Non-native Species (non-native + species)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences


Selected Abstracts


The role of environmental gradients in non-native plant invasion into burnt areas of Yosemite National Park, California

DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTIONS, Issue 2 2006
Rob Klinger
ABSTRACT Fire is known to facilitate the invasion of many non-native plant species, but how invasion into burnt areas varies along environmental gradients is not well-understood. We used two pre-existing data sets to analyse patterns of invasion by non-native plant species into burnt areas along gradients of topography, soil and vegetation structure in Yosemite National Park, California, USA. A total of 46 non-native species (all herbaceous) were recorded in the two data sets. They occurred in all seven of the major plant formations in the park, but were least common in subalpine and upper montane conifer forests. There was no significant difference in species richness or cover of non-natives between burnt and unburnt areas for either data set, and environmental gradients had a stronger effect on patterns of non-native species distribution, abundance and species composition than burning. Cover and species richness of non-natives had significant positive correlations with slope (steepness) and herbaceous cover, while species richness had significant negative correlations with elevation, the number of years post-burn, and cover of woody vegetation. Non-native species comprised a relatively minor component of the vegetation in both burnt and unburnt areas in Yosemite (percentage species = 4%, mean cover < 6.0%), and those species that did occur in burnt areas tended not to persist over time. The results indicate that in many western montane ecosystems, fire alone will not necessarily result in increased rates of invasion into burnt areas. However, it would be premature to conclude that non-native species could not affect post-fire succession patterns in these systems. Short fire-return intervals and high fire severity coupled with increased propagule pressure from areas used heavily by humans could still lead to high rates of invasion, establishment and spread even in highly protected areas such as Yosemite. [source]


Non-native species disrupt the worldwide patterns of freshwater fish body size: implications for Bergmann's rule

ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 4 2010
Simon Blanchet
Ecology Letters (2010) 13: 421,431 Abstract In this study, we test whether established non-native species induce functional changes in natural assemblages. We combined data on the body size of freshwater fish species and a worldwide data set of native and non-native fish species for 1058 river basins. We show that non-native fish species are significantly larger than their native counterparts and are a non-random subset of the worldwide set of fish species. We further show that the median body size of fish assemblages increases in the course of introductions. These changes are the opposite of those expected under several null models. Introductions shift body size patterns related to several abiotic factors (e.g. glacier coverage and temperature) in a way that modifies latitudinal patterns (i.e. Bergmann's rule), especially in the southern hemisphere. Together, these results show that over just the last two centuries human beings have induced changes in the global biogeography of freshwater fish body size, which could affect ecosystem properties. [source]


Recreational Portage Trails as Corridors Facilitating Non-Native Plant Invasions of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (U.S.A.)

CONSERVATION BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2005
SARA JO M. DICKENS
corredores; invasiones; perturbación humana; recreación; senderos Abstract:,Wilderness areas are protected and valued in part for recreation; recreational use, however, can negatively impact these areas. In particular, recreational use can facilitate transport of non-native propagules and create open sites for establishment of non-native species. We examined the role of recreational portage trails in the introduction and establishment of non-native plants into the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness of northern Minnesota (U.S.A.). On 20 portages, we sampled non-native plant richness and cover at four distances (0, 10, 25, and 50 m) from trails. Non-native richness and cover were not related to distance from wilderness entry point. Non-native richness and cover were, however, negatively related to distance from trails. All six non-native species we observed were either directly on or within 1 m of trails. These results suggest that recreational trails act as corridors facilitating invasions of non-native plants into wilderness areas. It remains unclear, however, whether these effects are caused by dispersal of propagules, creation of bare ground, or changes in the native plant community. Resumen:,En parte, las áreas silvestres son protegidas y valoradas para recreación; sin embargo, el uso recreativo puede impactar a estas áreas negativamente. En particular, el uso recreativo puede facilitar el transporte de propágulos no nativos y crear áreas abiertas para el establecimiento de especies no nativas. Examinamos el papel de senderos recreativos en la introducción y establecimiento de plantas no nativas en el Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness en el norte de Minnesota (E.U.A.). En 20 senderos, muestreamos la riqueza y cobertura de plantas no nativas a cuatro distancias (0, 10, 25 y 50 m) de los senderos. La riqueza y cobertura de no nativas no se relacionaron con la distancia al punto de entrada al área silvestre. Sin embargo, la riqueza y cobertura de no nativas se relacionaron negativamente con la distancia a los senderos. Las seis especies no nativas fueron observadas directamente sobre o a 1 m de los senderos. Estos resultados sugieren que los senderos recreativos fungen como corredores que facilitan la invasión de plantas no nativas a las áreas silvestres. Sin embargo, aún no es claro si estos efectos son causados por la dispersión de propágulos, la creación de suelo desnudo o por cambios en la comunidad de plantas nativas. [source]


