutically inadequate. We prepared a set of novel ligands for D1 and D2 dopamine receptors by combining two indolo[2,3- a]quinolizidine scaffolds with various tripeptide moieties. The binding and functional properties of these molecules were determined by radioligand binding studies in brain striatum membranes and by intracellular cAMP production assays in cells expressing different dopamine receptor subtypes. Some indoloquinolizidine,peptide hybrids, mainly with the trans configuration, showed dual agonist activity at both D1 and D2 dopamine receptors and may therefore be useful for testing the therapeutic potential of multivalent drugs on these targets. [source]