Non-native Crayfish (non-native + crayfish)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Coupling long-term studies with meta-analysis to investigate impacts of non-native crayfish on zoobenthic communities

Summary 1. Biological invasions are widely recognised as a significant component of human-caused environmental change and a primary threat to native biodiversity. The negative impacts of species invasions are particularly evident for freshwater crayfish faunas. 2. This study provides novel insight into the ecological effects of native and non-native crayfish on zoobenthic communities (with emphasis on the non-native rusty crayfish, Orconectes rusticus) across broad scales by combining a meta-analysis of small-scale experimental studies with a long-term observational study conducted over a 24 year period in Sparkling Lake, Wisconsin, U.S.A. (4600,N, 8942,W). 3. The meta-analysis summarised quantitatively the results of cage experiments for seven species of crayfish spanning four continents. We found that total zoobenthos densities (primarily Gastropoda and Diptera) were significantly lower in treatments containing crayfish relative to controls; a result that was significant for non-native crayfish but not for crayfish in their native range, perhaps owing to a small sample size. In contrast to other species, rusty crayfish were also negatively associated with Ephemeroptera. 4. Results from the time series analysis comparing temporal trends in rusty crayfish and invertebrate abundances from Sparkling Lake were consistent with the findings from the meta-analysis. Rusty crayfish were negatively correlated with the abundance of total zoobenthos, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Odonata, as well as families of Trichoptera. 5. By coupling the results from short and long-term research, our study offers greater insight into the nature of crayfish-invertebrate interactions in aquatic systems, revealing consistent effects of invasive crayfish on native fauna. The control and management of invasive species is facilitated by the knowledge that well executed small-scale studies may be extrapolated to understand larger-scale ecological interactions. [source]

Relative impacts of native and non-native crayfish on shelter use by an indigenous benthic fish

Damian H. Bubb
Abstract 1.The North American signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus has been widely introduced throughout Europe where it is expanding its range and in many areas replacing the native white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes. There is concern with regards to the impact of this species replacement on benthic fish. Interspecific behavioural interactions and competition for shelter between the benthic fish, bullhead Cottus gobio and A. pallipes and P. leniusculus were measured to assess the comparative impact of native and non-native crayfish. 2.Both white-clawed crayfish and signal crayfish were dominant over bullhead. Bullheads moved away from approaches of crayfish, left shelters on entry of crayfish and rarely entered an occupied shelter. Signal crayfish made significantly more aggressive approaches towards bullheads than white-clawed crayfish. 3.Alone, bullheads spent most of their time by day under shelter (median 96%), reflecting a highly entrained behavioural response, which was relaxed by night (median 60%). Both crayfish species reduced shelter use by bullheads although the extent of shelter sharing by bullheads was higher in trials with white-clawed crayfish than with signal crayfish. 4.Sampling in the River Wharfe, northern England, where signal and white-clawed crayfish and bullhead currently exist, demonstrated a negative relationship between the densities of signal crayfish and bullhead, with high bullhead abundance where crayfish were absent or where white-clawed crayfish were present at low density. 5.Assuming that shelter is sometimes limited under natural conditions, crayfish are likely to displace bullheads from shelters, which may increase predation risk for bullheads. Although the effects of signal crayfish on bullhead shelter use were more intense, the pattern was highly evident for the native white-clawed crayfish. The higher fecundity and densities attained by signal crayfish may be more significant than differences in the behaviour of the two crayfish species in determining the impact of crayfish on bullheads. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]