Range-wide patterns of greater sage-grouse persistence

DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTIONS, Issue 6 2008
Cameron L. Aldridge
ABSTRACT Aim, Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a shrub-steppe obligate species of western North America, currently occupies only half its historical range. Here we examine how broad-scale, long-term trends in landscape condition have affected range contraction. Location, Sagebrush biome of the western USA. Methods, Logistic regression was used to assess persistence and extirpation of greater sage-grouse range based on landscape conditions measured by human population (density and population change), vegetation (percentage of sagebrush habitat), roads (density of and distance to roads), agriculture (cropland, farmland and cattle density), climate (number of severe and extreme droughts) and range periphery. Model predictions were used to identify areas where future extirpations can be expected, while also explaining possible causes of past extirpations. Results, Greater sage-grouse persistence and extirpation were significantly related to sagebrush habitat, cultivated cropland, human population density in 1950, prevalence of severe droughts and historical range periphery. Extirpation of sage-grouse was most likely in areas having at least four persons per square kilometre in 1950, 25% cultivated cropland in 2002 or the presence of three or more severe droughts per decade. In contrast, persistence of sage-grouse was expected when at least 30 km from historical range edge and in habitats containing at least 25% sagebrush cover within 30 km. Extirpation was most often explained (35%) by the combined effects of peripherality (within 30 km of range edge) and lack of sagebrush cover (less than 25% within 30 km). Based on patterns of prior extirpation and model predictions, we predict that 29% of remaining range may be at risk. Main Conclusions, Spatial patterns in greater sage-grouse range contraction can be explained by widely available landscape variables that describe patterns of remaining sagebrush habitat and loss due to cultivation, climatic trends, human population growth and peripherality of populations. However, future range loss may relate less to historical mechanisms and more to recent changes in land use and habitat condition, including energy developments and invasions by non-native species such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and West Nile virus. In conjunction with local measures of population performance, landscape-scale predictions of future range loss may be useful for prioritizing management and protection. Our results suggest that initial conservation efforts should focus on maintaining large expanses of sagebrush habitat, enhancing quality of existing habitats, and increasing habitat connectivity. [source]


Do cities export biodiversity?

DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTIONS, Issue 1 2008
Traffic as dispersal vector across urban, rural gradients
ABSTRACT Urban areas are among the land use types with the highes richness in plant species. A main feature of urban floras is the high proportion of non-native species with often divergent distribution patterns along urban,rural gradients. Urban impacts on plant species richness are usually associated with increasing human activity along rural-to-urban gradients. As an important stimulus of urban plant diversity, human-mediated seed dispersal may drive the process of increasing the similarity between urban and rural floras by moving species across urban,rural gradients. We used long motorway tunnels as sampling sites for propagules that are released by vehicles to test for the impact of traffic on seed dispersal along an urban,rural gradient. Opposite lanes of the tunnels are separated by solid walls, allowing us to differentiate seed deposition associated with traffic into vs. out of the city. Both the magnitude of seed deposition and the species richness in seed samples from two motorway tunnels were higher in lanes leading out of the city, indicating an ,export' of urban biodiversity by traffic. As proportions of seeds of non-native species were also higher in the outbound lanes, traffic may foster invasion processes starting from cities to the surrounding landscapes. Indicator species analysis revealed that only a few species were confined to samples from lanes leading into the city, while mostly species of urban habitats were significantly associated with samples from the outbound lanes. The findings demonstrate that dispersal by traffic reflects different seed sources that are associated with different traffic directions, and traffic may thus exchange propagules along the urban,rural gradient. [source]


The role of environmental gradients in non-native plant invasion into burnt areas of Yosemite National Park, California

DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTIONS, Issue 2 2006
Rob Klinger
ABSTRACT Fire is known to facilitate the invasion of many non-native plant species, but how invasion into burnt areas varies along environmental gradients is not well-understood. We used two pre-existing data sets to analyse patterns of invasion by non-native plant species into burnt areas along gradients of topography, soil and vegetation structure in Yosemite National Park, California, USA. A total of 46 non-native species (all herbaceous) were recorded in the two data sets. They occurred in all seven of the major plant formations in the park, but were least common in subalpine and upper montane conifer forests. There was no significant difference in species richness or cover of non-natives between burnt and unburnt areas for either data set, and environmental gradients had a stronger effect on patterns of non-native species distribution, abundance and species composition than burning. Cover and species richness of non-natives had significant positive correlations with slope (steepness) and herbaceous cover, while species richness had significant negative correlations with elevation, the number of years post-burn, and cover of woody vegetation. Non-native species comprised a relatively minor component of the vegetation in both burnt and unburnt areas in Yosemite (percentage species = 4%, mean cover < 6.0%), and those species that did occur in burnt areas tended not to persist over time. The results indicate that in many western montane ecosystems, fire alone will not necessarily result in increased rates of invasion into burnt areas. However, it would be premature to conclude that non-native species could not affect post-fire succession patterns in these systems. Short fire-return intervals and high fire severity coupled with increased propagule pressure from areas used heavily by humans could still lead to high rates of invasion, establishment and spread even in highly protected areas such as Yosemite. [source]


