North India (north + india)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences


Selected Abstracts


Development without Institutions: Ersatz Medicine and the Politics of Everyday Life in Rural North India

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
Sarah Pinto
In north India, unregulated medical practice is considered by many to be a sign of the failure of institutional rationality and "backward" quality of rural life. However, the work of self-made doctors can also be seen to engage key elements of institutional rationality as it is interwoven with the structure and ethos of development. This article explores what these practitioners and their work suggest about the imagination of institutions in rural India and the kinds of power this invokes. Through mimesis of key practices (namely, forms of talk and use of injections), self-made doctors tap into the authority of legitimate institutions to occupy lacunae in state health structures and redress (even as they reproduce) effects of privatization and repeated temporary health measures. At the same time, everyday elements of these practices demonstrate that institutional legitimacy can only be borrowed by those already in positions of authority (on the basis of caste status and political leadership), challenging ideals of equality that underlie health-related development efforts. [source]


,Who is the Developed Woman?': Women as a Category of Development Discourse, Kumaon, India

DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE, Issue 1 2004
Rebecca M. Klenk
This article analyses gendered discourses of development in rural North India, and addresses the usefulness of recent scholarship on development as ,discourse' for understanding connections between development and subjectivity. This scholarship is an excellent point of departure for exploring the contradictions inherent in the institutionalization of economic development and the global reach of its discourses, but it has focused primarily upon development as discourse at official sites of deployment, while paying less attention to how specific discourses and processes of development are appropriated by those constituted as beneficiaries of development. The under-theorization of this aspect has meant that the range of processes through which development projects may encourage new subject positions are poorly understood. By investigating what some women in rural Kumaon have made of their own development, this article contributes to emerging scholarship on development and subjectivity with an ethnographic analysis of the polysemic enthusiasm for development expressed by some of its ,beneficiaries'. [source]


Languages as Women: The Feminisation of Linguistic Discourses in Colonial North India

GENDER & HISTORY, Issue 2 2009
Asha Sarangi
This article locates and analyses the gendered discourses of Hindi and Urdu linguistic identity in late nineteenth-century colonial north India. Using a new concept of language woman, it characterises the multiple discourses of feminisation through three distinctive terms of linguistic femininity, linguistic morality and linguistic patriarchy. These three modes of representation and articulation of feminised discourses over Hindi and Urdu languages are explored using the concept of heteronormativity as a political, ideological and social,cultural construct. The paper argues that language woman established an intimate bond between nationalisation and feminisation of the dominant Hindi linguistic identity in private and public domains as not mutually opposed but complementary and reproducible of each other. [source]


BRCA1 and BRCA2 in Indian breast cancer patients,,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 6 2002
Sunita Saxena
Abstract Incidence of breast cancer in Indian women is not as high as in Western countries, nonetheless age-adjusted incidence rates (AAR) have risen from 17.9 to 24.9 per 100,000 from 1965 to 1985. Although these rates are still approximately one quarter to one third of incidence rates in North America and Europe, respectively, due to the large population of women at risk, nearly 80,000 new cases were diagnosed in India in 2000. Although identification of BRCA1 and BRCA2 has greatly increased our understanding of breast cancer genetics in populations of Western European descent, the role of these genes in Indian populations remains unexplored. Analysis of a series of 20 breast cancer patients from North India with either family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer (2 or more affected first degree relatives) or early age of onset (<35 years) led to identification of two novel splice variants (331+1G>T; 4476+2T>C) in BRCA1 (10%). In addition, two BRCA2 missense variants were each identified in more than one patient (two unrelated individuals each) and likely represent population-specific polymorphisms. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Distribution of CCR2 polymorphism in HIV-1-infected and healthy subjects in North India

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF IMMUNOGENETICS, Issue 3 2007
G. Kaur
Summary Substitution of V64I in CCR2 relates to delayed progression to AIDS and protects against HIV-1 infection. We examined the distribution of V64I in HIV-infected and healthy North Indian subjects. No significant difference in the allele or genotype distribution of CCR2 V64I polymorphism was observed, indicating that there is no association between CCR2 V64I polymorphism and susceptibility to HIV infection in North Indian population. [source]


Stature Estimation from Foot Length Using Universal Regression Formula in a North Indian Population

