Novel

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Kinds of Novel

  • of novel
  • several novel
  • some novel
  • variety of novel

  • Terms modified by Novel

  • novel SNP
  • novel access
  • novel action
  • novel activity
  • novel adaptation
  • novel addition
  • novel agent
  • novel algorithm
  • novel algorithms
  • novel allele
  • novel alternative
  • novel analogue
  • novel analysis
  • novel analytical method
  • novel animal model
  • novel antibiotics
  • novel anticancer agent
  • novel antiepileptic drug
  • novel antigen
  • novel antimicrobial agent
  • novel antimicrobial peptide
  • novel application
  • novel approach
  • novel architecture
  • novel area
  • novel argument
  • novel aspect
  • novel association
  • novel autoantibody
  • novel avenue
  • novel b
  • novel behavior
  • novel binding mode
  • novel biomarker
  • novel biomaterial
  • novel biphasic calcium phosphate
  • novel bis
  • novel building block
  • novel c
  • novel c2
  • novel calix
  • novel candidate
  • novel case
  • novel catalyst
  • novel change
  • novel chiral
  • novel cis
  • novel clade
  • novel class
  • novel cluster
  • novel combination
  • novel complex
  • novel component
  • novel composite
  • novel compound
  • novel concept
  • novel copolymer
  • novel copper
  • novel cyclic
  • novel cytokine
  • novel data
  • novel deletion
  • novel deletion mutation
  • novel delivery system
  • novel derivative
  • novel design
  • novel development
  • novel device
  • novel diagnostic
  • novel diagnostic tool
  • novel domain
  • novel drug
  • novel drug target
  • novel ecosystem
  • novel effect
  • novel elisa system
  • novel entry
  • novel environment
  • novel enzyme
  • novel equation
  • novel event
  • novel evidence
  • novel example
  • novel expression
  • novel fabrication method
  • novel face
  • novel factor
  • novel family
  • novel feature
  • novel finding
  • novel fluorescent
  • novel fold
  • novel food
  • novel form
  • novel formation
  • novel formulation
  • novel frameshift mutation
  • novel framework
  • novel function
  • novel g
  • novel gene
  • novel genetic marker
  • novel group
  • novel habitat
  • novel heterocyclic compound
  • novel homozygous mutation
  • novel host
  • novel host plant
  • novel hosts
  • novel hybrid
  • novel hypothesis
  • novel idea
  • novel immunohistochemical marker
  • novel immunosuppressant
  • novel immunotherapy
  • novel index
  • novel influenza
  • novel information
  • novel inhibitor
  • novel initiator
  • novel insight
  • novel interaction
  • novel intervention
  • novel isoform
  • novel kind
  • novel lead
  • novel ligand
  • novel lineage
  • novel link
  • novel locus
  • novel manner
  • novel marker
  • novel material
  • novel mathematical model
  • novel mean
  • novel measure
  • novel mechanism
  • novel mediator
  • novel member
  • novel metabolite
  • novel method
  • novel methodology
  • novel methods
  • novel microsatellite marker
  • novel microstructure
  • novel missense mutation
  • novel mode
  • novel model
  • novel model system
  • novel modulator
  • novel molecular marker
  • novel molecular mechanism
  • novel molecular target
  • novel molecule
  • novel monomer
  • novel morphology
  • novel mouse gene
  • novel murine model
  • novel mutant
  • novel mutation
  • novel n
  • novel n1
  • novel nanocomposite
  • novel nanomaterial
  • novel neuropeptide
  • novel nonsense mutation
  • novel noun
  • novel object
  • novel observation
  • novel oncogene
  • novel ones
  • novel opportunity
  • novel option
  • novel organocatalyst
  • novel paradigm
  • novel parameter
  • novel pathogenic mechanism
  • novel pathway
  • novel pattern
  • novel peptide
  • novel perspective
  • novel pharmacological agent
  • novel pharmacological approach
  • novel phenomenoN
  • novel phenotype
  • novel pkc
  • novel platform
  • novel point mutation
  • novel poly
  • novel polymer
  • novel polymorphic microsatellite marker
  • novel polymorphism
  • novel polyurethane
  • novel population
  • novel possibility
  • novel precursor
  • novel prediction
  • novel predictor
  • novel presentation
  • novel probe
  • novel problem
  • novel procedure
  • novel process
  • novel product
  • novel products
  • novel prognostic factor
  • novel prognostic marker
  • novel property
  • novel protease
  • novel protein
  • novel protocol
  • novel pyrazolo
  • novel qtl
  • novel reaction
  • novel reagent
  • novel rearrangement
  • novel receptor
  • novel reduction
  • novel regions
  • novel regulator
  • novel representation
  • novel result
  • novel risk factor
  • novel role
  • novel route
  • novel ruthenium
  • novel scaffold
  • novel scheme
  • novel sensor
  • novel sequence
  • novel series
  • novel set
  • novel single
  • novel single nucleotide polymorphism
  • novel site
  • novel situation
  • novel solution
  • novel source
  • novel species
  • novel spiro
  • novel splice site mutation
  • novel stereoselective synthesis
  • novel stimulus
  • novel strain
  • novel strategy
  • novel structure
  • novel subfamily
  • novel subpopulation
  • novel substrate
  • novel subtype
  • novel support
  • novel synthesis
  • novel synthetic approach
  • novel synthetic method
  • novel synthetic route
  • novel synthetic strategy
  • novel system
  • novel target
  • novel technique
  • novel techniques
  • novel technology
  • novel test
  • novel therapeutic
  • novel therapeutic agent
  • novel therapeutic approach
  • novel therapeutic intervention
  • novel therapeutic option
  • novel therapeutic strategy
  • novel therapeutic target
  • novel therapeutics
  • novel therapy
  • novel three-component reaction
  • novel tool
  • novel translocation
  • novel treatment
  • novel treatment approach
  • novel treatment modality
  • novel treatment option
  • novel treatment strategy
  • novel type
  • novel use
  • novel vaccine
  • novel variant
  • novel variants
  • novel variation
  • novel version
  • novel view
  • novel way
  • novel word
  • novel zinc