Non-native species disrupt the worldwide patterns of freshwater fish body size: implications for Bergmann's rule

ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 4 2010
Simon Blanchet
Ecology Letters (2010) 13: 421,431 Abstract In this study, we test whether established non-native species induce functional changes in natural assemblages. We combined data on the body size of freshwater fish species and a worldwide data set of native and non-native fish species for 1058 river basins. We show that non-native fish species are significantly larger than their native counterparts and are a non-random subset of the worldwide set of fish species. We further show that the median body size of fish assemblages increases in the course of introductions. These changes are the opposite of those expected under several null models. Introductions shift body size patterns related to several abiotic factors (e.g. glacier coverage and temperature) in a way that modifies latitudinal patterns (i.e. Bergmann's rule), especially in the southern hemisphere. Together, these results show that over just the last two centuries human beings have induced changes in the global biogeography of freshwater fish body size, which could affect ecosystem properties. [source]


Avoidance by grazers facilitates spread of an invasive hybrid plant

ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 2 2010
E. Grosholz
Ecology Letters (2010) 13: 145,153 Abstract Biological invasions greatly increase the potential for hybridization among native and non-native species. Hybridization may influence the palatability of novel hybrids to consumers potentially influencing invasion success; however, the palatability of non-native hybrids relative to the parent species is poorly known. In contrast, studies of native-only hybrids find they are nearly always more palatable to consumers than the parent species. Here, I experimentally demonstrate that an invasive hybrid cordgrass (Spartina) is dramatically less palatable to grazing geese than the native parent species. Using field and aviary experiments, I show that grazing geese ignore the hybrid cordgrass and preferentially consume native Spartina. I also experimentally demonstrate that reduced herbivory of the invasive hybrid may contribute to faster spread in a California estuary. These results suggest that biological invasions may increase future opportunities for creating novel hybrids that may pose a greater risk to natural systems than the parent species. [source]


Short and long term consequences of increases in exotic species richness on water filtration by marine invertebrates

ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 8 2009
Jarrett Byrnes
Abstract Although recent research has considered the consequences of global declines in the number of species, less attention has focused on the aggregate effects of regional increases in species richness as a result of human-mediated introductions. Here we examine several potential ecosystem consequences of increasing exotic species diversity of suspension feeding marine invertebrates. First, we experimentally manipulated native and non-native suspension feeder richness and measured its effect on short-term phytoplankton clearance rates. Multispecies communities all performed similarly, regardless of whether they were dominated by natives, exotics, or an even mix of the two. Individual species varied considerably in filtration rates, but non-native species often filtered less than the most similar native. Second, we determined potential changes in integrated function over time by comparing seasonal patterns of recruitment as a proxy for the ability to quickly recover filtration capacity after a disturbance. We found that exotic species have complementary seasonal phenologies both to native species and each other. Our results suggest that the consequences of local increases in species richness due to invasions may be manifest over long (annual to interannual) time scales, even when short term changes in ecosystem function are negligible. [source]


Indirect facilitation of an anuran invasion by non-native fishes

ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 4 2003
Michael J. Adams
Abstract Positive interactions among non-native species could greatly exacerbate the problem of invasions, but are poorly studied and our knowledge of their occurrence is mostly limited to plant-pollinator and dispersal interactions. We found that invasion of bullfrogs is facilitated by the presence of co-evolved non-native fish, which increase tadpole survival by reducing predatory macroinvertebrate densities. Native dragonfly nymphs in Oregon, USA caused zero survival of bullfrog tadpoles in a replicated field experiment unless a non-native sunfish was present to reduce dragonfly density. This pattern was also evident in pond surveys where the best predictors of bullfrog abundance were the presence of non-native fish and bathymetry. This is the first experimental evidence of facilitation between two non-native vertebrates and supports the invasional meltdown hypothesis. Such positive interactions among non-native species have the potential to disrupt ecosystems by amplifying invasions, and our study shows they can occur via indirect mechanisms. [source]


Voracious invader or benign feline?

FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 3 2009
A review of the environmental biology of European catfish Silurus glanis in its native, introduced ranges
Abstract A popular species for food and sport, the European catfish (Silurus glanis) is well-studied in its native range, but little studied in its introduced range. Silurus glanis is the largest-bodied freshwater fish of Europe and is historically known to take a wide range of food items including human remains. As a result of its piscivorous diet, S. glanis is assumed to be an invasive fish species presenting a risk to native species and ecosystems. To assess the potential risks of S. glanis introductions, published and ,grey' literature on the species' environmental biology (but not aquaculture) was extensively reviewed. Silurus glanis appears well adapted to, and sufficiently robust for, translocation and introduction outside its native range. A nest-guarding species, S. glanis is long-lived, rather sedentary and produces relatively fewer eggs per body mass than many fish species. It appears to establish relatively easily, although more so in warmer (i.e. Mediterranean) than in northern countries (e.g. Belgium, UK). Telemetry data suggest that dispersal is linked to flooding/spates and human translation of the species. Potential impacts in its introduced European range include disease transmission, hybridization (in Greece with native endemic Aristotle's catfish [Silurus aristotelis]), predation on native species and possibly the modification of food web structure in some regions. However, S. glanis has also been reported (France, Spain, Turkmenistan) to prey intensively on other non-native species and in its native Germany to be a poor biomanipulation tool for top-down predation of zooplanktivorous fishes. As such, S. glanis is unlikely to exert trophic pressure on native fishes except in circumstances where other human impacts are already in force. In summary, virtually all aspects of the environmental biology of introduced S. glanis require further study to determine the potential risks of its introduction to novel environments. [source]


