Non-neuronal Cells (non-neuronal + cell)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Differential expression of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors 1-5 in the developing nervous system

H. Meng
Abstract Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) binds to G protein,coupled receptors and can regulate a wide range of cellular functions. In a previous study, we isolated two key enzymes in the S1P pathway that were expressed in migrating neural crest cells. To determine if S1P receptors are present in neural crest cells or peripheral nervous system, we examine the expression patterns of S1P receptors (S1pr1-5) in mouse, and s1pr1 and s1pr3 in chick embryos. Here, we present a comprehensive expression analysis of these receptors using in situ hybridizations, which provide spatiotemporal information. We showed that S1pr2 was expressed in migrating cranial neural crest cells and enteric neurons. S1pr1 was prominently expressed in the neuroepithelium whereas S1pr4 and S1pr5 were in neurons at later stages. On the contrary, S1pr3 was predominantly detected in non-neuronal cells within and surrounding neural structures. We also described novel expression sites for S1P receptors in the developing nervous system. Developmental Dynamics 238:487,500, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Concepts of neural nitric oxide-mediated transmission

John Garthwaite
Abstract As a chemical transmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, nitric oxide (NO) is still thought a bit of an oddity, yet this role extends back to the beginnings of the evolution of the nervous system, predating many of the more familiar neurotransmitters. During the 20 years since it became known, evidence has accumulated for NO subserving an increasing number of functions in the mammalian central nervous system, as anticipated from the wide distribution of its synthetic and signal transduction machinery within it. This review attempts to probe beneath those functions and consider the cellular and molecular mechanisms through which NO evokes short- and long-term modifications in neural performance. With any transmitter, understanding its receptors is vital for decoding the language of communication. The receptor proteins specialised to detect NO are coupled to cGMP formation and provide an astonishing degree of amplification of even brief, low amplitude NO signals. Emphasis is given to the diverse ways in which NO receptor activation initiates changes in neuronal excitability and synaptic strength by acting at pre- and/or postsynaptic locations. Signalling to non-neuronal cells and an unexpected line of communication between endothelial cells and brain cells are also covered. Viewed from a mechanistic perspective, NO conforms to many of the rules governing more conventional neurotransmission, particularly of the metabotropic type, but stands out as being more economical and versatile, attributes that presumably account for its spectacular evolutionary success. [source]

Dynamic changes in glypican-1 expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons after peripheral and central axonal injury

Stefan Bloechlinger
Abstract Glypican-1, a glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI)-anchored heparan sulphate proteoglycan expressed in the developing and mature cells of the central nervous system, acts as a coreceptor for diverse ligands, including slit axonal guidance proteins, fibroblast growth factors and laminin. We have examined its expression in primary sensory dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and spinal cord after axonal injury. In noninjured rats, glypican-1 mRNA and protein are constitutively expressed at low levels in lumbar DRGs. Sciatic nerve transection results in a two-fold increase in mRNA and protein expression. High glypican-1 expression persists until the injured axons reinnervate their peripheral targets, as in the case of a crushed nerve. Injury to the central axons of DRG neurons by either a dorsal column injury or a dorsal root transection also up-regulates glypican-1, a feature that differs from most DRG axonal injury-induced genes, whose regulation changes only after peripheral and not central axonal injury. After axonal injury, the cellular localization of glypican-1 changes from a nuclear pattern restricted to neurons in noninjured DRGs, to the cytoplasm and membrane of injured neurons, as well as neighbouring non-neuronal cells. Sciatic nerve transection also leads to an accumulation of glypican-1 in the proximal nerve segment of injured axons. Glypican-1 is coexpressed with robo 2 and its up-regulation after axonal injury may contribute to an altered sensitivity to axonal growth or guidance cues. [source]

Identification of proNeuropeptide FFA peptides processed in neuronal and non-neuronal cells and in nervous tissue

