Novel Kind (novel + kind)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Development of spin-echo small-angle neutron scattering

W. G. Bouwman
A polarised neutron spin echo technique is used to build a novel kind of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrument. The basis of this instrument is a symmetric set-up with a spin flipper in the centre, which creates a spin echo, even with a divergent beam. The precession regions on either side of the spin flipper are shaped such as to produce a very sensitive relation between the vertical angle of the neutron path and the total precession angle. Any SANS of a sample placed in the instrument reduces the symmetry of the neutron path and therefore decreases the echo. Magnetised foils define the precession regions by rotating the neutron spin from being parallel to the magnetic field to perpendicular to the field, to start the precession. These foils and the flipper were built and tested. A spin echo SANS signal is measured with the complete set-up . It should be possible with this technique to measure within minutes a full correlation function in samples over distances from 5 to 1000 nm. [source]

Sintering Behavior of Gehlenite.

Macro-/Mesoporous Gehlenite, Mechanical, Microstructure, Part I: Self-Forming, Physical Properties, Pore-Forming Mechanism
A novel kind of pore self-forming macro-/mesoporous gehlenite (2CaOAl2O3SiO2) ceramic (abbreviated C2AS) having a highest porosity of 80% corresponding to a volume expansion of 134% during sintering has been developed. The pore self-forming ability, microstructure, mechanical, and thermal physical properties of the porous ceramic are related to the sintering temperature. The gehlenite ceramic shows a very good pore self-forming ability over a very wide range of temperature from 900 to 1450C. No vesicant is required and no hydrothermal treatment is needed, as is generally the case for other kinds of porous ceramics or glasses. The pore self-forming ability of the C2AS porous ceramic can be attributed to the escape of the adsorbed water vapor during the sintering process, due to automatic hydration of the fine, amorphous, flakey-shaped starting C2AS powder particles synthesized by the organic steric entrapment (PVA) method, as well as to their fine, porous microstructure. The pores of the ceramics can be either open or closed, and the average pore size ranges from 0.6 to 1.1 ,m, corresponding to a porosity of 75%,80%, respectively. The porous ceramic can preserve nanometer-sized (26,50 nm) crystallites up to 1000C. Sintered or thermally treated under different conditions, the porous ceramics exhibit relatively high flexural strengths ranging from 9.1 to 15.4 MPa, with a standard deviation of 0.3 and 4.2 MPa, respectively. Thermal properties of the porous ceramic up to 1000C, including thermal expansion coefficient, thermal diffusivity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity, were investigated, and the stability of the porous ceramic in boiling water was also studied. [source]

Water-Soluble Polymeric Thioxanthone Photoinitiator Containing Glucamine as Coinitiator

Xuesong Jiang
Abstract A novel kind of water-soluble polymeric photoinitiator was synthesized by introducing thioxanthone moieties and glucamine into the polymeric chain, as well as low-molecular weight model compounds. The photochemical and photophysical properties of these photoinitiators were studied. PTX-GA possesses a similar UV-vis absorption, weaker fluorescence emission and a shorter lifetime of the TX triplet state (,) as compared to TX-MGA and TX-PMAC/MDEA. ESR showed that in TX-PMAC/MDEA the smallest number of radicals is generated. Photopolymerization of arylamide and methylene bisacryamide initiated by these photoinitiators shows that PTX-GA is more effective than TX-MGA and TX-PMAC/MDEA. [source]

Love Me, Hurt Me, Heal Me,Isolde Healer and Isolde Lover in Gottfried's Tristan

Katja Altpeter-Jones
This article examines representations of women as healers and lovers in Gottfried's von Strassburg Tristan. I argue that Gottfried's casting of women,Queen Isolde, Isolde the Fair, and Tristan's mother Blanscheflur,as healers emphasizes notions of gender disparities that lie at the core of medico-scientific and literary depictions of lovesickness. Gottfried, however, in contrast to other authors whose names are associated with the Tristan and Isolde story, creates two Isoldes out of one. By carving the character of Queen Isolde out of Isolde the Fair, Gottfried ingeniously separates the hurtful and healing Queen Isolde from the lover, Isolde the Fair. In doing so, he abandons the tension that is constitutive of the depictions of unfulfilled love in Minnesang poetry where women are both adored and dreaded, bring both intense joy and unbearable misery, and carry the key to greatest physical wellbeing as well as to death. He is able, in turn, to create the experience of love,though still painful,as something based on parity and correspondence. Gottfried's subtle rewriting of the roles of Isolde the Fair and Queen Isolde especially with regard to their capacities as healers is, I argue, a key element in his conception of a novel kind of male-female relationship, commonly referred to by scholars as Tristanminne. [source]

Design of an Artificial Left Ventricular Muscle: An Innovative Way to Actuate Blood Pumps?

Benjamin Van Der Smissen
Abstract Blood pumps assist or take over the pump function of a failing heart. They are essentially activated by a pusher plate, a pneumatic compression of collapsible sacs, or they are driven by centrifugal pumps. Blood pumps relying upon one of these actuator mechanisms do not account for realistic wall deformation. In this study, we propose an innovative design of a blood pump actuator device which should be able to mimic fairly well global left ventricular (LV) wall deformation patterns in terms of circumferential and longitudinal contraction, as well as torsion. In order to reproduce these basic wall deformation patterns in our actuator device, we designed a novel kind of artificial LV "muscle" composed of multiple actively contracting cells. Its contraction is based on a mechanism by which pressurized air, inside such a cell, causes contraction in one direction and expansion perpendicular to this direction. The organization and geometry of the contractile cells within one artificial LV muscle, the applied pressure in the cells, and the governing LV loading conditions (preload and afterload) together determine the global deformation of the LV wall. Starting from a simple plastic bag, an experimental model based on the abovementioned principle was built and connected to a lumped hydraulic model of the vascular system (including compliance and resistance). The wall deformation pattern of this device was validated visually and its pump performance was studied in terms of LV volume and pressure and heart rate. Our experimental results revealed (i) a global LV motion resembling a real LV, and (ii) a close correlation between our model and a real LV in terms of end-systolic volume and pressure, end-diastolic volume and pressure, stroke volume, ejection fraction and pressure-volume relationship. Our proposed model appears promising and it can be considered as a step forward when compared to currently applied actuator mechanisms, as it will likely result in more physiological intracavity blood flow patterns. [source]

Four pedigrees of the cation-leaky hereditary stomatocytosis class presenting with pseudohyperkalaemia.

K+ leak in a xerocytic form, Novel profile of temperature dependence of Na+
Summary We report four pedigrees of the group of Na+,K+ -leaky red cell disorders of the ,hereditary stomatocytosis' class. Each showed pseudohyperkalaemia because of temperature-dependent loss of K+ from red cells on storage of whole blood at room temperature. All pedigrees showed an abnormality in the temperature dependence of the ,passive leak' of the membrane to K+. Two pedigrees, both of which showed a compensated haemolytic state with dehydrated red cells and target cells on the blood film, showed a novel pattern, in which the profile was flat between 37C and about 32C then dropped as the temperature was reduced to zero. The third showed the ,shallow slope' profile, with stomatocytes on the blood film and very markedly abnormal intracellular Na+ and K+ levels. Minimal haemolysis was present. The fourth pedigree, of Asian origin, showed the shoulder pattern (minimum at 32C, maximum at 12C) with essentially normal haematology. Both of these latter two forms have previously been seen in other pedigrees. The first variant represents a novel kind of temperature dependence of the passive leak found in these pedigrees presenting with pseudohyperkalaemia. [source]