Contribution of native and non-native species to fish communities in French reservoirs

FISHERIES MANAGEMENT & ECOLOGY, Issue 3-4 2004
P. Irz
Abstract Previous studies showed that only 20% of the variability in fish community structure in French reservoirs could be explained by site characteristics. In addition, no relationship was found between the relative abundance of species and stocking effort. Therefore, deliberate or uncontrolled introductions are likely to be the source of a great part of the observed communities. The objective of this study was to assess the importance of species introductions in French reservoirs. Fifty-one reservoirs were sampled to obtain species presence/absence data. Local native (LNaR) and non-native (LNNR) species richness were negatively correlated. LNaR was strongly correlated to the lake surface area, depth and catchment area, whereas LNNR was independent of environmental variables. Furthermore, LNaR was positively correlated to regional native richness. Conversely, local total richness was independent of regional total richness, but was related to the reservoirs' environmental characteristics. It was hypothesised that the native fish communities in French reservoirs are unsaturated and species introductions lead to saturated communities. [source]


The impacts of non-native species on UK biodiversity and the effectiveness of control

JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2000
Sarah J. Manchester
1.,The introduction of non-native species continues to cause ecological concern globally, but there have been no published reviews of their effects in the UK. Impacts in the UK are therefore reviewed, along with current legislation and guidelines relating to the introduction and control of such species. 2.,A large number of non-native species have been introduced to the UK, both deliberately and accidentally, but only a small number of introduced non-native species have established and caused detrimental ecological impacts. However, general declines in UK biodiversity, and the potential effects of future climate change, may increase the susceptibility of ecosystems to invasions. 3.,Detrimental impacts of non-native species on native biota have occurred through competition, predation, herbivory, habitat alteration, disease and genetic effects (i.e. hybridization). There are potential effects on genetic biodiversity as well as species biodiversity. 4.,Several high profile examples highlight the technical difficulties, and financial implications, of removing an introduced species once it is established. Few UK control or eradication programmes have been successful. 5.,Control might be more feasible if ,problem' species could be identified at an earlier stage of establishment. However, the poor success of attempts to characterize invasive species and predict which will have negative impacts highlight the individual and unpredictable nature of invasions. The difficulties of making general predictions suggest that every proposed species introduction should be subject to rigorous ecological characterization and risk assessment prior to introduction. 6.,The plethora of UK legislation and guidelines developed to reduce impacts of non-native species only go part of the way towards ameliorating impact. Many species already established in the wild might cause future problems. Illegal releases and escapes of non-native species may augment feral populations or establish new colonies. While regulation of imports and releases is important, further enforcement of existing legislation and action against unlicensed releases is necessary. [source]


To be, or not to be, a non-native freshwater fish?

JOURNAL OF APPLIED ICHTHYOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
G. H. Copp
Summary We examine the evolving concept of what constitutes a non-native (or alien) freshwater fish. In an attempt to distinguish between biogeographical and socio-political perspectives, we review the patterns in the introduction and dispersal of non-native fishes in Europe and North America, and especially the recent expansion of Ponto-Caspian gobies in Europe. We assess patterns in the development of national policy and legislation in response to the perceived threat of non-native fish introductions to native species and ecosystems. We review, and provide a glossary of, the terms and definitions associated with non-native species. Finally, we discuss perspectives as regards the future treatment of naturalized species. [source]


A review of changes in the fish assemblages of Levantine inland and marine ecosystems following the introduction of non-native fishes

JOURNAL OF APPLIED ICHTHYOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
M. Goren
Summary The arrival of non-native fishes in the Levant Basin began in the late 19th century. Whereas the presence of most of the 40 non-native freshwater fishes stem from intentional introductions, either for aquaculture or pest control, the 62 species of non-native marine fishes arrived by natural dispersal via the Suez Canal. Of the non-native freshwater species, five have established successful breeding populations (mosquitofish Gambusia affinis, common carp Cyprinus carpio, crucian carp Carassius carassius, swordtail Xiphophorus hellerii and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss), and seven are regularly stocked in natural habitats (thinlip mullet Liza ramada, flathead mullet Mugil cephalus, European eel Anguilla anguilla, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, Asian silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis, black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus). Some non-native species appear to have out-competed native species. Gambusia affinis may have caused the extirpation of two native cyprinid fishes from the Qishon River basin (Levant silver carp Hemigrammocapoeta nana and common garra Garra rufa) and the southern Dead Sea (endemic Sodom's garra G. ghoerensis). The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 allowed entry into the eastern Mediterranean of Indo-Pacific and Erythrean biota, with the latter now dominating the community structure (50,90% of fish biomass) and function (altered native food web) of the Levantine littoral and infra-littoral zones. The process has accelerated in recent years concurrent with a warming trend of the seawater. Record numbers of newly discovered non-native species is leading to the creation of a human-assisted Erythrean biotic province in the eastern Mediterranean. [source]


