non-REM Sleep (non-rem + sleep)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Chronic and High Alcohol Consumption Has a Negative Impact on Sleep and Sleep-Associated Consolidation of Declarative Memory

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2009
Klaus Junghanns
Background., The importance of sleep for memory consolidation has become a major focus of research. While it is known that abstaining alcohol-dependent patients often have sleep disorders and that there is some cognitive impairment during early abstention a possible interaction of disturbed sleep with overnight memory consolidation has not been addressed in a study as yet. Methods., Twenty-four alcohol-dependent patients with a short abstention period (mean 21.9 7.6 days) were compared with 12 patients with an abstention period of several months (115.7 43.8 days). Groups did not differ with respect to daily alcohol consumption before treatment, duration of alcohol dependence, and age. Before sleep all patients learned a list of semantically associated word pairs and a face name association task to a fixed criterion (at least 60% of correct recall) and they performed a mirror tracing task. After a polysomnographically registered night the patients were tested for retention of the learned declarative material by cued recall and had to perform the mirror tracing task again. Results., The groups did not differ with respect to sleep parameters or sleep-associated memory consolidation. Across both groups the duration of alcohol dependence correlated negatively with the amount of non-REM sleep and recall in the face name association task correlated negatively with daily alcohol consumption before abstention. Among the longer-term abstainers the duration of abstention correlated with the amount of slow wave sleep. Conclusions., Our data support the hypothesis that chronic and high alcohol consumption negatively affects sleep and declarative memory consolidation during the first months of abstention. Between an abstention period of a few weeks and of several months no change in sleep parameters and nightly memory consolidation could be demonstrated, however. [source]

No persisting effect of partial sleep curtailment on cognitive performance and declarative memory recall in adolescents

Summary Growing evidence indicates that sleep facilitates learning and memory processing. Sleep curtailment is increasingly common in adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of short-term sleep curtailment on declarative memory consolidation in adolescents. A randomized, cross-over study design was chosen. Twenty-two healthy subjects, aged 14,16 years, spent three consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory with a bedtime of 9 h during the first night (adaptation), 4 h during the second (partial sleep curtailment) and 9 h during the third night (recovery). The control condition consisted of three consecutive nights with bedtimes of 9 h. Both experimental conditions were separated by at least 3 weeks. The acquisition phase for the declarative tests was between 16:00 and 18:00 hours before the second night. Memory performance was examined in the morning after the recovery night. Executive function, attention and concentration were also assessed to control for any possible effects of tiredness. During the 4-h night, we observed a curtailment of 50% of non-rapid eye movement (non-REM), 5% of slow wave sleep (SWS) and 70% of REM sleep compared with the control night. Partial sleep curtailment of one night did not influence declarative memory retrieval significantly. Recall in the paired-associate word list task was correlated positively with percentage of non-REM sleep in the recovery night. Declarative memory consolidation does not appear to be influenced by short-term sleep curtailment in adolescents. This may be explained by the high ability of adolescents to compensate for acute sleep loss. The correlation between non-REM sleep and declarative memory performance supports earlier findings. [source]

Pulsed radio-frequency electromagnetic fields: dose-dependent effects on sleep, the sleep EEG and cognitive performance

Summary To establish a dose,response relationship between the strength of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and previously reported effects on the brain, we investigated the influence of EMF exposure by varying the signal intensity in three experimental sessions. The head of 15 healthy male subjects was unilaterally exposed for 30 min prior to sleep to a pulse-modulated EMF (GSM handset like signal) with a 10 g-averaged peak spatial specific absorption rate of (1) 0.2 W kg,1, (2) 5 W kg,1, or (3) sham exposed in a double-blind, crossover design. During exposure, subjects performed two series of three computerized cognitive tasks, each presented in a fixed order [simple reaction time task, two-choice reaction time task (CRT), 1-, 2-, 3-back task]. Immediately after exposure, night-time sleep was polysomnographically recorded for 8 h. Sleep architecture was not affected by EMF exposure. Analysis of the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) revealed a dose-dependent increase of power in the spindle frequency range in non-REM sleep. Reaction speed decelerated with increasing field intensity in the 1-back task, while accuracy in the CRT and N-back task were not affected in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, this study reveals first indications of a dose,response relationship between EMF field intensity and its effects on brain physiology as demonstrated by changes in the sleep EEG and in cognitive performance. [source]

Detection of gastric slow wave uncoupling from multi-channel electrogastrogram: validations and applications

Z. S. Wang
Abstract Current methodology of single channel electrogastrography is unable to detect coupling or uncoupling of gastric slow waves, which is crucial for gastric emptying. In this study, a new methodology, called cross-spectral analysis method, was established to compute the coupling percentage of multi-channel gastric slow waves recorded using serosal electrodes and electrogastrogram (EGG). Two experiments were performed to validate the method and demonstrate its applications in clinical research. In experiment 1, simultaneous recordings of gastric slow waves were made in five dogs from serosal electrodes and cutaneous electrodes. In experiment 2, four-channel fasting EGGs were made in 10 volunteers for 30 min during waking and 30 min during non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The validation study (experiment 1) showed that the slow wave coupling calculated from the EGGs was correlated with that computed from the serosal recordings. The gastric slow wave coupling percentages detected from both serosal and cutaneous recordings were significantly impaired during vasopressin infusion (6.3 2.6 vs 62.4 6.3, P < 0.001 for serosal recordings; 6.7 3.0 vs 57.2 2.7, P < 0.001 for cutaneous recordings), and the coupling percentages respectively calculated from serosal and cutaneous recordings were significantly correlated during the baseline recording period (R = 0.922, P < 0.05) and vasopressin infusion period (R = 0.916, P < 0.05). In experiment 2, the gastric slow wave became less coupled when healthy volunteers fell asleep. The percentage of slow wave coupling calculated from the EGGs was 68.2 17.9% during waking but 41.9 20.8 during non-REM sleep (P < 0.05). The method developed in this study is reliable for the detection of slow wave uncoupling from multi-channel EGGs. Gastric slow wave coupling is impaired during vasopressin infusion and sleep. These data suggest that this method has potential applications in physiological and clinical studies. [source]

Regional ventilation distribution in non-sedated spontaneously breathing newborns and adults is not different

Andreas Schibler MD
Abstract Background: In adults, ventilation is preferentially distributed towards the dependent lung. A reversal of the adult pattern has been observed in infants using radionuclide ventilation scanning. But these results have been obtained in infants and children with lung disease. In this study we investigate whether healthy infants have a similar reverse pattern of ventilation distribution. Study Design: Measurement of regional ventilation distribution in healthy newborn infants during non-REM sleep in comparison to adults. Methods: Twenty-four healthy newborns and 13 adults were investigated with electrical impedance tomography (EIT) in supine and prone position. Regional ventilation distribution was assessed with profiles of relative impedance change. The phase lag between dependent and non-dependent ventilation was calculated as a measure of asynchronous ventilation. Results: In newborns and adults the geometric center of ventilation was centrally located in the lung at 52.2,,6.2% from anterior to posterior and at 50.5,,14.7%, respectively. Using impedance profiles, ventilation was equally distributed to the dependent and non-dependent lung regions in newborns. Ventilation distribution in adults was similar. Phase lag characteristics of the impedance signal showed that infants had slower emptying of the dependent lung than adults. Conclusion: The speculated reverse pattern of regional ventilation distribution in healthy infants compared to adults could not be demonstrated. Gravity had little effect on ventilation distribution in both infants and adults measured in supine and prone position. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2009; 44:851,858. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]