  • Selected Abstracts


    Spin-lattice relaxation of spin- nuclei in solids containing diluted paramagnetic impurity centers.

    CONCEPTS IN MAGNETIC RESONANCE, Issue 1 2003

    Abstract Dynamic nuclear polarization of nuclei by means of paramagnetic electron spin locking (Hartmann-Hahn cross-polarization between paramagnetic electrons and nuclei, or NOVEL) is discussed. The theory is demonstrated by experiments executed at 2.4 and 9.6 GHz on a natural type Ib diamond. It is shown that the 13C polarization rate is independent of the microwave frequency, in agreement with theory. NOVEL polarization takes place only while the spin-locking pulse is on. The rate at which the nuclei are polarized is proportional to the electron polarization in the rotating frame. Therefore, the length of the spin-locking pulse is limited by the value of T1,(e), and because T1,(e) , T1(e) for diamond the effective NOVEL polarization rate of 13C nuclei is usually relatively low. A comparison between the relative effectiveness of 13C polarization rates between NOVEL and the solid-state effect is made for high and low paramagnetic impurity concentrations. The dependence of the 13C polarization rate on the paramagnetic impurity concentration has been determined for a suite of natural diamonds. 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson 19A: 44,49, 2003. [source]


    A NOVEL MULTIPLEX POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETECTION OF YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA, STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, AEROMONAS AND SALMONELLA FROM CHICKEN MEAT AND MILK SAMPLES

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 2 2010
    K. BALAKRISHNA
    ABSTRACT Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas and Salmonella are among the most important foodborne bacterial pathogens. The majority of human infections caused by all of these organisms are associated with ingestion of undercooked and contaminated meat, dairy products and water where in the secreted bacterial toxins lead to foodborne intoxications. We, here, report a new multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of these important foodborne bacterial pathogens. The mPCR targeted Ail and virF genes of Y. enterocolitica, nuc and entB genes of S. aureus, aerA and 16S rRNA genes of Aeromonas and invA, an invasion protein A gene of Salmonella. An internal amplification control designed to check the false negative reactions in mPCR was also included. This procedure could detect initial populations of 1,100 cfu/g or /mL within 24 h in experimentally spiked food and water samples. When evaluated on a total of 104 naturally occurring food samples, the mPCR detected two samples to contain S. aureus, one was identified to contain Y. enterocolitica and four samples were identified to contain Salmonella species individually. This was compared with the standard microbiological and biochemical identification procedures. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS All the microorganisms selected in this study are food and waterborne and contaminate a variety of food items. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and Aeromonas species are able to grow and multiply and secrete toxins even at low temperatures. The high throughput and cost-effective multiplex polymerase chain reaction method reported here could be a viable alternative for detection of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, S. aureus, Aeromonas and Salmonella from food and environmental samples. [source]


    A STUDY OF CHINESE-ORIGIN AND EUROPEAN-ORIGIN AUSTRALIAN CONSUMERS' TEXTURE PREFERENCES USING A NOVEL EXTRUDED PRODUCT

    JOURNAL OF SENSORY STUDIES, Issue 5 2001
    J.M. MURRAY
    ABSTRACT Diverse food choices and preferences are commonly observed between consumers cross-culturally, however, many aspects of these behavioral differences are not yet fully understood. In order to investigate cross-cultural texture preferences, six extruded snack samples, manufactured under different processing conditions to represent a range of textural characteristics were characterized by a trained panel using descriptive sensory analysis. In parallel, thirty-eight naive European-Origin and thirty-seven naive Chinese-Origin Australian consumers (t = 75) rated their preference for the snacks. The snacks were not representative of any snacks on the market and thus represented a " novel" product in both cultures. Additionally, consumers answered a simple questionnaire and completed the food neophobia scale. Results of descriptive analysis indicated significant differences (p,0.01) between the samples for 13 out of 15 descriptive attributes but no significant differences in preference were found between European-origin and Chinese-origin consumers. However, overall analysis of mean effects indicated that Chinese-origin consumers rated samples significantly higher than European-origin consumers (p,0.05), suggesting a cultural bias in the use of line scales. Gender did not influence texture preference, however, age significantly influenced preference for three of the samples (p,0.05) and analysis of mean effects also indicated differences in consumers' ratings which were related to age. Food neophobia classification did not influence preference, although many more Chinese-origin consumers (28) were classified as neophobic than were European-origin consumers (11). [source]


