Novel Immunotherapy (novel + immunotherapy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Chronic Intestinal Inflammation and Intestinal Disease in Dogs

A.J. German
Normal individuals maintain tolerance to the endogenous bacterial flora residing within their alimentary tract, a phenomenon mediated by the gastrointestinal lymphoid tissue. Loss of this tolerance is a key factor in the development of chronic intestinal inflammation. Manifestations of such uncontrolled inflammation in humans include inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease. Dogs may similarly be affected, and although the etiopathogenesis is likely similar, the lesions differ. This review includes discussion of the factors involved in breakdown of mucosal tolerance, the immunologic basis of canine enteropathies, and the use of novel immunotherapies for these diseases. [source]

1261: Pathophysiology and classification of uveitis

Purpose This talk will overview the pathophysiology of non-infectious uveitis in relation to recent SUN (standardised uveitis nomenclature) disease classification. Methods The experimental and translational human evidence of autoimmunity and activation of immunity will be discussed. In addition the talk will highlight the pathways and mechanisms of tissue damage that results in sight-threatening disease. Results Traditionally, despite active immune regulatory mechanisms operative within the ocular environment, inflammation still occurs. Activated antigen and non-antigen specific T cells are generated in uveitis. The interplay with innate immunity and in particular cells of myeloid lineage both systemically and within the local environment dictate the severity and extent of pathology we observe. Conclusion The understanding of immune responses during the uveitis open many avenues to potential novel immunotherapies that not only suppress inflammation but attempt to redress immune balance, tolerance and local homeostasis within ocular tissues. [source]

A novel immunotherapy for superficial bladder cancer by intravesical immobilization of GM-CSF

Zhiming Hu
Abstract In situ gene therapy with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was demonstrated to successfully inhibit tumour cell growth in a mouse orthotopic bladder cancer model, but suffered from several disadvantages, such as limited efficiency for gene delivery, low expression efficiency of the transgene and the safety concern resulting from viral vector. In order to address the limits, a novel immunotherapy was developed attentively through immobilization of streptavidin-tagged bioactive GM-CSF on the biotinylated mucosal surface of bladder wall on the basis of both the unique property of streptavidin (SA) to bind rapidly and almost irreversibly to any biotin-linked molecule and the outstanding ability of biotin to be incorporated easily into the proteins on the cell surface. The mouse orthotopic model of MB49 bladder cancer was used to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of the novel immunotherapy performed twice a week for 3 weeks. Briefly, 1 day after intravesical implantation of 1 106 MB49 tumour cells in C57BL/6 mouse, 100 ,l of 1 mg/ml NHS-PEO4-biotin was instilled and allowed to incubate in the bladder for 30 min., followed by intravesical instillation of 100 ,l of 0.15 mg/ml SA-GM-CSF bifunctional fusion protein and incubation for 1 hr. SA-GM-CSF fusion protein was shown to be immobilized efficiently and durably on the biotinylated mucosal surface of bladder wall. The bladder cancer incidence was dramatically decreased from 100% in the control group to 37.5% in the SA-GM-CSF group. Importantly, 70% of the SA-GM-CSF-cured mice were protected against a second intravesical wild-type MB49 tumour challenge, indicating that an effective anti-tumour immunity was generated against MB49 bladder cancer. Thus, the novel immunotherapy may be an attractive therapeutic alternative and should be evaluated in bladder cancer patients. [source]

Sentinel lymph node as a target of molecular diagnosis of lymphatic micrometastasis and local immunoresponse to malignant cells

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 3 2008
Hiroya Takeuchi
The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as the lymph node(s) first receiving lymphatic drainage from the site of the primary tumor. The histopathological status of SLN is one of the most significant predictors of recurrence and overall survival for most clinical stage I/II solid tumors. Recent progress in molecular techniques has demonstrated the presence of micrometastatic tumor cells in SLN. There is now a growing body of data to support the clinical relevance of SLN micrometastasis in a variety of solid tumors. Increasing the sensitivity of occult tumor cell detection in the SLN, using molecular-based analysis, should enable a more accurate understanding of the clinical significance of various patterns of micrometastatic nodal disease. The establishment of metastasis to SLN might not be simply reflected by the flow dynamics of lymphatic fluid that drains from the primary site to the SLN, and the transportation of viable cancer cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that primary tumors can actively induce lymphangiogenesis and promote SLN metastasis. Moreover chemokine receptors in tumor cells may facilitate organ-specific tumor metastasis in many human cancers and some experimental models. In contrast, recent clinical and preclinical studies regard SLN as the first lymphoid organ to respond to tumor antigenic stimulation. SLN dramatically show morphological, phenotypical and functional changes that indicate immune suppression by tumor cells. The immune suppression in SLN results in failure of prevention or eradication of tumor metastasis. The mechanism of immunomodulation remains unclear; however, several regulatory molecules produced by tumor cells and tumor-associated macrophages or lymphocytes are likely to be responsible for inducing the immune suppression in SLN. Further studies may develop a novel immunotherapy that overcomes tumor-induced immune suppression and can prevent or eradicate SLN metastasis. (Cancer Sci 2008; 99: 441,450) [source]

Expression and function of the ST2 gene in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation

K. Oshikawa
Summary Background We have recently reported that soluble ST2 protein levels are elevated in the sera of patients with asthma, and correlate well with the severity of asthma exacerbation. However, the role, function, and kinetics of soluble ST2 expression in asthma remain unclear. Objective The objective of the present study was to clarify the function and kinetics of soluble murine (m) ST2 expression in a murine asthma model. Methods We analyzed the kinetics of gene and protein expression of mST2 in sera or lung tissue after allergen (ovalbumin; OVA) challenge in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation, the effects of mST2 protein on OVA-induced Th2 cytokine production in vitro from splenocytes of sensitized mice, and the effects of soluble mST2 on Th2-dependent allergic airway inflammation by in vivo gene transfer of mST2. Results Serum mST2 protein levels increased to the maximal level 3 h after the allergen challenge, before serum IL-5 levels peaked. The mRNA expression of mST2 in lung tissue was induced after the allergen challenge, while that in the spleen was constitutively detected. Furthermore, pre-treatment with mST2 protein significantly inhibited the production of IL-4 and IL-5, but not IFN-,, from OVA-stimulated splenocytes in vitro, and intravenous mST2 gene transfer resulted in a drastic reduction in the number of eosinophils and in the levels of IL-4 and IL-5 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, compared with those in response to transfer of non-coding plasmid vector or of lipid alone. Conclusion These results suggest that increases in endogenous mST2 protein after allergen exposure may modulate Th2-mediated airway inflammation, and that in vivo gene transfer of mST2 can be applicable to use in a novel immunotherapy for allergic diseases. [source]