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 1 2010
D.F.M., Tanuj Kanchan M.D.
Abstract:, Stature is a significant parameter in establishing identity of an unknown. Conventionally, researchers derive regression formula separately for males and females. Sex, however, may not always be determined accurately, particularly in dismembered remains and thus the need for a universal regression formula for stature estimation irrespective of sex of an individual. The study was carried out in an endogamous group of North India to compare the accuracy of sex-specific regression models for stature estimation from foot length with the models derived when the sex was presumed as unknown. The study reveals that regression equation derived for the latter can estimate stature with reasonable accuracy. Thus, stature can be estimated accurately from foot length by regression analysis even when sex remains unknown. [source]


Prevalence of celiac disease among school children in Punjab, North India

JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, Issue 10 2006
Ajit Sood
Abstract Background:, Celiac disease, as of today, is said to exist in almost all parts of the world, although it is rare among people of purely African,Caribbean, Japanese and Chinese background. The disease has also been considered uncommon in India until recently. Hospital records have revealed an increasing trend of the disease in predominantly wheat-eating areas of North India. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of celiac disease among school children in Punjab, North India. Methods:, The study was carried out in the Ludhiana district of Punjab, Northern India. A total of 4347 children aged 3,17 years attending different schools were enrolled. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data and symptoms and signs related to celiac disease and various sociodemographic factors. The screening for celiac disease for the suspected celiacs was done by testing for antitissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) by indirect solid-phase immunometric assay (ELISA). All children with high anti-tTG whose parents consented underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for small bowel biopsy from the second part of the duodenum. Histopathology was expressed according to the Marsh classification of 1992. Follow up was carried out among children who were put on a gluten-restricted diet, at monthly intervals for 3 months and every 3 months thereafter. The diagnosis of celiac disease was established on the basis of the revised European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterologists and Nutritionists (ESPGAN) criteria (confirmed cases). Results:, A total of 4347 school children (1967 girls, 2380 boys, age range 3,17 years) were screened for celiac disease. Out of these, 198 suspected children were identified for further evaluation. Twenty-one children tested positive for anti-tTG assay (10.6%, 95% confidence interval: 16.91,34.79). Seventeen of these 21 children agreed to undergo biopsy; of these, 14 had histological changes consistent with celiac disease and all these 14 children had clinical response to gluten restriction. Three children with high anti-tTG had normal mucosa on duodenal biopsy and were not labelled as being in the celiac disease group. In the final analysis the disease prevalence was one in 310 children. Conclusions:, This is the first study on celiac disease prevalence among school children from India. Although this disease frequency of one in 310 is thought to be an under-assessment, it clearly shows that celiac disease is not rare in wheat-eating areas of North India. [source]


The Dual State: The Unruly "Subordinate", Caste, Community And Civil Service Recruitment In North India, 1930,1955

JOURNAL OF HISTORICAL SOCIOLOGY, Issue 1-2 2007
WILLIAM GOULD
It argues that social relationships between different cadres of the revenue and police services effectively created a bureaucratic space in which citizens' approaches to the state recreated forms of ambiguity in the reach and authority of state power. In this sense, it provides a deeper historical basis for anthropological and sociological work on the nature of the "fuzzy" everyday state in postcolonial India. But it develops this literature further, arguing that important structural changes over independence in 1947, also transformed the ways in which caste and community lobby groups represented their corporate interests through bureaucratic recruitment. These lobby groups, as a result of disjunctions in state power and discourses, between centre, province and locality, were often able to subvert systems of caste and community reservation. In the process, their actions emphasized the inability of the state at central and provincial levels to adjust to local political identities that depended on hybridity. [source]


The Discursive Malleability of an Identity

JOURNAL OF LINGUISTIC ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
Chaise LaDousa
This article employs a dialogic approach, in the parlance of Bakhtin, to explore the ways in which a school smedium,its primary language of instruction, has become a major category of identity in North India. Many people describe themselves and others by invoking attendance at either a Hindi- or English-medium school. The first task of this article is to account for what Bakhtin callscentripetal forcesthat enable people at different positions in terms of class or school experience to use a common duality of Hindiversus English-medium and its attendant social resonances. The second task is to account for the abilities of a teacher to question the inevitability of the medium divide and to radically reframe what is important about schooling. Her abilities derive, in part, from her experiences with schools, attesting to Bakhtin s insight that centripetal forces in language are never total, and that centrifugal forces arise from complex engagements with institutions. [source]