Interactions between non-native plant species and the floristic composition of common habitats

JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
L. C. MASKELL
Summary 1We investigated the role of non-native species (neophytes) in common British plant communities using botanical data from two stratified random surveys carried out in 1990 and 1998. 2We found that from 16 851 plots surveyed in 1998 there were 123 non-native species found mostly in arable, tall grass/herb and fertile grassland habitats. Invasive non-native species, e.g. Fallopia japonica, Impatiens glandulifera and Rhododendron ponticum, were uncommon in this survey. 3Between 1990 and 1998 the total number of non-native species increased but the mean number of species per sample plot decreased. The mean cover of non-natives increased from 1.2% to 1.9%. 4There were positive spatial and temporal relationships between non-native and native species diversity. However, there was a weak negative relationship between changes in non-native cover and native diversity. 5The species composition and ecological traits of communities containing non-natives were very different from those that did not contain them. 6In the British countryside non-native species were mainly found in habitats with anthropogenic associations, high fertility, high number of ruderal species and high diversity. There is also an indication that successional shifts where competitive invasive species dominate involve non-native species. 7National-scale changes in plant community composition are likely to be closely correlated with external land-use impacts. Changes such as eutrophication, nitrogen deposition and increased fertility in infertile habitats are likely to benefit both native and non-native invasive species; however, currently these trends benefit native species much more often than non-natives. 8Non-native species are known to have significant effects on native species at local scales in many countries; however, at the landscape scale in Great Britain they are best considered as symptoms of disturbance and land-use change rather than a direct threat to biodiversity. [source]


Patterns of invasion within a grassland community

JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2002
A. Kolb
Summary 1Relatively few studies have looked for patterns of invasion by non-native species within communities. We tested the hypotheses that: (i) some types of microhabitats within a community are more invasible than others; (ii) microhabitat types that differ in invasion also differ in resource availability; and (iii) invasibility is mediated by effects of these resources on competition between native and non-native species. 2To test the first two hypotheses, we measured plant cover and soils in a coastal grassland in northern California. Consistent with these hypotheses, cover of non-native plants was consistently high where nitrogen-fixing shrubs had recently grown, in the bottoms and sides of gullies and on deep soils, and these microhabitats tended to have relatively high nitrogen or water availability. 3Cover and number of native species tended to be lower where cover of non-native species was higher, indicating that non-native species as a group negatively affected native species. However, the number of non-native species also tended to be lower where the total cover of non-natives was higher. This suggests that a few non-native species excluded natives and other non-natives alike. 4To test the third hypothesis, we grew a common non-native, the annual grass Lolium multiflorum, and a common native, the perennial grass Hordeum brachyantherum, at different levels of water and nitrogen. The relative competitive ability of the native was higher at lower nitrogen availability but not at lower water availability. When 10-week-old native plants were grown with non-native seedlings and nitrogen was relatively low, the native out-competed the non-native. However, the non-native out-competed the native at all resource levels when species were both grown as seedlings. Competition between native and non-native grasses in this system may thus help prevent invasion by non-natives in microhabitats where nitrogen availability is low, but invasion may be relatively irreversible. [source]


Fire and vegetation history on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands, and long-term environmental change in southern California,

JOURNAL OF QUATERNARY SCIENCE, Issue 5 2010
R. Scott Anderson
Abstract The long-term history of vegetation and fire was investigated at two locations , Soledad Pond (275,m; from ca. 12 000,cal. a BP) and Abalone Rocks Marsh (0,m; from ca. 7000,cal. a BP) , on Santa Rosa Island, situated off the coast of southern California. A coastal conifer forest covered highlands of Santa Rosa during the last glacial, but by ca. 11 800,cal. a BP Pinus stands, coastal sage scrub and grassland replaced the forest as the climate warmed. The early Holocene became increasingly drier, particularly after ca. 9150,cal. a BP, as the pond dried frequently, and coastal sage scrub covered the nearby hillslopes. By ca. 6900,cal. a BP grasslands recovered at both sites. Pollen of wetland plants became prominent at Soledad Pond after ca. 4500,cal. a BP, and at Abalone Rocks Marsh after ca. 3465,cal. a BP. Diatoms suggest freshening of the Abalone Rocks Marsh somewhat later, probably by additional runoff from the highlands. Introduction of non-native species by ranchers occurred subsequent to AD 1850. Charcoal influx is high early in the record, but declines during the early Holocene when minimal biomass suggests extended drought. A general increase occurs after ca. 7000,cal. a BP, and especially after ca. 4500,cal. a BP. The Holocene pattern closely resembles population levels constructed from the archaeological record, and suggests a potential influence by humans on the fire regime of the islands, particularly during the late Holocene. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Factors determining the centrifugal organization of remnant Festuca grassland communities in Alberta