    PROTECTIVE ROLE OF A NOVEL ERYTHROCYTE-DERIVED DEPRESSING FACTOR ON BLOOD VESSELS OF RENOVASCULAR HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 5-6 2007
    Huan Pang
    SUMMARY 1We have isolated a novel human erythrocyte-derived depressing factor (EDDF) that has a significant antihypertensive effect in various rat models of hypertension. The aim of the present study was to examine the mechanisms of action of EDDF on vascular function in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) renovascular hypertensive rats. 2The EDDF was prepared from human erythrocytes. Experiments were performed in 18 male Wistar rats. The vascular ring perfusion assay and a two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscope (TMP) were used to evaluate the vascular contractile response. The effects of EDDF on phenylephrine (PE)- and noradrenaline (NA)-induced vascular contraction were evaluated in 2K1C hypertensive rats. The proliferation and DNA synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were determined using the [3H]-TdR (thymidine) incorporation and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Flow cytometry, reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction and western blots were used to measure cell cycle and apoptotic profiles, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-A expression and the activity of extracelluar signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2, as well as the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4. 3At 10,5 g/mL, EDDF significantly decreased the PE- and NA-induced hypertensive vascular contraction. In addition, EDDF inhibited DNA synthesis in primary VSMC from 2K1C rats. The mRNA expression of PDGF-A in VSMC was twofold higher in 2K1C rats compared with control rats, whereas EDDF significantly inhibited the increment in PDGF-A mRNA expression. In addition, EDDF inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and decreased the expression of cyclin D1 and CDK4; p21 (Cip1) levels were increased after treatment with EDDF. 4In conclusion, EDDF inhibits VSMC proliferation in 2K1C rats through G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. The effects may be mediated, in part, by enhanced expression of p21 (Cip1) and the inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and the expression of cyclin D1/CDK4 and PDGF-A. [source]


    Laser Lipolysis Using a Novel 1,064 nm Nd:YAG Laser

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 2 2006
    KAREN H. KIM MD
    BACKGROUND We studied the safety and efficacy of a 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser with a 300 ,m fiber for the reduction of small unwanted fat areas. METHODS Thirty subjects with focal areas of fat less than 100 cm3 were enrolled. Ten subjects were treated with laser lipolysis and had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and 3 months post-treatment. Ten subjects had laser lipolysis followed by biweekly treatments with the Tri-active system. The last group of 10 subjects served as control. Patients were seen at baseline, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 month follow-up visits. RESULTS Twenty-nine patients completed the study. Self-assessment evaluations reported an improvement of 37% at the 3-month follow-up visit. MRI demonstrated an average 17% reduction in fat volume. Smaller baseline volume areas, such as the submentum, showed better results, suggesting a dose-response relationship. The most common side effects were mild bruising and swelling resolving within 2 weeks. CONCLUSION Laser lipolysis using the 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser with 300 ,m fiber appears to be a very promising procedure that delivers good, reproducible results safely and effectively. The advantages include excellent patient tolerance, quick recovery time, as well as the benefit of dermal tightening. [source]


    Antipsychotic-induced weight gain

    DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM, Issue 5 2005
    A. J. Goudie
    Abstract:, Novel ,atypical' antipsychotic drugs represent a substantial improvement on older ,typical' drugs. However, clinical experience has shown that some, but not all, of these drugs can induce substantial weight gain. This interferes with compliance with drug taking and has expected effects on morbidity and mortality. In this review, we summarize current thinking on: (i) the extent to which different ,atypical' drugs induce weight gain; (ii) the possible roles of various neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in this adverse drug reaction; and (iii) the state of development of animal models in this area. We also outline major areas for future research. [source]


    Novel conjugate vaccine for the prevention of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis patients

    DRUG DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH, Issue 8 2007
    Kelly L. Matson
    Abstract The published literature evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of the polyvalent O-polysaccharide-toxin A conjugate vaccine is reviewed. Primary immunization followed by annual booster significantly reduced the incidence of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections (particularly mucoid phenotype strains) and extended time to infection. The findings reflected lower frequency of P. aeruginosa in sputum/throat cultures and preservation of lung function. Additionally, studies indicated higher binding affinity of vaccine-induced anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) compared with infection-induced anti-LPS serum immunoglobulin G antibodies, suggesting protective capacity. P. aeruginosa prophylaxis with the conjugate vaccine in cystic fibrosis patients has proved safe and useful in preventing and delaying chronic lung infection. Drug Dev Res 68:512,521, 2007. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Novel coupling Rosenbrock-based algorithms for real-time dynamic substructure testing

    EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 3 2008
    O. S. Bursi
    Abstract Real-time testing with dynamic substructuring is a novel experimental technique capable of assessing the behaviour of structures subjected to dynamic loadings including earthquakes. The technique involves recreating the dynamics of the entire structure by combining an experimental test piece consisting of part of the structure with a numerical model simulating the remainder of the structure. These substructures interact in real time to emulate the behaviour of the entire structure. Time integration is the most versatile method for analysing the general case of linear and non-linear semi-discretized equations of motion. In this paper we propose for substructure testing, L-stable real-time (LSRT) compatible integrators with two and three stages derived from the Rosenbrock methods. These algorithms are unconditionally stable for uncoupled problems and entail a moderate computational cost for real-time performance. They can also effectively deal with stiff problems, i.e. complex emulated structures for which solutions can change on a time scale that is very short compared with the interval of time integration, but where the solution of interest changes on a much longer time scale. Stability conditions of the coupled substructures are analysed by means of the zero-stability approach, and the accuracy of the novel algorithms in the coupled case is assessed in both the unforced and forced conditions. LSRT algorithms are shown to be more competitive than popular Runge,Kutta methods in terms of stability, accuracy and ease of implementation. Numerical simulations and real-time substructure tests are used to demonstrate the favourable properties of the proposed algorithms. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Local Dysfunction and Asymmetrical Deformation of Mitral Annular Geometry in Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation: A Novel Computerized 3D Echocardiographic Analysis

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2008
    Masao Daimon M.D.
    Objective: Most studies of the pathogenesis of functional mitral regurgitation (MR) have focused on alterations in ventricular function and geometry. We used a novel 3D echocardiographic method to assess abnormalities in mitral annular (MA) geometry and motion in patients with ischemic MR (IMR) and compared these data to those obtained from normal subjects and from patients with MR caused by dilated cardiomyopathy (DMR). Methods: Real time 3D echo was performed in 12 normal subjects, 25 with IMR, and 14 with DMR. Eight points along the saddle-shaped MA were identified using our software at systole and diastole. From these eight points, four annular diameters at each cardiac phase were determined. Annular motion was assessed by measuring local displacement (LD) of a given point between systole and diastole. Results: Annular motion was different between groups: IMR had smaller LD in posterior MA segments than did normals (2.6 1.1 vs 4.8 1.9 mm, P < 0.01), while DMR had globally reduced LD. In IMR systolic MA dilatation was striking in the anterior,posterior (diameter; IMR vs controls, 28.3 3.5 vs 22.5 2.2 mm, P< 0.05) and anterolateral,posteromedial (31.7 3.5 vs 25.1 2.2 mm, P < 0.05) directions; in IMR, systolic MA diameters in these two directions correlated with MR severity(P = 0.02). MA dilatation occurred globally in DMR. Conclusion: This novel 3D echo method demonstrated that MA motion and dilatation were asymmetric in IMR and symmetric in DMR. These differences in MA geometry and motion may aid in the development of distinct new therapies for IMR and DMR. [source]


    Elimination Procedure as a Novel and Promising Mathematical Approach in Voltammetric Methods

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 17-18 2010
    Nuria Serrano
    Abstract In the contribution, it has been demonstrated that Elimination Voltammetry with Linear Scan (EVLS) introduces an enhancement of the linear sweep and/or cyclic voltammetric results, and provides information about the type of the currents involved in the considered process. An extension of EVLS has been developed for any combination of scan rates (integers) for six elimination functions that are capable of conserving or eliminating of some voltammetric current components. Simple procedure to obtain the necessary coefficients from the chosen scan rates has been reported. In addition, the calculation and discussion of the relative error of elimination function (REEF) have been presented. The verification of the presented calculations has been done by studying different ratios of scan rates for reduction and oxidation processes of Cd(II) at a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). [source]


    Novel, Sensitive Voltammetric Methods for Titanium Determination Using Chromotropic Acid and Azo-Compounds as Complexing Agents

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 12 2003
    Marcin Gawrys
    Abstract Voltammetric behavior of titanium(IV) complexes with chromotropic acid, its azo-derivatives: 2-(4-sulfophenylazo)-1,8-dihydroxy-3,6-naphthalenedisulfonic acid (SPANDS), chromotrope 2B, sulfonazo III and other azo-compounds: calmagite, tropeoline O and kalces was investigated at a hanging mercury drop electrode. These complexes strongly adsorb onto the electrode, thus can be determined by an adsorptive stripping voltammetry (optimal pH about 6). At pH about 3 reduction current enhancement for Ti-kalces complex was observed in the presence of chlorate ions. It is a rare example of a catalytic process with azo-compound as a complexing agent. Signal for Fe-calmagite complex reduction was also observed. Influence of foreign ions and the optimal conditions for titanium determination are described in detail. Additionally, a connection between obtained results and a structure of titanium complexes is discussed. [source]


    Novel negatively charged tentacle-type polymer coating for on-line preconcentration of proteins in CE