Impact of maternal body mass index on obstetric outcome

JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY RESEARCH (ELECTRONIC), Issue 5 2007
Meenakshi T. Sahu
Abstract Aim:, The purpose of the present study was to correlate effect of maternal body mass index (BMI) on obstetric outcome. The studies conducted so far are from Western developed countries and there is a paucity of data from developing countries. Methods:, A prospective evaluation was carried out of 380 women in one unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital in North India from May 2005 to June 2006 on the effect of maternal BMI on pregnancy outcome. BMI was calculated as weight (kg) divided by height (m2). BMI was used to characterize women as lean (BMI < 19.8 kg/m2), normal (BMI 19.9,24.9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25,29.9 kg/m2) or obese (,30 kg/m2). Results:, Forty-six women (12.1%) out of 380 were underweight, 99 (26.1%) were overweight, 30 (7.9%) were obese and the remaining 205 (53.9%) had normal BMI. Anemia (P = 0.02) and low birthweight (P = 0.008) was significantly present among lean women. Obese women had a significant risk for gestational diabetes (P = 0.0004), pre-eclampsia (P = 0.004), cesarean delivery (P = 0.01) and macrosomia (P = 0.02). Conclusion:, Both lean and obese women carry a risk for adverse pregnancy outcome, therefore pregnant women should maintain a normal BMI to achieve a healthy pregnancy outcome. [source]


White Saris and Sweet Mangoes: Aging, Gender, and Body in North India

AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, Issue 3 2001
Julia Thompson
White Saris and Sweet Mangoes: Aging, Gender, and Body in North India. Sarah Lamb. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000. 306 pp. [source]


Veins of Devotion: Blood Donation and Religious Experience in North India by Jacob Copeman

AMERICAN ETHNOLOGIST, Issue 2 2010
RON BARRETT
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Delusional disorder: Study from North India

PSYCHIATRY AND CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCES, Issue 5 2007
SANDEEP GROVER md
Abstract, The aim of the present study was to study sociodemographic profile, clinical parameters including comorbidity, usefulness of antipsychotics especially atypicals, family history, and follow-up rates for delusional disorder. The records of all subjects who were seen in the Department of Psychiatry during a period of 10 years (i.e. 1994,2003) were reviewed. Eighty-eight subjects fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled. The sample consisted predominantly of female subjects (55.7%), most of the total subjects were married and had favorable social functioning. The most common delusion was persecutory (54.5%), followed by delusion of reference (46.6%). The majority of the subjects had a comorbid psychiatric disorder. Education was negatively correlated with age at onset and positively correlated with the number of delusions. Age at onset was negatively correlated with total number of delusions. The sociodemographic profile of delusional disorder is consistent across various cultures, has high comorbidity and, when treated appropriately, responds to various antipsychotic agents. [source]


Enchanted Landscapes: Sensuous Awareness as Mystical Practice among Sufis in North India

THE AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
Arthur Saniotis
Sufi studies in India have become increasingly popular in the last fifteen years, which has provided insight into Sufi thought and practice. However, many of these studies tend to deal with political and social issues in relation to Sufi movements and shrine culture. My analysis presents an innovative way of understanding how Sufis experience sacred landscapes, and differs markedly from other studies on Indian Sufism. My aim is to analyse how Sufis at the Nizamuddin shrine sensuously engage with the sacred landscape. [source]


SHORT COMMUNICATION: Recurrent Pregnancy Loss and Apolipoprotein E Gene Polymorphisms: A Case,Control Study from North India