JOURNAL OF VEGETATION SCIENCE, Issue 1 2000
K. Vujnovic
Moss (1983); Pavlick & Looman (1984) Abstract. This paper describes the species composition of remnant grasslands in the aspen parkland region of Alberta and its relation to soil characteristics and small-scale disturbance. Our findings are consistent with the centrifugal model of communities with Festuca hallii dominating undisturbed ,core' habitat and the composition of more ,peripheral' habitats varying in soil properties and in the magnitude of disturbance. Invasive non-native species are not present in the core habitat and are present only in the disturbed sites, most abundantly in those with the highest soil nitrogen. The centrifugal model, as it applies to these remnant grasslands, differs from its previous application to wetlands and forests in that the core communities are not on the most fertile sites, but on the least disturbed. These findings have implications for the management of prairie remnants to exclude invasive exotic species. [source]


Establishing native plants on newly-constructed and older-reclaimed sites along West Virginia highways

LAND DEGRADATION AND DEVELOPMENT, Issue 4 2008
J.G. Skousen
Abstract Many state highway departments in the USA must use native plants for revegetating roadsides. We conducted two field studies in West Virginia to assess native plant establishment under two different conditions. On newly-constructed sites, native species were seeded alone or combined with non-native species. On older roadsides, native species were seeded in disturbed existing vegetation. In the first study, we used four seed mixtures comprised of seeds of native and non-native species, and two N-P-K fertilizer treatments at three newly-constructed sites. Native, warm-season grasses were slow to establish and only contributed 25 per cent cover in some plots after three years. Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans [L.] Nash), big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman), Brown-Eyed Susan (Rudbeckia triloba L.), and wild senna (Cassia hebecarpa Fernald) were the only seeded native species found. Fertilizer at 150,kg,ha,1 of 10-20-10 showed little influence on increasing plant cover. In the second study, we disturbed three different-aged established stands of vegetation composed of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Screb.) and crownvetch (Coronilla varia L.) by mowing, herbicide, or tillage, and native plants were seeded with and without fertilizer. Native cover was <10 per cent in all plots during the first year, but greatly increased by the second year to as much as 45 per cent in tilled plots, indicating that disturbance was necessary for natives to become important contributors within 2 years. Only switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), little bluestem (Andropogon scoparius Vitman), partridge pea (Chamaecrista fasciculate Michx.), and Brown-Eyed Susan were observed in plots. Fertilizer at 300,kg,ha,1 of 10-20-10 did not increase native plant cover on these sites. Based on our results, introducing or increasing the cover of native species along roadsides requires (1) reducing competition from non-native species, and (2) longer time periods for these slower-establishing species to be observed. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Tracing the geographical origin of Megastigmus transvaalensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae): an African wasp feeding on a South American plant in North America

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
Sonja J. Scheffer
Abstract Determining the geographical origin of an introduced organism can be critical to understanding or managing a non-native species, but is often difficult when the organism is small or inconspicuous. We used a phylogeographical approach to identify the region of endemism and determine the geographical origin of world populations of the seed-feeding wasp Megastigmus transvaalensis (Hussey). This wasp feeds on African Rhus species and South American Schinus species in various locations around the world. Because it is present both in Africa and in South America, it is unclear whether the wasp was originally an African Rhus -feeder that has begun feeding on Schinus or a South American Schinus -feeder that has started feeding on Rhus. Phylogenetic analysis of 800 bp of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I sequence data found extensive variation and phylogeographical structure within African M. transvaalensis. Specimens from other locations around the world were all identical in COI sequence and were phylogenetically nested within the African samples. We conclude that M. transvaalensis was originally an African Rhus -feeder that readily attacks Schinus. We evaluate potential pathways of introduction of this wasp to the New World, and we discuss implications of our results for biocontrol efforts against invasive Schinus populations. [source]


Highly variable microsatellite loci for studies of introduced populations of the small Indian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus)

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY RESOURCES, Issue 4 2002
C.-G. Thulin
Abstract During their introduction, non-native species typically undergo founder events that reduce genetic variation. To allow a high-resolution genetic investigation of introduced populations of the small Indian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus), we developed primers for nine variable microsatellite loci. Their applicability was assessed in 10 mongooses from the large Fijian population, which originated from a single pair from Calcutta, India. The number of alleles ranged from two to five per locus, possibly as a result of preservation of initial variability and in situ mutations during the rapid population expansion after introduction. [source]