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 4 2009
    Liang Xu
    Abstract A novel negatively charged tentacle-type polymer-coated capillary column was fabricated and applied for on-line extraction and preconcentration of proteins. The polymer coating was prepared by glycidyl-methacrylate graft polymerization in a silanized capillary column and the following sulfonic acid group functionalization. It had high surface area and offered high phase ratio for protein adsorption. In addition, the polymer-coated capillary column provided more stable EOF than a bare uncoated capillary. These features of the polymer coating facilitated the extraction of proteins through electrostatic interactions. This was used to extract proteins. The extracted analytes were then desorbed and focused by EOF in the direction opposite to the sample injection flow for subsequent CE. With this procedure, over 1500-fold sensitivity enhancement was realized for myoglobin (MB) as compared with a normal capillary zone electrophoresis. By comparison of the peak areas of the enriched protein, it was found that the polymer-coated column could capture proteins about 30 times more than the uncoated column. In addition, the separation of a protein mixture containing 0.4,,g/mL of MB and 0.4,,g/mL of insulin was demonstrated by the on-line preconcentration and electrophoretic separation with the polymer-coated column. [source]


    Data processing in metabolic fingerprinting by CE-UV: Application to urine samples from autistic children

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 6 2007
    Ana C. Soria
    Abstract Metabolic fingerprinting of biofluids such as urine can be used to detect and analyse differences between individuals. However, before pattern recognition methods can be utilised for classification, preprocessing techniques for the denoising, baseline removal, normalisation and alignment of electropherograms must be applied. Here a MEKC method using diode array detection has been used for high-resolution separation of both charged and neutral metabolites. Novel and generic algorithms have been developed for use prior to multivariate data analysis. Alignment is achieved by combining the use of reference peaks with a method that uses information from multiple wavelengths to align electropherograms to a reference signal. This metabolic fingerprinting approach by MEKC has been applied for the first time to urine samples from autistic and control children in a nontargeted and unbiased search for markers for autism. Although no biomarkers for autism could be determined using MEKC data here, the general approach presented could also be applied to the processing of other data collected by CE with UV,Vis detection. [source]


    In situ lateral transfer of symbiosis islands results in rapid evolution of diverse competitive strains of mesorhizobia suboptimal in symbiotic nitrogen fixation on the pasture legume Biserrula pelecinus L.

    ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 10 2007
    Kemanthi G. Nandasena
    Summary The multi-billion dollar asset attributed to symbiotic nitrogen fixation is often threatened by the nodulation of legumes by rhizobia that are ineffective or poorly effective in N2 fixation. This study investigated the development of rhizobial diversity for the pasture legume Biserrula pelecinus L., 6 years after its introduction, and inoculation with Mesorhizobium ciceri bv. biserrulae strain WSM1271, to Western Australia. Molecular fingerprinting of 88 nodule isolates indicated seven were distinctive. Two of these were ineffective while five were poorly effective in N2 fixation on B. pelecinus. Three novel isolates had wider host ranges for nodulation than WSM1271, and four had distinct carbon utilization patterns. Novel isolates were identified as Mesorhizobium sp. using 16S rRNA, dnaK and GSII phylogenies. In a second study, a large number of nodules were collected from commercially grown B. pelecinus from a broader geographical area. These plants were originally inoculated with M. c bv. biserrulae WSM1497 5,6 years prior to isolation of strains for this study. Nearly 50% of isolates from these nodules had distinct molecular fingerprints. At two sites diverse strains dominated nodule occupancy indicating recently evolved strains are highly competitive. All isolates tested were less effective and six were ineffective in N2 fixation. Twelve randomly selected diverse isolates clustered together, based on dnaK sequences, within Mesorhizobium and distantly to M. c bv. biserrulae. All 12 had identical sequences for the symbiosis island insertion region with WSM1497. This study shows the rapid evolution of competitive, yet suboptimal strains for N2 fixation on B. pelecinus following the lateral transfer of a symbiosis island from inoculants to other soil bacteria. [source]


    Internal Capital Markets and Capital Structure: Bank Versus Internal Debt

    EUROPEAN FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, Issue 3 2010
    Nico Dewaelheyns
    G32; G21 Abstract We argue that domestic business groups are able to actively optimise the internal/external debt mix across their subsidiaries. Novel to the literature, we use bi-level data (i.e. data from both individual subsidiary financial statements and consolidated group level financial statements) to model the bank and internal debt concentration of non-financial Belgian private business group affiliates. As a benchmark, we construct a size and industry matched sample of non-group affiliated (stand-alone) companies. We find support for a pecking order of internal debt over bank debt at the subsidiary level which leads to a substantially lower bank debt concentration for group affiliates as compared to stand-alone companies. The internal debt concentration of a subsidiary is mainly driven by the characteristics of the group's internal capital market. The larger its available resources, the more intra-group debt is used while bank debt financing at the subsidiary level decreases. However, as the group's overall debt level mounts, groups increasingly locate bank borrowing in subsidiaries with low costs of external financing (i.e. large subsidiaries with important collateral assets) to limit moral hazard and dissipative costs. Overall, our results are consistent with the existence of a complex group wide optimisation process of financing costs. [source]


    Synthesis, Structure, Conductivity, and Calculated Nonlinear Optical Properties of Two Novel Bis(triphenylphosphane)copper(I) Dithiocarbamates,

