Nonmotor Symptoms (nonmotor + symptom)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Effect of Psychiatric and Other Nonmotor Symptoms on Disability in Parkinson's Disease

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 5 2004
Daniel Weintraub MD
Objectives: To examine the effect of depression and other nonmotor symptoms on functional ability in Parkinson's disease (PD). Design: A cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of PD patients receiving specialty care. Setting: The Parkinson's Disease Research, Education and Clinical Center at the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Participants: One hundred fourteen community-dwelling patients with idiopathic PD. Measurements: The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS); Hoehn and Yahr Stage; Mini-Mental State Examination; Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, depression module; probes for psychotic symptoms; Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; Geriatric Depression Scale,Short Form; Apathy Scale; and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Disability was rated using the UPDRS activity of daily living (ADL) score and the Schwab and England ADL score. Multivariate analysis determined effect of depression and other nonmotor symptoms on disability. Results: The presence of psychosis, depressive disorder, increasing depression severity, age, duration of PD, cognitive impairment, apathy, sleepiness, motor impairment, and percentage of time with dyskinesias were related to greater disability in bivariate analyses. Entering these factors into two multiple regression analyses, only the increasing severity of depression and worsening cognition were associated with greater disability using the UPDRS ADL score, accounting for 37% of the variance in disability (P<.001). These two factors plus increasing severity of PD accounted for 54% of the variance in disability using the Schwab and England ADL score (P<.001). Conclusion: Results support and extend previous findings that psychiatric and other nonmotor symptoms contribute significantly to disability in PD. Screening for nonmotor symptoms in PD is necessary to more fully explain functional limitations. Further study is required to determine whether identifying and treating these symptoms will improve function and quality of life. [source]


The nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease,An overview,

MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue S1 2010
FRACP, Shen-Yang Lim MBBS
Abstract Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) are very common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and may result in significant disability. The increased focus on these important clinical features represents a major advance in the care of PD patients. In this article, we provide an overview of recent developments in the field. 2010 Movement Disorder Society [source]


Major nutritional issues in the management of Parkinson's disease,

MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 13 2009
Michela Barichella MD
Abstract As with other neurodegenerative diseases, neurologic and nutritional elements may interact affecting each other in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the long-term effects of such interactions on prognosis and outcome have not been given much attention and are poorly addressed by current research. Factors contributing to the clinical conditions of patients with PD are not only the basic features of PD, progression of disease, and the therapeutic approach but also fiber and nutrient intakes (in terms of both energy and protein content), fluid and micronutrient balance, and pharmaconutrient interactions (protein and levodopa). During the course of PD nutritional requirements frequently change. Accordingly, both body weight gain and loss may occur and, despite controversy, it seems that both changes in energy expenditure and food intake contribute. Nonmotor symptoms play a significant role and dysphagia may be responsible for the impairment of nutritional status and fluid balance. Constipation, gastroparesis, and gastro-oesophageal reflux significantly affect quality of life. Finally, any micronutrient deficiencies should be taken into account. Nutritional assessments should be performed routinely. Optimization of pharmacologic treatment for both motor and nonmotor symptoms is essential, but nutritional interventions and counseling could and should also be planned with regard to nutritional balance designed to prevent weight loss or gain; optimization of levodopa pharmacokinetics and avoidance of interaction with proteins; improvement in gastrointestinal dysfunction (e.g., dysphagia and constipation); prevention and treatment of nutritional deficiencies (micronutrients or vitamins). A balanced Mediterranean-like dietary regimen should be recommended before the introduction of levodopa; afterward, patients with advanced disease may benefit considerably from protein redistribution and low-protein regimens. 2009 Movement Disorder Society [source]


Rasagiline: defining the role of a novel therapy in the treatment of Parkinson's disease

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 2 2006
F. Stocchi
Summary Parkinson's disease (PD) is a therapy area with considerable unmet needs. The current key targets for PD treatment include the slowing of disease progression, improved control of motor fluctuations in advanced disease and the treatment of nonmotor symptoms. In view of such major requirements, it is important to consider how new drug treatments fit into the context of PD therapy, and the practical advantages that they may offer in the management of PD in clinical practice. Rasagiline is a novel, second-generation, irreversible, selective monoamine oxidase type B inhibitor that is indicated for the treatment of idiopathic PD, either as initial monotherapy or as adjunct therapy (with levodopa) for patients experiencing end-of-dose motor fluctuations. This review assesses the outcome from several large-scale clinical studies that have investigated the use of rasagiline in early and advanced PD patient populations and discusses the role of rasagiline within the current scope of PD therapy. [source]