Changing Perceptions of Change: The Role of Scientists in Tamarix and River Management

RESTORATION ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
Juliet C. Stromberg
Abstract Initially introduced to western United States to provide ecosystem services such as erosion control, Tamarix by the mid-1900s had became vilified as a profligate waster of water. This large shrub continues, today, to be indicted for various presumed environmental and economic costs, and millions of dollars are expended on its eradication. In this review, we examine the role of scientists in driving changes in perceptions of Tamarix from valuable import to vilified invader and (in some instances) back to a productive member of riparian plant communities. Scientists over the years have sustained a negative perception of Tamarix by, among other things, (1) citing outmoded sources; (2) inferring causation from correlative studies; (3) applying conclusions beyond the scope (domain) of the studies; and (4) emphasizing findings that present the species as an extreme or unnatural agent of change. Recent research is challenging the prevailing dogma regarding Tamarix's role in ecosystem function and habitat degradation and many scientists now recommend management shifts from "pest plant" eradication to systemic, process-based restoration. However, prejudice against this and other non-native species persists. To further close the gap between science and management, it is important for scientists to strive to (1) cite sources appropriately; (2) avoid reflexive antiexotic bias; (3) avoid war-based and pestilence-based terminology; (4) heed the levels of certainty and the environmental domain of studies; (5) maintain up-to-date information on educational Web sites; and (6) prior to undertaking restoration or management actions, conduct a thorough and critical review of the literature. [source]


Restoration Ecology and Invasive Riparian Plants: An Introduction to the Special Section on Tamarix spp. in Western North America

RESTORATION ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
Patrick B. Shafroth
Abstract River systems around the world are subject to various perturbations, including the colonization and spread of non-native species in riparian zones. Riparian resource managers are commonly engaged in efforts to control problematic non-native species and restore native habitats. In western North America, small Eurasian trees or shrubs in the genus Tamarix occupy hundreds of thousands of hectares of riparian lands, and are the targets of substantial and costly control efforts and associated restoration activities. Still, significant information gaps exist regarding approaches used in control and restoration efforts and their effects on riparian ecosystems. In this special section of papers, eight articles address various aspects of control and restoration associated with Tamarix spp. These include articles focused on planning restoration and revegetation; a synthetic analysis of past restoration efforts; and several specific research endeavors examining plant responses, water use, and various wildlife responses (including birds, butterflies, and lizards). These articles represent important additions to the Tamarix spp. literature and contain many lessons and insights that should be transferable to other analogous situations in river systems globally. [source]


Understory vegetation response to mechanical mastication and other fuels treatments in a ponderosa pine forest

APPLIED VEGETATION SCIENCE, Issue 2 2010
Jeffrey M. Kane
Abstract Questions: What influence does mechanical mastication and other fuel treatments have on: (1) canopy and forest floor response variables that influence understory plant development; (2) initial understory vegetation cover, diversity, and composition; and (3) shrub and non-native species density in a second-growth ponderosa pine forest. Location: Challenge Experimental Forest, northern Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Methods: We compared the effects of mastication only, mastication with supplemental treatments (tilling and prescribed fire), hand removal, and a control on initial understory vegetation response using a randomized complete block experimental design. Each block (n=4) contained all five treatments and understory vegetation was surveyed within 0.04-ha plots for each treatment. Results: While mastication alone and hand removal dramatically reduced the midstory vegetation, these treatments had little effect on understory richness compared with control. Prescribed fire after mastication increased native species richness by 150% (+6.0 species m2) compared with control. However, this also increased non-native species richness (+0.8 species m2) and shrub seedling density (+24.7 stems m2). Mastication followed by tilling resulted in increased non-native forb density (+0.7 stems m2). Conclusions: Mechanical mastication and hand removal treatments aided in reducing midstory fuels but did not increase understory plant diversity. The subsequent treatment of prescribed burning not only further reduced fire hazard, but also exposed mineral soil, which likely promoted native plant diversity. Some potential drawbacks to this treatment include an increase of non-native species and stimulation of shrub seed germination, which could alter ecosystem functions and compromise fire hazard reduction in the long-term. [source]


The success of succession: a symposium commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Buell-Small Succession Study

APPLIED VEGETATION SCIENCE, Issue 1 2009
M.L. Cadenasso
Motivation: The Buell-Small Succession Study (BSS) is the longest running study of post agricultural succession in North America. To honor this program, a symposium at the Ecological Society of America meetings was organized to explore the state of succession theory and its contribution to the field of ecology and its application to restoration. The BSS was originally motivated by two controversies in the literature during the 1950's. The first was between a community versus and individual basis of secondary succession. The second was the validity of the Initial Floristic Composition hypothesis. Location: Hutcheson Memorial Forest, Somerset, New Jersey, USA Methods: Vegetation composition and cover has been continuously quantified in permanent plots established in 10 old fields. Continued Research Motivation: The rich data set has documented population and community dynamics and the spatio-temporal controls and historical contingencies that influence those dynamics. The regulation of community dynamics continues to be a line of inquiry as does the application of results to restoration and understanding the dynamics of non-native species. Conclusions: Long term vegetation studies are uncommon in ecology yet they are uniquely valuable for understanding system dynamics , particularly if the studies capture periodic events or system shifts such as droughts and invasions by non-native species. Resilient long term studies, of which the BSS is an example, maintain methods and data structure while allowing motivating questions to evolve along side advancements in the theoretical and conceptual realms of the field. Succession continues to serve as a basic tenet of ecology which is demonstrated by the papers making up this special issue. [source]