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 18 2009
    Abhinav Kumar
    Abstract A centrosymmetric binuclear [{Cu(PPh3)2}2(piperzdtc)] (1) [piperzdtc2, = piperazinebis(dithiocarbamate)] and another mononuclear [{Cu(PPh3)2}(BzMedtc)] (2) (BzMedtc, = N -benzyl- N -methyldithiocarbamate) complex have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR spectroscopy and by X-ray crystallography. The nonlinear optical properties of 2 have been investigated by density functional theory and its electronic absorption bands have been assigned by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). Both complexes are weakly conducting (,rt , 10,8 S,cm,1) because of the absence of MS/SS intermolecular stacking and exhibit semiconductivity with band gaps of 0.94 and 1.24 eV, respectively.( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2009) [source]


    Novel (3,4)- and (4,5)-Connected Lanthanide Metal,Organic Frameworks

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 1 2008
    Xian-Wen Wang
    Abstract The three-dimensional lanthanide noninterpenetrating metal,organic frameworks formulated as [Ln(3,5-pdc)(C2O4)0.5(H2O)2]H2O (Ln = LuIII, GdIII, TmIII and YbIII for complex 1,4, respectively; 3,5-pdc = 3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate) were synthesized by hydrothermal reactions of 3,5-H2pdc with lanthanide oxide and perchloric acid. Compound 1 shows (3,4)-connected (4.82)(4.85) dmc-type topological network, and complexes 2,4 display the novel (4,5)-connected (44.6.8)(44.62.84) xww-type topology. The lanthanide-mediated transformation of CO2 to oxalate under hydrothermal conditions was observed. The fluorescence properties of complexes 1,4 were investigated. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2008) [source]


    Novel 1,2-Dicarba- closo -dodecaborane(12) Derivatives of Selenium

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 2 2007
    Bernd Wrackmeyer
    Abstract Lithiation of 1,2-dicarba- closo -dodecaborane(12) (1) followed by insertion of selenium into both C,Li bonds leads to the 1,2-diselenolato-1,2-dicarba- closo -dodecaborane(12) dianion (3), which is converted by oxidative coupling into the cyclic eight-membered bis(diselane) 4 with annellated carborane moieties. Oxidative addition of 4 to ethenebis(triphenylphosphane)platinum(0) gives the bis(triphenylphosphane)platinum(II) complex 7, which contains a chelating 1,2-diselenolato-1,2-dicarba- closo -dodecaborane(12) ligand, by symmetric cleavage of the eight-membered ring in 4 and displacement of ethene. The molecular structures of 4 and 7 were determined by X-ray analysis. The solution-state structures of the new compounds are supported by multinuclear NMR data (1H, 11B, 13C, 29Si, 31P, 77Se, 195Pt). ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2007) [source]


    Synthesis and Characterization of Two Novel, Mono-Lacunary Dawson Polyoxometalate-Based, Water-Soluble Organometallic Ruthenium(II) Complexes: Molecular Structure of [{(C6H6)Ru(H2O)}(,2 -P2W17O61)]8,

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 1 2006
    Yoshitaka Sakai
    Abstract The synthesis and structural characterization of a novel class of mono-lacunary Dawson polyoxometalate-(POM-)based, water-soluble organometallic complexes, which are expected to be effective homogeneous oxidation catalyst precursors in water, is described. The organometallic complexes K8[{(C6H6)Ru(H2O)}(,2 -P2W17O61)]12H2O (1) and K8[{(p -cymene)Ru(H2O)}(,2 -P2W17O61)]16H2O (2) were successfully prepared by direct reactions of the mono-lacunary Dawson POM K10[,2 -P2W17O61]19H2O with the organometallic precursors [(C6H6)RuCl2]2 and [(p -cymene)RuCl2]2, respectively, in aqueous media and characterized by complete elemental analysis, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG/DTA), and FT-IR and solution (1H, 13C, 31P, and 183W) NMR spectroscopy. The molecular structure of [{(C6H6)Ru(H2O)}(,2 -P2W17O61)]8, (1a), in which the binding of the cationic organometallic group {(C6H6)Ru(H2O)}2+ occurs through two oxygen atoms of the four available oxygen atoms in the mono-lacunary site of the POM, resulting in overall C1 symmetry, was successfully determined by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Interestingly, the hydrophilicity of the organometallic precursors is greatly enhanced by binding to a mono-lacunary Dawson POM with higher hydrophilicity. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]


    Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Magnetic Properties of Mn2(OH)2SO4: A Novel Layered Hydroxide

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 11 2004
    Mohsen Ben Salah
    Abstract Mn2(OH)2SO4, obtained as pink prismatic crystals by the hydrothermal reaction of MnSO4H2O and NaOH at 240 C for 24 h, consists of layers of Mn hydroxide connected to each other through 6 -sulfate ions. Each layer exhibits vacancies, and each vacant space is capped at the top and bottom by the sulfate groups. The compound is paramagnetic above 50 K (C = 4.36 emu K mol,1, eff = 5.91 B, , = ,100 K). Below 45 K, the magnetization increases slightly, indicating canted-antiferromagnetic (TNel = 421 K) behavior consistent with the linear dependence of the magnetization as a function of the field at 2 K, which reaches only 0.4 B at 50 kOe, and the lack of any imaginary component of the ac-susceptibilities (ac = alternating current). ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2004) [source]


    Synthesis, Structures and Reactions of Novel 9,10-Dihydro-9,10-distannaanthracenes