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 20 2003
Elisabeth Bonnard
Peptides which should be generated from the neuropeptide FF (NPFF) precursor were identified in a neuronal (human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y) cell line and in COS-7 cells after transient transfection of the human proNPFFA cDNA and were compared with those detected in the mouse spinal cord. After reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography of soluble material, NPFF-related peptides were immunodetected with antisera raised against NPFF and identified by using on-line capillary liquid chromatography/nanospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. Neuronal and non-neuronal cells generated different peptides from the same precursor. In addition to NPFF, SQA-NPFF (Ser-Gln-Ala-Phe-Leu-Phe-Gln-Pro-Gln-Arg-Phe-amide) and NPAF were identified in the human neuroblastoma while only NPFF was clearly identified in COS-7 cells. In mouse, in addition to previously detected NPFF and NPSF, SPA-NPFF (Ser-Pro-Ala-Phe-Leu-Phe-Gln-Pro-Gln-Arg-Phe-amide), the homologous peptide of SQA-NPFF, were characterized. These data on intracellular processing of proNeuropeptide FFA are discussed in regard to the known enzymatic processing mechanisms. [source]

Oxidative and excitotoxic insults exert differential effects on spinal motoneurons and astrocytic glutamate transporters: Implications for the role of astrogliosis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

GLIA, Issue 2 2009
Chrissandra J. Zagami
Abstract In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) non-neuronal cells play key roles in disease etiology and loss of motoneurons via noncell-autonomous mechanisms. Reactive astrogliosis and dysfunctional transporters for L -glutamate [excitatory amino acid transporters, (EAATs)] are hallmarks of ALS pathology. Here, we describe mechanistic insights into ALS pathology involving EAAT-associated homeostasis in response to a destructive milieu, in which oxidative stress and excitotoxicity induce respectively astrogliosis and motoneuron injury. Using an in vitro neuronal-glial culture of embryonic mouse spinal cord, we demonstrate that EAAT activity was maintained initially, despite a loss of cellular viability induced by exposure to oxidative [3-morpholinosydnonimine chloride (SIN-1)] and excitotoxic [(S)-5-fluorowillardiine (FW)] conditions. This homeostatic response of EAAT function involved no change in the cell surface expression of EAAT1/2 at 0.5,4 h, but rather alterations in kinetic properties. Over this time-frame, EAAT1/2 both became more widespread across astrocytic arbors in concert with increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), although at 8,24 h there was gliotoxicity, especially with SIN-1 rather than FW. An opposite picture was found for motoneurons where FW, not SIN-1, produced early and extensive neuritic shrinkage and blebbing (,0.5 h) with somata loss from 2 h. We postulate that EAATs play an early homeostatic and protective role in the pathologic milieu. Moreover, the differential profiles of injury produced by oxidative and excitotoxic insults identify two distinct phases of injury which parallel important aspects of the pathology of ALS. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Astrocyte-derived factors modulate the inhibitory effect of ethanol on dendritic development

GLIA, Issue 4 2002
Penelope A. Yanni
Abstract Numerous studies in vivo and in vitro have demonstrated that ethanol disrupts neuromorphogenesis. However, it has not been determined what role, if any, is played by non-neuronal cells in mediating this effect. We recently reported that ethanol inhibits dendritic development in low-density cultures of fetal rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons (Yanni and Lindsley, 2000: Dev Brain Res 120:233,243). In this culture system, cortical astrocytes precondition neuronal culture media for 2 days before the addition of neurons, which then develop on a separate substrate in coculture with the astrocytes. To determine whether astrocyte response to ethanol mediates the effects of ethanol on neurons, the present study compared dendritic development of neurons after 6 days in medium containing 400 mg/dl ethanol in coculture with live astrocytes and in conditioned medium from astrocytes that were never exposed to ethanol. The same experiment was also performed with and without ethanol present during astrocyte preconditioning of the medium. The effects of ethanol differed depending on when it was added to the cultures relative to addition of newly dissociated neurons. However, the effects of ethanol were not related to whether neurons were cocultured with live astrocytes. When astrocytes preconditioned the medium normally, ethanol added at plating inhibited dendritic development of neurons regardless of whether they were maintained in coculture with live astrocytes or in conditioned medium. In surprising contrast, the presence of ethanol during astrocyte preconditioning of the media had a growth promoting effect on subsequent dendrite development despite the continued presence of ethanol in the medium. Thus, astrocytes release soluble factors in response to ethanol that can protect neurons from the inhibitory effects of ethanol on dendritic growth, but the timing of neuronal exposure to these factors, or their concentration, may influence their activity. GLIA 38:292,302, 2002. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Latent and lytic infection of isolated guinea pig enteric ganglia by varicella zoster virus