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
Meenal Agarwal
Citation Agarwal M, Parveen F, Faridi RM, Phadke SR, Das V, Agrawal S. Recurrent pregnancy loss and apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms: a case,control study from North India. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010; 64: 172,178 Problem, The role of apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms in the etiology of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is not clearly understood. We evaluated this polymorphism in unexplained pregnancy losses among North Indian women. Method of study, In a retrospective case,control study, 200 well-characterized RPL cases were examined for their APO-E genotypes based on restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified fragments including amino acid positions 112 and 158. The observed genotypes were compared with those obtained from an equal number of ethnically matched negative controls. Results, We found similar APO-E genotypes and E2, E3, and E4 allele frequency distribution among RPL patients and controls. The allele frequencies obtained in patients and controls respectively were as follows: E2 = 7.5% and 9.0% (P = 0.52; OR = 0.81; 95%CI = 0.49,1.35), E3 = 89.7% and 90% (P = 1.00; OR = 0.97; 95%CI = 0.61,1.54), and E4 = 2.8% and 1% (P = 0.12; OR = 2.79; 95%CI = 0.88,8.86). Conclusions, Our data did not support the association of APO-E gene polymorphisms with recurrent pregnancy loss as reported by some of the previous studies. We endorse adequate characterization of RPL cases, inclusion of appropriate negative controls, and adequate sample size prior to addressing such studies. [source]


Host range, vector relationships and sequence comparison of a begomovirus infecting hibiscus in India

ANNALS OF APPLIED BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2005
R. Rajeshwari
Abstract Hibiscus leaf curl disease (HLCuD) occurs widely in India. Infected hibiscus plants show vein thickening, upward curling of leaves and enations on the abaxial leaf surface, reduction in leaf size and stunting. The commonly-occurring weeds (Ageratum conyzoides, Croton bonplandianum and Euphorbia geniculata), Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotiana glutinosa and Nicotiana tabacum (var. Samsun, Xanthi), cotton and tomato were shown to be susceptible to HLCuD. One of the four species of hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) and 75 of the 101 commercial hybrids/varieties grown in the Bangalore area of southern India were also susceptible. Two virus isolates associated with HLCuD from Bangalore, South India (Ban), and Bhubaneswar, North India (Bhu), were detected serologically and by PCR-mediated amplification of virus genomes. The isolates were characterised by sequencing a fragment of DNA-A component (1288 nucleotides) and an associated satellite DNA molecule of 682 nucleotides. Phylogenetic analyses of these DNA-A sequences clustered them with Old World cotton-infecting begomoviruses and closest to Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMV) at 95,97% DNA-A nucleotide identities. The 682-nucleotide satellite DNA molecules associated with the HLCuD samples Ban and Bhu shared 96.9% sequence identity with each other and maximum identity (93.1,93.9% over positions 158,682) with ,1350-nucleotide DNA-, satellite molecules associated with cotton leaf curl disease in Pakistan and India (accession nos AJ298903, AJ316038). HLCuD in India, therefore, appears to be associated with strains of CLCuMV, a cotton-infecting begomovirus from Pakistan, which is transmitted in a persistent manner by Bemisia tabaci. [source]


A Validation Study of Type 2 Diabetes-related Variants of the TCF7L2, HHEX, KCNJ11, and ADIPOQ Genes in one Endogamous Ethnic Group of North India

ANNALS OF HUMAN GENETICS, Issue 4 2010
Vipin Gupta
Summary The aim of this study was to validate the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of four candidate genes (TCF7L2, HHEX, KCNJ11, and ADIPOQ) related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in an endogamous population of north India; the Aggarwal population, having 18-clans. This endogamous population model was heavily supported by recent land mark work and we also verified the homogeneity of this population by clan-based stratification analysis. Two SNPs (rs4506565; rs7903146) in TCF7L2 were found to be significant (p-value = 0.00191; p-value = 0.00179, respectively), and odds ratios of 2.1 (dominant-model) and 2.0 (recessive-model) respectively, were obtained for this population. The TTT haplotype in the TCF7L2 gene was significantly associated with T2D. Waist-Hip ratio (WHR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and age were significant covariates for increasing risk of T2D. Single-SNP, combined-SNPs and haplotype analysis provides clear evidence that the causal mutation is near to or within the significant haplotype (TTT) of the TCF7L2 gene. In spite of a culturally-learned sedentary lifestyle and fat-enriched dietary habits, WHR rather than body-mass-index emerged as a robust predictor of risk for T2D in this population. [source]


Human papillomavirus infection and premalignant lesions of the oral cavity: A cross-sectional study in Allahabad, North India

