non-Western Countries (non-western + country)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Corporate political action in China and America: a comparative perspective

Yongqiang Gao
Corporate political action (CPA) is always an interesting topic for management scholars since 1980s. There are a large plenty of literatures from different disciplines focus on this topic. But till now, studies on this topic are almost conducted under the Western culture and taking the Western countries as objective, very few studies are conducted in non-Western countries, and specifically, the CPA in China is nearly untouched. Due to the differences of culture and political economy between China and the West, CPA in China may be very different from the West's. This article discusses the similarities and differences of CPA in China and America. The result shows that due to the differences in culture and political economical system between China and America, CPA in China is very different from America. This study will help to understand the CPA in China for outsiders, especially for Americans. It also helps multinational enterprises (MNEs) in China to take suitable political actions to support their interests. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Development and Validation of the Child Psychosocial Distress Screener in Burundi

Mark J. D. Jordans MA
In non-Western countries, efficient and contextually valid methods of community screening are scarce. The present study describes the validation of a new, brief, 7-item multi-informant screener for conflict-affected children (Child Psychosocial Distress Screener; CPDS). To determine concurrent validity, the CPSD was administered to 65 children and their teachers. CPDS scores were compared with indication for psychosocial treatment based on an in-depth clinical assessment by a psychiatrist and psychologist. Construct validity was assessed by testing the measurement equivalence of the CPDS in a community sample (N = 2,240) in Burundi. The CPDS identifies indication for treatment with an accurateness of .81(sensitivity of .84; specificity of .60). Test-retest reliability of the instrument is good (.83). A robust and invariant factor structure provides evidence for the construct validity of the CPSD. The CPDS appears to be a useful multidimensional tool that measures nonspecific child psychosocial distress, detecting children with an indication for treatment. Because of brevity and the ability to be administered by nonspecialists, the CPDS can be an appropriate instrument to screen large populations of conflict-affected children. [source]

Executive functions as endophenotypes in ADHD: evidence from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB)

Susan Shur-Fen Gau
Background:, Little is known about executive functions among unaffected siblings of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and there is lack of such information from non-Western countries. We examined verbal and nonverbal executive functions in adolescents with ADHD, unaffected siblings and controls to test whether executive functions could be potential endophenotypes for ADHD. Methods:, We assessed 279 adolescents (age range: 11,17 years) with a childhood diagnosis of DSM-IV ADHD, 136 biological siblings (108 unaffected, 79.4%), and 173 unaffected controls by using psychiatric interviews, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children , 3rd edition (WISC-III), including digit spans, and the tasks involving executive functions of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB): Intra-dimensional/Extra-dimensional Shifts (IED), Spatial Span (SSP), Spatial Working Memory (SWM), and Stockings of Cambridge (SOC). Results:, Compared with the controls, adolescents with ADHD and unaffected siblings had a significantly shorter backward digit span, more extra-dimensional shift errors in the IED, shorter spatial span length in the SSP, more total errors and poorer strategy use in the SWM, and fewer problems solved in the minimum number of moves and shorter initial thinking time in the SOC. The magnitudes of the differences in the SWM and SOC increased with increased task difficulties. In general, neither persistent ADHD nor comorbidity was associated with increased deficits in executive functions among adolescents with ADHD. Conclusions:, The lack of much difference in executive dysfunctions between unaffected siblings and ADHD adolescents suggests that executive dysfunctions may be useful cognitive endophenotypes for ADHD genetic studies. [source]

Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Way of Coping Checklist-Revised (WCCL-R) in the Asian Context

Sukanlaya Sawang
Industrial employment growth has been one of the most dynamic areas of expansion in Asia; however, current trends in industrialised working environments have resulted in greater employee stress. Despite research showing that cultural values affect the way people cope with stress, there is a dearth of psychometrically established tools for use in non-Western countries to measure these constructs. Studies of the "Way of Coping Checklist-Revised" (WCCL-R) in the West suggest that the WCCL-R has good psychometric properties, but its applicability in the East is still understudied. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is used to validate the WCCL-R constructs in an Asian population. This study used 1,314 participants from Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Singapore, and Thailand. An initial exploratory factor analysis revealed that original structures were not confirmed; however, a subsequent EFA and CFA showed that a 38-item, five-factor structure model was confirmed. The revised WCCL-R in the Asian sample was also found to have good reliability and sound construct and concurrent validity. The 38-item structure of the WCCL-R has considerable potential in future occupational stress-related research in Asian countries. La croissance de l'emploi dans l'industrie a été l'un des aspects les plus dynamiques de l'expansion en Asie, mais l'évolution actuelle des environnements de travail industriels a accru le stress des salariés. Malgré les recherches qui ont souligné que les valeurs culturelles affectaient la façon dont les gens faisaient face au stress, on ne peut que regretter la pénurie d'outils psychométriquement valides pour mesurer ces dimensions dans les pays non occidentaux. Les travaux occidentaux sur la "liste révisée des stratégies de faire-face" (WCCL-R) laissent entendre que cette échelle présentent des propriétés psychométriques positives, mais ses possibilités d'application en Asie n'ont pas été suffisamment étudiées. On a mis à l'épreuve par analyse factorielle les concepts de la WCCL-R sur une population asiatique. L'échantillon comprenait 1,314 sujets en provenance d'Indonésie, du Sri Lanka, de Singapour et de Thaïlande. Une première analyse factorielle exploratoire n'a pas confirmé la structure originelle. Toutefois, les analyses ultérieures débouchèrent sur un modèle à cinq facteurs et 38 items. On a aussi pu constater que la WCCL-R présentait une bonne fidélité, des concepts pertinents et une validité concurrente satisfaisante. La structure en 38 items de la WCCL-R recèle un potentiel considérable pour les recherches sur le stress professionnel dans les pays asiatiques. [source]