Jason J. Chen
Abstract Varicella zoster virus (VZV) has been demonstrated to infect guinea pig enteric neurons in vitro. Latent infection of isolated enteric neurons is established when the cultures predominantly consist of neurons and they are exposed to cell-free VZV. Neurons harboring latent infection survive for weeks in vitro and express mRNA encoding ORFs 4, 21, 29, 40, 62, and 63, but not 14(gC) or 68 (gE) (although DNA encoding the glycoproteins is present). The expressed proteins are the same as those that are also expressed in human sensory neurons harboring latent VZV. In addition to mRNA, the immunoreactivities of ORFs 4, 21, 29, 62, and 63 can be detected. ORF 62 and 29 proteins are cytoplasmic and not intranuclear. VZV does not preferentially infect and/or become latent in intrinsic enteric primary afferent neurons indicating that the virus is latent in these neurons. Lytic infection occurs when mixed cultures of neurons and non-neuronal cells of the bowel wall are exposed to cell-free VZV or when isolated enteric neurons are exposed to cell-associated VZV. When lytic infection occurs, enteric neurons die within 48 hr. Prior to their death, neurons express VZV glycoproteins, including gE and gB, and ORF 62 and 29 proteins are intranuclear. This new animal model should facilitate studies of VZV latency and the efficacy of therapies designed to prevent VZV infecion, latency, and reactivation. J. Med. Virol. 70:S71,S78, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Expression of mutant SOD1G93A in astrocytes induces functional deficits in motoneuron mitochondria

Lynsey G. Bilsland
Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motoneuron degeneration resulting in paralysis and eventual death. ALS is regarded as a motoneuron-specific disorder but increasing evidence indicates non-neuronal cells play a significant role in disease pathogenesis. Although the precise aetiology of ALS remains unclear, mutations in the superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene are known to account for approximately 20% of familial ALS. We examined the influence of SOD1G93A expression in astrocytes on mitochondrial homeostasis in motoneurons in a primary astrocyte : motoneuron co-culture model. SOD1G93A expression in astrocytes induced changes in mitochondrial function of both SOD1G93A and wild-type motoneurons. In the presence of SOD1G93A astrocytes, mitochondrial redox state of both wild-type and SOD1G93A motoneurons was more reduced and mitochondrial membrane potential decreased. While intra-mitochondrial calcium levels [Ca2+]m were elevated in SOD1G93A motoneurons, changes in mitochondrial function did not correlate with [Ca2+]m. Thus, expression of SOD1G93A in astrocytes directly alters mitochondrial function even in embryonic motoneurons, irrespective of genotype. These early deficits in mitochondrial function induced by surrounding astrocytes may increase the vulnerability of motoneurons to other neurotoxic mechanisms involved in ALS pathogenesis. [source]

Identification of a GM1/Sodium,Calcium exchanger complex in the nuclear envelope of non-neuronal cells

X. Xie
Our previous studies identified a Na,Ca exchanger (NCX) that is tightly associated with GM1 ganglioside and potentiated by it in the nuclear envelope (NE) of NG108-15 cells and primary neurons. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether this is a general phenomena or limited to neurons. Non-neuronal C6 (glioma), HeLa (Epithelial carcinoma) and NCTC (connective tissue) cell lines were used. Immunocytochemical staining with anti-NCX antibody and cholera toxin B subunit revealed that NCX and GM1 coexist in the nuclei from all 3 cell lines; in relation to plasma membrane, only HeLa cells showed staining for both NCX and GM1. Purified NE and non-nuclear membrane mixture (mainly plasma membrane) from the 3 cell lines were immunoprecipitated with a mouse monoclonal anti-NCX antibody and the precipitated proteins separated on SDS,PAGE. Analysis by immunoblot, showed that NCX is tightly associated with GM1 in the NE of all 3 cell lines. In contrast, NCX and the more loosely associated GM1 from plasma membrane of HeLa cells were separated by SDS,PAGE. Isolated nuclei from C6 cells were used for 45Ca2+ uptake experiments, which provided functional evidence that this exchanger protein is strongly potentiated by GM1. In similar experiments with Jurkat cells (T lymphocyte), no NCX was found. These results suggest a possible new and widely distributed mechanism for regulation of nuclear calcium by NCX in association with GM1. Acknowledgements:, supported by NIH grant NS 33912. [source]

Protein trafficking mechanisms associated with neurite outgrowth and polarized sorting in neurons