ASIA-PACIFIC JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
Sharmistha DEBANTH
Abstract Aim: To assess the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in premalignant lesions of the oral cavity using the second-generation Hybrid Capture assay kit (Digene Corporation) and to study the correlation between this technique and morphological changes (koilocytosis) on histopathology in those lesions. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was undertaken including 92 patients with premalignant lesions of the oral cavity (the study group) and a control group of 35 patients with no oral disease. All the participants were interviewed regarding possible risk factors. Oral exfoliated cells in the saliva were tested for HPV DNA using an HPV RNA probe of 13 high-risk HPV genotypes (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 68). Simultaneously biopsy specimens of the lesions were examined under a light microscope for evidence of koilocytosis, an empirical marker for HPV infection. Pearson's ,2 test using SPSS V.16 was applied for statistical analysis. Results: HPV DNA was detected in 44.6% of the study group (41 out of 92), and 14.3% of the controls (five out of 35). The association was independent of the influence of betel quid and tobacco chewing, two established causal factors for oral pre-cancers. Out of the total 92 participants in the study group there was evidence of koilocytosis on the histological sections of 42 individuals (45.6%). Conclusion: The results support a strong association between HPV infection and oral premalignant lesions, particularly oral lichen planus and squamous papilloma. Koilocytosis on histology is a good predictor of HPV infection. [source]


Retrospective analysis of outcome of pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease: Single-centre experience from North India

AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
Neelam AGGARWAL
Objective: To study maternal and perinatal outcome in congenital heart disease (CHD) and to compare outcome between cyanotic and acyanotic CHD. Method: A retrospective analysis of 196 cases of CHD was undertaken, and maternal and perinatal outcome of pregnancy was compared in cyanotic and acyanotic cases and between surgically corrected and uncorrected cases. Results: Maternal and perinatal outcome was better in the acyanotic group. Maternal complications included higher incidence of cardiac complications in cyanotic group, (33.3% vs 3.4% in acyanotic group, P = 0.001), abruption (12.5% vs nil) and pregnancy-induced hypertension (16.6% vs 5.2%). Rate of prematurity (25% vs 11.6%), intrauterine growth retardation (50% vs 15.1%, P = 0.003) and abortion (4.1% vs 2.1%) was higher in cyanotic group. Mean gestational age at delivery was better in corrected group, 37.13 vs 34.93 weeks in uncorrected group. There was no case of infective endocarditis. There were four cases of maternal mortality in cyanotic group, two of which were in women with Eisenmenger syndrome. In acyanotic heart disease one case died undelivered and one died on first postoperative day. Conclusion: Maternal and perinatal outcome is better in acyanotic CHD compared to cyanotic CHD. Surgical correction of cardiac lesions prior to conception improves outcome. [source]


Development without Institutions: Ersatz Medicine and the Politics of Everyday Life in Rural North India

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
Sarah Pinto
In north India, unregulated medical practice is considered by many to be a sign of the failure of institutional rationality and "backward" quality of rural life. However, the work of self-made doctors can also be seen to engage key elements of institutional rationality as it is interwoven with the structure and ethos of development. This article explores what these practitioners and their work suggest about the imagination of institutions in rural India and the kinds of power this invokes. Through mimesis of key practices (namely, forms of talk and use of injections), self-made doctors tap into the authority of legitimate institutions to occupy lacunae in state health structures and redress (even as they reproduce) effects of privatization and repeated temporary health measures. At the same time, everyday elements of these practices demonstrate that institutional legitimacy can only be borrowed by those already in positions of authority (on the basis of caste status and political leadership), challenging ideals of equality that underlie health-related development efforts. [source]


Languages as Women: The Feminisation of Linguistic Discourses in Colonial North India

GENDER & HISTORY, Issue 2 2009
Asha Sarangi
This article locates and analyses the gendered discourses of Hindi and Urdu linguistic identity in late nineteenth-century colonial north India. Using a new concept of language woman, it characterises the multiple discourses of feminisation through three distinctive terms of linguistic femininity, linguistic morality and linguistic patriarchy. These three modes of representation and articulation of feminised discourses over Hindi and Urdu languages are explored using the concept of heteronormativity as a political, ideological and social,cultural construct. The paper argues that language woman established an intimate bond between nationalisation and feminisation of the dominant Hindi linguistic identity in private and public domains as not mutually opposed but complementary and reproducible of each other. [source]


Cutaneous manifestations of dengue viral infection in Punjab (north India)