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 4 2004
    Masaichi Saito
    Abstract A method for the synthesis of 9,10-dihydro-9,10-distannaanthracenes has been improved and applied to the synthesis of novel unsymmetrical 9,10-dihydro-9,10-distannaanthracenes. The first 9,9,10,10-tetrahalo-9,10-dihydro-9,10-distannaanthracenes were successfully synthesized by halogenation of 9,9,10,10-tetrakis(p -methoxyphenyl)-9,10-dihydro-9,10-distannaanthracene. The structures of the newly obtained 9,10-dihydro-9,10-distannaanthracenes were determined by X-ray analysis. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2004) [source]


    Facile Synthesis of Selenium-Containing Bicyclic ,-Lactams through Enyne Metathesis

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 14 2010
    Deepali B. Bankar
    Abstract Novel selenium-containing bicyclic ,-lactams were obtained through stereoselective insertion of (but-3-enyl)seleno and propargylseleno moieties at the C(4) positions of azetidinones with subsequent ring-closing enyne metathesis. [source]


    A Novel, Highly Efficient, One-Pot Synthesis of 1,4-Dihydroquinoline Derivatives in the Presence of a Pd(OAc)2/DABCO Catalytic System

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 29 2009
    Xiao-Jin Wu
    Abstract The Pd(OAc)2/DABCO catalytic system was first found to be highly efficient for C,N cross-coupling reactions. With the aid of this transformation, a variety of new 1,4-dihydroquinoline derivatives were synthesized from o -halobenzaldehydes and various ,-enaminones in good to excellent yields. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2009) [source]


    Novel and Efficient Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of D -Glucose 6-Phosphate and Molecular Modeling Studies on the Selective Biocatalysis

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 17 2007
    Tatiana Rodrguez-Prez
    Abstract A concise chemoenzymatic synthesis of glucose 6-phosphate is described. Candida rugosa lipase was found to be an efficient catalyst for both regio- and stereoselective deacetylation of the primary hydroxy group in the peracetylated D -glucose. In addition, we report an improved synthesis of 1,2,3,4,6-penta- O -acetyl-,- D -glucopyranose providing a large-scale procedure for the acetylation of ,- D -glucose without isomerization at the anomeric center. The high overall yield and the easy scalability makes this chemoenzymatic strategy attractive for industrial application. Furthermore, molecular modeling of phosphonate transition-state analog for the enzymatic hydrolysis step supports the substrate selectivity observed with Candida rugosa lipase.( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2007) [source]


    A Novel Bis(zinc,porphyrin),Oxoporphyrinogen Donor,Acceptor Triad: Synthesis, Electrochemical, Computational and Photochemical Studies

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2006
    Jonathan P. Hill
    Abstract The first example of a porphyrin-quinonoid donor,acceptor triad featuring (tetraphenylporphinato)zinc(II) moieties covalently attached to an oxoporphyrinogen through its macrocyclic nitrogen atoms is reported. This arrangement of chromophores results in an interesting interplay between the electron-donating zinc,porphyrin(s) and the electron/energy accepting oxoporphyrinogen. The optical absorption of the triad reveals features corresponding to both the donor and acceptor entities. The geometry and electronic structure of the triad deduced from B3LYP/3-21G(*) calculations reveal an absence of inter-chromophoric interactions and localization of the HOMO on one zinc,porphyrin group and the LUMO on the oxoporphyrinogen scaffold. The electrochemical redox states of the triad were established from a comparative electrochemistry of the triad and the reference compounds. Both steady-state and time-resolved emission studies revealed quenching of the singlet excited state of zinc,porphyrin in the triad, and the free-energy calculations performed using Weller's approach indicate the possibility of electron transfer from the singlet excited zinc,porphyrin group to the oxoporphyrinogen in polar solvents. Time-resolved fluorescence studies reveal excited state energy transfer from zinc,porphyrin to oxoporphyrinogen in nonpolar solvents, while nanosecond transient absorption studies combined with time-resolved fluorescence studies in polar solvents are indicative of the occurrence of photoinduced charge separation from the singlet excited zinc,porphyrin to the oxoporphyrinogen. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]


    An Efficient Synthesis of Novel ,-Aminophosphonates Based on a Mannich-Type Reaction

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 2 2005
    Nikolaus Risch
    Abstract Phosphonate-substituted iminium salt 2 was used in Mannich reactions with various nucleophiles to obtain novel ,-aminophosphonates. This straightforward and efficient methodology has a broad scope and provides highly functionalized Mannich bases (4 and 8). Furthermore, vinylic, aromatic and homoallylic ,-aminophosphonates (5, 10 and 12) were synthesized in good yields. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2005) [source]