Bor Luen Tang
Neuronal differentiation in vitro and in vivo involves coordinated changes in the cellular cytoskeleton and protein trafficking processes. I review here recent progress in our understanding of the membrane trafficking aspects of neurite outgrowth of neurons in culture and selective microtubule-based polarized sorting in fully polarized neurons, focusing on the involvement of some key molecules. Early neurite outgrowth appears to involve the protein trafficking machineries that are responsible for constitutive trans -Golgi network (TGN) to plasma membrane exocytosis, utilizing transport carrier generation mechanisms, SNARE proteins, Rab proteins and tethering mechanisms that are also found in non-neuronal cells. This vectorial TGN-plasma membrane traffic is directed towards several neurites, but can be switch to concentrate on the growth of a single axon. In a mature neuron, polarized targeting to the specific axonal and dendritic domains appears to involve selective microtubule-based mechanisms, utilizing motor proteins capable of distinguishing microtubule tracks to different destinations. The apparent gaps in our knowledge of these related protein transport processes will be highlighted. [source]

Glial,Neuronal,Endothelial Interactions are Involved in the Control of GnRH Secretion

Vincent PrevotArticle first published online: 8 APR 200
Abstract In recent years compelling evidence has been provided that cell,cell interactions involving non-neuronal cells, such as glial and endothelial cells, are important in regulating the secretion of GnRH, the neuropeptide that controls both sexual development and adult reproductive function. Modification of the anatomical relationship that exist between GnRH nerve endings and glial cell processes in the external zone of the median eminence modulates the access of GnRH nerve terminals to the portal vasculature during the oestrous cycle. The establishment of direct neuro-haemal junctions between GnRH neuroendocrine terminals and the portal vasculature on the day of pro-oestrus may be critical for the transfer of GnRH upon its release into the fenestrated capillaries of the median eminence. Notwithstanding the importance of these plastic rearrangements, glial and endothelial cells also regulate GnRH neuronal function via specific cell,cell signalling molecules. While endothelial cells of the median eminence use nitric oxide to effect this regulatory control, astrocytes employ several growth factors, and in particular those of the EGF family and their erbB receptors to facilitate GnRH release during sexual development. Loss of function of each of these erbB receptors involved in the astroglial control of GnRH secretion leads to delayed sexual development. It is clear that regulation of GnRH secretion by cell,cell communication mechanisms other than transsynaptic inputs is an important component of the central neuroendocrine process controlling mammalian reproduction. [source]

Rho kinase activates ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins and mediates their function in cortical neuron growth, morphology and motility in vitro

Matilda A. Haas
Abstract The ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family of proteins contribute to cytoskeletal processes underlying many vital cellular functions. Their previously elucidated roles in non-neuronal cells are an indication of their potential importance in CNS neurons. The specific mechanisms of their activation are unknown, but are likely to depend on factors such as the cell type and biological context. For ERM proteins to become active they must be phosphorylated at a specific C-terminal threonine residue. In non-neuronal cells, several kinases, including the Rho GTPase family member Rho kinase, have been identified as capable of phosphorylating the C-terminal threonine. In these experiments we have investigated specifically the potential role of Rho kinase mediated ERM activation in cortical neurons, utilizing a new pharmacologic inhibitor of Rho kinase and quantitative analysis of aspects of neuronal functions potentially mediated by ERM proteins. Rho kinase inhibition significantly suppressed aspects of neuronal development including neurite initiation and outgrowth, as well as growth cone morphology, with a concomitant loss of phosphorylated ERM immunolabeling in areas associated with neuronal growth. The ability of the Rho kinase inhibitor to decrease the amount of pERM protein was shown by immunoblotting. Post-injury responses were negatively affected by Rho kinase inhibition, namely by a significant decrease in the number of regenerative neurites. We investigated a novel role for ERM proteins in neuron migration using a post-injury motility assay, where Rho kinase inhibition resulted in significant and drastic reduction in neuron motility and phosphorylated ERM immunolabeling. Thus, Rho kinase is an important activator of ERMs in mediating specific neuronal functions. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Role of axon-deprived Schwann cells in perineurial regeneration in the rat sciatic nerve