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 7 2007
Emy Aby Thomas MBBS
Background, Dengue infection is emerging as a public health problem in India. Despite numerous studies, there is a paucity of literature regarding the cutaneous manifestations of dengue. This study was performed to investigate the prevalence and type of cutaneous manifestations in dengue viral infection. Methods, Two hundred and fifty-six patients with febrile illness, admitted to the Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, India, were studied. On the basis of the clinical criteria and laboratory tests, 124 patients were diagnosed with dengue viral infection, and these patients were investigated in detail. Serologic tests were attempted in only 84 patients, and all of these samples tested positive for anti-dengue immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. Results, Of the 124 patients with dengue infection, 41 (23.1%) were classified with dengue fever (DF) and 83 (66.9%) with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), four (3.2%) of whom had dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Cutaneous involvement was seen in 46.8% of patients, the most common symptom being maculopapular/morbilliform eruption (48.3%), followed by ecchymotic (27.6%), petechial (13.8%), and macular/scarlatiniform (10.3%) eruption. Maculopapular eruption was observed more in DF, whereas petechiae, ecchymosis, and mucosal involvement were seen more in DHF; 72.4% of patients with cutaneous manifestations were asymptomatic, and 27.6% had pruritus. Involvement was generalized in 48.3% of patients, with the limbs and trunk involved in 32.8% and 18.9% of patients, respectively. Mucosal involvement was seen in 29.8% of patients, with conjunctival involvement being the most common (20.9%), followed by the lips (4.8%), palate (2.4%), and tongue (1.6%). Conclusions, This study describes the variety of cutaneous features associated with dengue viral infection which may evolve during the course of the disease. As a significant proportion of patients showed cutaneous features, these manifestations, together with simple laboratory tests, will be helpful in the early diagnosis of dengue viral infection. [source]


Increasing trend of acute hepatitis A in north India: Need for identification of high-risk population for vaccination

JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
Zahid Hussain
Abstract Background and Aims:, Hepatitis A (HAV) is endemic in India and most of the population is infected asymptomatically in early childhood with lifelong immunity. Because of altered epidemiology and decreasing endemicity, the pattern of acute HAV infection is changing from asymptomatic childhood infection to an increased incidence of symptomatic disease in the 18,40 age group. The aims of the present study were to assess whether the proportion of adults with acute HAV infection has been increasing over the years and to analyze the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-HAV antibodies in young adults above the age of 15 years as well as in cases of chronic liver disease. Methods:, Sera collected from 3495 patients with acute (1932) and chronic (1563) liver disease attending the Medical Outpatient Department of Lok Nayak Hospital during the previous five years (1999,2003) were tested for various serological markers of acute (HBsAg, HBcIgM, anti-HCV, HEV-IgM, and HAV-IgM) and chronic (HBsAg, HBcIgG, HBeAg, and anti-HCV) hepatitis. In addition, 500 normal healthy attendants of the patients above the age of 15 years were tested for IgG anti-HAV as controls. Results:, Of 1932 patients with acute viral hepatitis, 221 (11.4%) were positive for immunoglobulin M (IgM) anti-HAV. The patients who were IgM anti-HAV negative included hepatitis B (321 patients), C (39 patients), E (507 patients) and unclassified (844 patients). Although the frequency of HAV infection among children had increased (10.6% to 22.0%) in the 5-year period, the frequency of HAV infection among adults had also increased (3.4% to 12.3%) during the same period. A total of 300 patients with chronic liver diseases that were etiologically related to hepatitis B (169), C (73) or dual infection (10) and alcoholic liver injury (48) were tested for the presence of IgG anti-HAV antibody; 98% (294/300) were positive for the antibody. Conclusions:, Although universal vaccination against HAV is not currently indicated, selective vaccination of the high-risk population, based on their serological evidence of HAV antibody, would be a rational and cost-effective approach. [source]