    Novel ,-carboxyglutamic acid-containing peptides from the venom of Conus textile

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 12 2006
    Eva Czerwiec
    The cone snail is the only invertebrate system in which the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase (or ,-carboxylase) and its product ,-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) have been identified. It remains the sole source of structural information of invertebrate ,-carboxylase substrates. Four novel Gla-containing peptides were purified from the venom of Conus textile and characterized using biochemical methods and mass spectrometry. The peptides Gla(1),TxVI, Gla(2),TxVI/A, Gla(2),TxVI/B and Gla(3),TxVI each have six Cys residues and belong to the O -superfamily of conotoxins. All four conopeptides contain 4- trans -hydroxyproline and the unusual amino acid 6- l -bromotryptophan. Gla(2),TxVI/A and Gla(2),TxVI/B are isoforms with an amidated C-terminus that differ at positions +1 and +13. Three isoforms of Gla(3),TxVI were observed that differ at position +7: Gla(3),TxVI, Glu7,Gla(3),TxVI and Asp7-Gla(3),TxVI. The cDNAs encoding the precursors of the four peptides were cloned. The predicted signal sequences (amino acids ,46 to ,27) were nearly identical and highly hydrophobic. The predicted propeptide region (,20 to ,1) that contains the ,-carboxylation recognition site (,-CRS) is very similar in Gla(2),TxVI/A, Gla(2),TxVI/B and Gla(3),TxVI, but is more divergent for Gla(1),TxVI. Kinetic studies utilizing the Conus,-carboxylase and synthetic peptide substrates localized the ,-CRS of Gla(1),TxVI to the region ,14 to ,1 of the polypeptide precursor: the Km was reduced from 1.8 mm for Gla (1),TxVI lacking a propeptide to 24 m when a 14-residue propeptide was attached to the substrate. Similarly, addition of an 18-residue propeptide to Gla(2),TxVI/B reduced the Km value tenfold. [source]


    Novel ,-1,3-, 1,6-oligoglucan elicitor from Alternaria alternata 102 for defense responses in tobacco

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 11 2006
    Tomonori Shinya
    A novel elicitor that induces chitinases in tobacco BY-2 cells was isolated from Alternaria alternata 102. Six other fungi, including A. alternata IFO 6587, could not induce, or weakly induce chitinase activity. The purified elicitor was soluble in 75% methanol and showed the chitinase-inducing activity when applied at concentrations of as low as 25 ngmL,1. Structural determination by methylation analysis, reducing-end analysis, MALDI-TOF/MS, and NMR spectroscopy indicated that the elicitor was a mixture of ,-1,3-, 1,6-oligoglucans mostly with a degree of polymerization of between 8 and 17. Periodate oxidation of the elicitor suggested that the 1,6-linked and nonreducing terminal residues are essential for the elicitor activity. Further analysis of the elicitor responses in BY-2 cells indicated that the activity of this ,-1,3-, 1,6-glucan elicitor was about 1000 times more potent than that of laminarin, which is a known elicitor of defense responses in tobacco. Analyzing the expression of defense-related genes indicated that a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene and a coumaroyl-CoA O -methyltransferase gene were transiently expressed by this ,-1,3-, 1,6-glucan elicitor. The elicitor induced a weak oxidative burst but did not induce cell death in the BY-2 cells. In the tissue of tobacco plants, this ,-1,3-, 1,6-glucan elicitor induced the expression of basic PR-3 genes, the phenylpropanoid pathway genes, and the sesquiterpenoid pathway genes. In comparison with laminarin and laminarin sulfate, which are reported to be potent elicitors of defense responses in tobacco, the expression pattern of genes induced by the purified ,-1,3-, 1,6-glucan elicitor was more similar to that induced by laminarin than to that induced by laminarin sulfate. [source]


    Novel polyunsaturated n -alkenes in the marine diatom Rhizosolenia setigera

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 18 2000
    Jaap S. Sinninghe Damst
    Four previously unknown n -C25 and n -C27 heptaenes of the marine diatom Rhizosolenia setigera were isolated and identified using NMR spectroscopy. They possess six methylene interrupted (Z)-double bonds starting at C-3 and an additional terminal or n -2 (Z)-double bond. Structural and stable carbon isotopic evidence suggests that these polyenes are biosynthesized by chain elongation of the C22:6n -3 fatty acid, followed by decarboxylation and introduction of double bonds at specific positions. [source]


    Preparation of Uniform, Water-Soluble, and Multifunctional Nanocomposites with Tunable Sizes

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 5 2010
    Dechao Niu
    Abstract Novel, thiol-functionalized, and superparamagnetic, silica composite nanospheres (SH-SSCNs) with diameters smaller than 100,nm are successfully fabricated through the self-assembly of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and polystyrene100 - block -poly(acrylic acid)16 and a subsequent sol-gel process. The size and magnetic properties of the SH-SSCNs can be easily tuned by simply varying the initial concentrations of the magnetite nanoparticles in the oil phase. By incorporating fluorescent dye molecules into the silica network, the composite nanospheres can be further fluorescent-functionalized. The toxicity of the SH-SSCNs is evaluated by choosing three typical cell lines (HUVEC, RAW264.7, and A549) as model cells, and no toxic effects are observed. It is also demonstrated that SH-SSCNs can be used as a new class of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probes, having a remarkably high spin,spin (T2) relaxivity (r2*,=,176.1,mM,1 S,1). The combination of the sub-100-nm particle size, monodispersity in aqueous solution, superparamagnetism, and fluorescent properties of the SH-SSCNs, as well as the non-cytotoxicity in vitro, provides a novel and potential candidate for an earlier MRI diagnostic method of cancer. [source]