M. Popovi
The role of Schwann cells (SC) in perineurial regeneration after nerve injury has not yet been resolved. It was hypothesized that SC alone are able to induce at least partial morphological restoration of the destroyed orthotopic perineureum (PN). To test the hypothesis, a permanently denervated segment of the rat sciatic nerve was made acellular by freeze-thawing, except in its most proximal part where non-neuronal cells were left intact. Restoration of the frozen segment by these cells was examined by electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry of the SC marker, S-100 protein, 4 and 8 weeks after injury. The PN regenerated from undifferentiated fibroblast-like cells. In the presence of migrant SC without axons, regenerated cells in the place of the former PN were stacked in several layers and, in accordance with the hypothesis, partially expressed typical features of the perineurial cells (PC): pinocytotic vesicles, short fragments of basal lamina and tight junctions. Migrant SC induced formation of pseudo-minifascicles even in the epineurium. In these, SC organized the adjacent fibroblasts into a multilayered circular sheath, and induced their partial differentiation towards perineurial cells. Further experiments demonstrated that regenerating axons are required for complete morphological differentiation of the regenerated perineurial cells either in the orthotopic PN or in minifascicles. [source]

Odorants as cell-type specific activators of a heat shock response in the rat olfactory mucosa

Virginian McMillan Carr
Abstract Heat shock, or stress, proteins (HSPs) are induced in response to conditions that cause protein denaturation. Activation of cellular stress responses as a protective and survival mechanism is often associated with chemical exposure. One interface between the body and the external environment and chemical or biological agents therein is the olfactory epithelium (OE). To determine whether environmental odorants affect OE HSP expression, rats were exposed to a variety of odorants added to the cage bedding. Odorant exposure led to transient, selective induction of HSP70, HSC70, HSP25, and ubiquitin immunoreactivities (IRs) in supporting cells and subepithelial Bowman's gland acinar cells, two OE non-neuronal cell populations involved with inhalant biotransformation, detoxification, and maintenance of overall OE integrity. Responses exhibited odor specificity and dose dependency. HSP70 and HSC70 IRs occurred throughout the apical region of supporting cells; ubiquitin IR was confined to a supranuclear cone-shaped region. Electron microscopic examination confirmed these observations and, additionally, revealed odor-induced formation of dense vesicular arrays in the cone-like regions. HSP25 IR occurred throughout the entire supporting cell cytoplasm. In contrast to classical stress responses, in which the entire array of stress proteins is induced, no increases in HSP40 and HSP90 IRs were observed. Extended exposure to higher odorant doses caused prolonged activation of the same HSP subset in the non-neuronal cells and severe morphological damage in both supporting cells and olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), suggesting that non-neuronal cytoprotective stress response mechanisms had been overwhelmed and could no longer adequately maintain OE integrity. Significantly, ORNs showed no stress responses in any of our studies. These findings suggest a novel role for these HSPs in olfaction and, in turn, possible involvement in other normal neurophysiological processes. J. Comp. Neurol. 432:425,439, 2001. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Packaging of prions into exosomes is associated with a novel pathway of PrP processing,

LJ Vella
Abstract Prion diseases are fatal, transmissible neurodegenerative disorders associated with conversion of the host-encoded prion protein (PrPC) into an abnormal pathogenic isoform (PrPSc). Following exposure to the infectious agent (PrPSc) in acquired disease, infection is propagated in lymphoid tissues prior to neuroinvasion and spread within the central nervous system. The mechanism of prion dissemination is perplexing due to the lack of plausible PrPSc -containing mobile cells that could account for prion spread between infected and uninfected tissues. Evidence exists to demonstrate that the culture media of prion-infected neuronal cells contain PrPSc and infectivity but the nature of the infectivity remains unknown. In this study we have identified PrPC and PrPSc in association with endogenously expressing PrP neuronal cell-derived exosomes. The exosomes from our prion-infected neuronal cell line were efficient initiators of prion propagation in uninfected recipient cells and to non-neuronal cells. Moreover, our neuronal cell line was susceptible to infection by non-neuronal cell-derived exosome PrPSc. Importantly, these exosomes produced prion disease when inoculated into mice. Exosome-associated PrP is packaged via a novel processing pathway that involves the N-terminal modification of PrP and selection of distinct PrP glycoforms for incorporation into these vesicles. These data extend our understanding of the relationship between PrP and exosomes by showing that exosomes can establish infection in both neighbouring and distant cell types and highlight the potential contribution of differentially processed forms of PrP in disease distribution. These data suggest that exosomes represent a potent pool of prion infectivity and provide a mechanism for studying prion spread and PrP processing in cells endogenously expressing PrP. Copyright 2007 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]