Zygomycosis , a case report and overview of the disease in India

MYCOSES, Issue 4 2007
Amit Diwakar
Summary A case of zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus oryzae in a diabetic patient previously misdiagnosed as invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and an overview of the disease in India are presented. The case was diagnosed by direct microscopy, histopathologic examination and culture. Following surgical resection of pulmonary cavity under cover of amphotericin B administration, the patient recovered completely. Of 461 cases reported to-date, approximately 70% had been diagnosed at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, in north India. This may be attributed to better awareness, expertise and infrastructural facilities for mycological diagnosis than to any particular regional preponderance of the disease. Rhino-orbito-cerebral manifestations were the most common feature of zygomycosis (269 cases), followed by cutaneous disease (66 cases), which is in conformity with the pattern prevalent worldwide. The etiologic agents encountered were Rhizopus oryzae, Apophysomyces elegans, Saksenaea vasiformis, Cunninghamella bertholletiae, Absidia corymbifera, Basidiobolus ranarum and Conidiobolus coronatus. In contrast to cases from the developed world where transplant recipients and patients with haematological malignancies seem to be most vulnerable to zygomycosis, the most common risk factor in India was uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Amphotericin B was the mainstay of various treatment modalities employed. The relevance of a strong clinical suspicion and early diagnosis of zygomycosis for favourable prognosis can hardly be over-emphasised. [source]


Changing patterns of diet, physical activity and obesity among urban, rural and slum populations in north India

OBESITY REVIEWS, Issue 5 2008
K. Yadav
Summary Rapid urbanization and accompanying lifestyle changes in India lead to transition in non-communicable disease risk factors. A survey was done in urban, urban slum and rural population of Haryana, India, in a sample of 4129 men and 3852 women using WHO STEPS questionnaire. A very high proportion of all the three populations reported inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables. Rural men reported five times physical activity as compared with urban and urban slum men and rural women reported seven times physical activity as compared with women in the other two settings. Mean body mass index (BMI) was highest among urban men (22.8 kg m,2) followed by urban slum (21.0 kg m,2) and rural men (20.6 kg m,2) (P -value < 0.01). Similar trend was seen for women but at a higher level than men. Prevalence of obesity (BMI , 30 kg m,2) was highest for urban population (male = 5.5%, female = 12.6%) followed by urban slum (male = 1.9%, female = 7.2%) and rural populations (male = 1.6%, female = 3.8%). Urbanization increases the prevalence of the studied non-communicable disease risk factors, with women showing a greater increase as compared with men. Non-communicable disease control strategy needs to address urbanization and warrants gender sensitive strategies specifically targeting women. [source]


Women's Autonomy in India and Pakistan: The Influence of Religion and Region

POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW, Issue 4 2001
Shireen J. Jejeebhoy
This article compares the lives of women and explores dimensions of their autonomy in different regions of South Asia,Punjab in Pakistan, and Uttar Pradesh in north India and Tamil Nadu in south India. It explores the contextual factors underlying observed differences and assesses the extent to which these differences could be attributed to religion, nationality, or north,south cultural distinctions. Findings suggest that while women's autonomy,in terms of decision-making, mobility, freedom from threatening relations with husband, and access to and control over economic resources,is constrained in all three settings, women in Tamil Nadu fare considerably better than other women, irrespective of religion. Findings lend little support to the suggestion that women in Pakistan have less autonomy or control over their lives than do Indian women. Nor do Muslim women,be they Indian or Pakistani,exercise less autonomy in their own lives than do Hindu women in the subcontinent. Rather, findings suggest that in the patriarchal and gender-stratified structures governing the northern portion of the subcontinent, women's control over their lives is more constrained than in the southern region. [source]


Disproportionately High Rate of Epileptic Seizure in Patients Abusing Dextropropoxyphene

THE AMERICAN JOURNAL ON ADDICTIONS, Issue 5 2009
Debasish Basu MD
Dextropropoxyphene (DPP), a weak opioid, is often abused as a psychoactive substance. In this retrospective chart review to document, characterize and put in perspective the often-obtained history of epileptic seizures in patients with DPP abuse, we analyzed the case files of all patients with DPP abuse registered in our center (a tertiary-care drug de-addiction clinic in north India) from May 1, 2001 until April 30, 2007 and those with use of other opioids during the same period. Non-drug-related seizures were excluded from analysis. Out of 312 patients with DPP abuse, 63 (20.2%) had epileptic seizures related to DPP use, in contrast to 0.4% ,4.2% of other opioid users. The seizures were mostly characterized as generalized tonic-clonic seizures (87.3%), occurring around two hours following a higher-than-usual dose of DPP. Those with seizures had significantly greater duration of DPP use and higher rates of medical comorbidity compared to patients without seizure. Age, duration of use and medical comorbidity were better predictors of seizure than dosage of drug or use of multiple drugs. Thus, DPP-induced epileptic seizures are common (one in five), and much more frequent than seizures in patients using other opioids. The awareness of this phenomenon has implications for diagnosis and management, as well as for drug regulation policy. [source]