On a level field: the utility of studying native and non-native species in successional systems

APPLIED VEGETATION SCIENCE, Issue 1 2009
Scott J. Meiners
Abstract Questions: How do successional systems contribute to our understanding of plant invasions? Why is a community-level approach important in understanding invasion? Do native and non-native plant species differ in their successional trajectories within communities? Location: Northeastern United States, in the Piedmont region of New Jersey. Previously farmed since the 1700s, ten fields were experimentally retired from agriculture beginning in 1958. Methods: Fifty years of permanent plot data were used to quantify the population demographics of the 84 most abundant species during succession. These measures were then used to compare native, non-native and non-native invasive species' population dynamics in succession. Results: Once basic life-history characteristics were accounted for, there were no differences in the population dynamics of native, non-native, and non-native invasive plant species. However, the species pool in this study was biased towards ruderal species, which largely constrained non-native species to early succession. Conclusion: Successional systems are crucial to our understanding of invasions as they constrain all species to the role of colonizer. By focusing on the whole community, rather than on individual problematic species, we found no systematic differences between native and non-native species. Thus, knowing simple life-history information about a species would be much more useful in setting management priorities than where the species originated. [source]


The demography of introduction pathways, propagule pressure and occurrences of non-native freshwater fish in England

AQUATIC CONSERVATION: MARINE AND FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS, Issue 5 2010
G. H. Copp
Abstract 1.Biological invasion theory predicts that the introduction and establishment of non-native species is positively correlated with propagule pressure. Releases of pet and aquarium fishes to inland waters has a long history; however, few studies have examined the demographic basis of their importation and incidence in the wild. 2.For the 1500 grid squares (10×10,km) that make up England, data on human demographics (population density, numbers of pet shops, garden centres and fish farms), the numbers of non-native freshwater fishes (from consented licences) imported in those grid squares (i.e. propagule pressure), and the reported incidences (in a national database) of non-native fishes in the wild were used to examine spatial relationships between the occurrence of non-native fishes and the demographic factors associated with propagule pressure, as well as to test whether the demographic factors are statistically reliable predictors of the incidence of non-native fishes, and as such surrogate estimators of propagule pressure. 3.Principal coordinates of neighbour matrices analyses, used to generate spatially explicit models, and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that spatial distributions of non-native species in England were significantly related to human population density, garden centre density and fish farm density. Human population density and the number of fish imports were identified as the best predictors of propagule pressure. 4.Human population density is an effective surrogate estimator of non-native fish propagule pressure and can be used to predict likely areas of non-native fish introductions. In conjunction with fish movements, where available, human population densities can be used to support biological invasion monitoring programmes across Europe (and perhaps globally) and to inform management decisions as regards the prioritization of areas for the control of non-native fish introductions. © Crown copyright 2010. Reproduced with the permission of her Majesty's Stationery Office. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Neues Leben im Weltnaturerbe Wattenmeer.

BIOLOGIE IN UNSERER ZEIT (BIUZ), Issue 3 2010
Globalisierung unter Wasser
Abstract Neue Untersuchungen im Wattenmeer decken eine Überflutung durch eingeschleppte Arten auf, die sich in den vergangenen Jahren vor allem im Flachwasserbereich direkt unterhalb der Gezeitenzone ausbreiten konnten. Hier sind sie Nutznießer der durch den globalen Klimawandel verursachten ansteigenden Wassertemperaturen. Entstanden ist eine diverse Lebensgemeinschaft von Algen und Wirbellosen, die sich fortlaufend weiter verändert. Neben der strukturellen Komplexität der biogenen Habitate hat besonders die funktionelle Gruppe der filtrierenden Organismen zugenommen. Insgesamt ist das gesamte Ökosystem in einen Umbruch geraten, der nicht mehr umkehrbar ist. Globalization under water: Alien species in the Wadden Sea World Heritage Recent investigations reveal an increasing number of non-native species in the Wadden Sea which profit from warmer water temperatures caused by global change. These exotic species achieve highest occurrence and densities in shallow waters near the low tide water level. In this tidal zone, a highly diverse species community of algae and invertebrates became established and will continue to alter in composition. This leads to enhanced complexity of biogenic habitats and to a prevalence of filter feeding organisms. Thus, we observe a fundamental change of the whole Wadden Sea ecosystem which is without return. [source]