non-Western Cultures (non-western + culture)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The cross-cultural generalizability of personality types: a Philippine study

Tatyana V. Avdeyeva
Abstract Research on personality types was extended to a non-Western culture, the Philippines. In two large samples of Filipino college students, cluster analyses of self-rated trait adjectives revealed interpretable three-cluster solutions (i.e. types) for each gender. The types differed on indigenous measures of ego resiliency and ego control and exhibited sensible configurations of Big Five traits, indigenous Filipino traits, and behavioural indicators. Most types were interpretable in terms of the concepts of ego resiliency and ego control of Block and Block (1980) and resembled types identified in other cultures. Two of three male and female types were fairly comparable and some types replicated across data sets. The results provided some support for the cross-cultural comparability of personality types and for typological research in general. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

International and Cultural Variations in Employee Assistance Programmes: Implications for Managerial Health and Effectiveness*

Rabi S. Bhagat
abstract While employee assistance programmes (EAPs) are becoming commonplace in large Western organizations, little is known regarding their prevalence in non-Western cultures. In this paper, we provide a framework for understanding the prevalence of EAPs in four distinct cells of societal culture-based variations. A cultural matrix for analysing the relative emphases of styles of coping, social support systems, rites and rituals, and the prevalence of EAPs is developed. The implications for managerial health and effectiveness in the global context are discussed. [source]

Terror management in Japan

Steven J. Heine
Do terror management effects generalize to non-Western cultures? This question is significant because terror management theory offers an explanation of the origin of self-esteem, whereas other research finds divergent self-esteem motivations across cultures. The effects of mortality salience (MS) on the dual-component anxiety buffer were investigated in Japan. A control group and a MS group were given an opportunity: (i) to defend their cultural worldview by derogating an anti-Japan essay writer; and (ii) to boost their value within their cultures by indicating a greater desire for high-status over low-status products. Replicating past research with Western samples, Japanese in a MS condition were more critical of the anti-Japan essay writer and they indicated a marginal tendency to prefer high- over low-status products, compared with a control group. The theoretical implications are discussed. [source]

Een-Gonyama Gonyama!: Zulu Origins of the Boy Scout Movement and the Africanisation of Imperial Britain

British imperialists in the late 19th century denigrated non-western cultures in rationalising the partition of Africa, but they also had to assimilate African values and traditions to make the imperial system work. The partisans of empire also romanticised non-western cultures to convince the British public to support the imperial enterprise. In doing so, they introduced significant African and Asian elements into British popular culture, thereby refuting the assumption that the empire had little influence on the historical development of metropolitan Britain. Robert Baden-Powell conceived of the Boy Scout movement as a cure for the social instability and potential military weakness of Edwardian Britain. Influenced profoundly by his service as a colonial military officer, Africa loomed large in Baden-Powell's imagination. He was particularly taken with the Zulu. King Cetshwayo's crushing defeat of the British army at Isandhlawana in 1879 fixed their reputation as a ,martial tribe' in the imagination of the British public. Baden-Powell romanticised the Zulus' discipline, and courage, and adapted many of their cultural institutions to scouting. Baden-Powell's appropriation and reinterpretation of African culture illustrates the influence of subject peoples of the empire on metropolitan British politics and society. Scouting's romanticised trappings of African culture captured the imagination of tens of thousands of Edwardian boys and helped make Baden-Powell's organisation the premier uniformed youth movement in Britain. Although confident that they were superior to their African subjects, British politicians, educators, and social reformers agreed with Baden-Powell that ,tribal' Africans preserved many of the manly virtues that had been wiped by the industrial age. [source]