Mitochondrial diversity of native pigs in the mainland South and South-east Asian countries and its relationships between local wild boars

ANIMAL SCIENCE JOURNAL, Issue 4 2008
Kazuaki TANAKA
ABSTRACT In this study, we analyzed DNA sequence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control regions on the 130 native domestic pigs and eight wild boars in the mainland South and South-east Asian countries including Bhutan, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam. Forty-four haplotypes were found in the 138 individuals, 41 were in the domestic and four were in wild boars. Only one haplotype was shared by domestic and wild population in Bhutan. In other cases, mtDNA of wild boars did not show close affinity to that of the domestic pigs in the same location, indicating that the native domestic pigs in these countries did not originate in the present habitat. Phylogenetic analyzes of mtDNA haplotypes recapitulated several major clusters identified in other studies, but 11 haplotypes were grouped in a new cluster we named MTSEA. In most cases, more than one lineage group were present in a sampling station, indicating that the present indigenous domestic pigs may have multiple origins. The MTSEA haplotypes were present in relatively high frequencies in domestic pigs in the mountainous area of mainland South-east Asia (Cambodia and Laos), with a few found in Myanmar and Bhutan. The distributions of MTSEA haplotypes are in great conformity with the distribution of present-day Mon-Khmer language and indicated the existence of yet another independent domestication. The D2 haplotypes that distribute high frequency (almost 100%) throughout the Chinese breeds were dominant in Bhutan, Myanmar, and Vietnam. These results suggest an existence of human-mediated dispersal of domestic pigs from north to the south during the historical expansion of Sino-Tibetan and Tai peoples. The D3 haplotypes previously reported in north India were found in sympatric domestic and wild pigs in Bhutan. The D3 haplotype is an important proof of independent domestication event and/or great gene flow between wild and domestic pigs in the foot of Himalaya. [source]


A Validation Study of Type 2 Diabetes-related Variants of the TCF7L2, HHEX, KCNJ11, and ADIPOQ Genes in one Endogamous Ethnic Group of North India

ANNALS OF HUMAN GENETICS, Issue 4 2010
Vipin Gupta
Summary The aim of this study was to validate the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of four candidate genes (TCF7L2, HHEX, KCNJ11, and ADIPOQ) related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in an endogamous population of north India; the Aggarwal population, having 18-clans. This endogamous population model was heavily supported by recent land mark work and we also verified the homogeneity of this population by clan-based stratification analysis. Two SNPs (rs4506565; rs7903146) in TCF7L2 were found to be significant (p-value = 0.00191; p-value = 0.00179, respectively), and odds ratios of 2.1 (dominant-model) and 2.0 (recessive-model) respectively, were obtained for this population. The TTT haplotype in the TCF7L2 gene was significantly associated with T2D. Waist-Hip ratio (WHR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and age were significant covariates for increasing risk of T2D. Single-SNP, combined-SNPs and haplotype analysis provides clear evidence that the causal mutation is near to or within the significant haplotype (TTT) of the TCF7L2 gene. In spite of a culturally-learned sedentary lifestyle and fat-enriched dietary habits, WHR rather than body-mass-index emerged as a robust predictor of risk for T2D in this population. [source]


Trepanations from Oman: A case of diffusion?

ARABIAN ARCHAEOLOGY AND EPIGRAPHY, Issue 2 2006
Judith Littleton
Trepanations have been described from various locations around the world leading to a suggestion that this is a cultural practice that has widely diffused from one or two centres (1). In the UAE the earliest trepanations date to the Neolithic, significantly earlier than trepanations in surrounding areas. The discovery of at least two crania in Oman, dating apparently to the early third millennium and resembling in technique and placement trepanations from north India may be evidence of the diffusion of a therapeutic practice from the Gulf to the subcontinent. However, the lack of any trepanation among the numerous contemporary skeletons from Bahrain suggests that any diffusion has distinct limits and that, as anthropological work from the South Pacific (2) indicates, practices like trepanation are often heavily embedded in broader, culturally located explanatory models. [source]