Effect of Psychiatric and Other Nonmotor Symptoms on Disability in Parkinson's Disease

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 5 2004
Daniel Weintraub MD
Objectives: To examine the effect of depression and other nonmotor symptoms on functional ability in Parkinson's disease (PD). Design: A cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of PD patients receiving specialty care. Setting: The Parkinson's Disease Research, Education and Clinical Center at the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Participants: One hundred fourteen community-dwelling patients with idiopathic PD. Measurements: The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS); Hoehn and Yahr Stage; Mini-Mental State Examination; Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, depression module; probes for psychotic symptoms; Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; Geriatric Depression Scale,Short Form; Apathy Scale; and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Disability was rated using the UPDRS activity of daily living (ADL) score and the Schwab and England ADL score. Multivariate analysis determined effect of depression and other nonmotor symptoms on disability. Results: The presence of psychosis, depressive disorder, increasing depression severity, age, duration of PD, cognitive impairment, apathy, sleepiness, motor impairment, and percentage of time with dyskinesias were related to greater disability in bivariate analyses. Entering these factors into two multiple regression analyses, only the increasing severity of depression and worsening cognition were associated with greater disability using the UPDRS ADL score, accounting for 37% of the variance in disability (P<.001). These two factors plus increasing severity of PD accounted for 54% of the variance in disability using the Schwab and England ADL score (P<.001). Conclusion: Results support and extend previous findings that psychiatric and other nonmotor symptoms contribute significantly to disability in PD. Screening for nonmotor symptoms in PD is necessary to more fully explain functional limitations. Further study is required to determine whether identifying and treating these symptoms will improve function and quality of life. [source]


Abnormal visual activation in Parkinson's disease patients,

MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 11 2010
Ellison Fernando Cardoso MD
Abstract Among nonmotor symptoms observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) dysfunction in the visual system, including hallucinations, has a significant impact in their quality of life. To further explore the visual system in PD patients we designed two fMRI experiments comparing 18 healthy volunteers with 16 PD patients without visual complaints in two visual fMRI paradigms: the flickering checkerboard task and a facial perception paradigm. PD patients displayed a decreased activity in the primary visual cortex (Broadmann area 17) bilaterally as compared to healthy volunteers during flickering checkerboard task and increased activity in fusiform gyrus (Broadmann area 37) during facial perception paradigm. Our findings confirm the notion that PD patients show significant changes in the visual cortex system even before the visual symptoms are clinically evident. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the contribution of these abnormalities to the development visual symptoms in PD. 2010 Movement Disorders Society [source]


Motor laterality asymmetry and nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease,

MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 1 2010
Esther Cubo
Abstract Background: In patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), asymmetric motor signs provide an interesting model to evaluate whether asymmetric nigrostriatal degeneration can affect neuropsychological function and other nonmotor symptoms (NMS). This study was designed to evaluate the predominant laterality of motor symptoms and its relationship with cognition and other NMS in idiopathic PD. Methods: Nationwide, longitudinal, and multicenter study (ELEP Registry) using outpatients with PD. Left PD (LPD) and right PD (RPD) was defined based on the motor signs on the SCOPA-motor scale. To include the clinical spectrum of asymmetric PD patients, we considered two groups of patients with mild-moderate and extreme asymmetry. Predominant LPD or RPD with mild-moderate versus extreme asymmetry were compared using the following scales: cognition, psychosis (Parkinson Psychosis Rating Scale), anxiety/depression, sleep (and autonomic dysfunction at baseline and 1 year later. Nonparametric tests were used for comparison. Results: One hundred forty-nine PD patients (74 RPD and 75 LPD) with mild-moderate asymmetry and 90 (47 RPD and 43 LPD) with extreme asymmetry and a mean age of 64.5 (10.4) years were included. Extreme RPD had higher Parkinson Psychosis Rating Scale scores over time (P = 0.005) compared with LPD, but no significant differences were observed between LPD and RPD in terms of other NMS. Conclusions: These findings suggest that damage to left-hemisphere plays a disproportionately greater role in PD-related psychosis over time. In contrast, motor laterality does not consistently affect other NMS, suggesting that NMS are related to a more widespread brain disorder. 2009 Movement Disorder Society [source]


Clinical measures of progression in Parkinson's disease,

MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue S2 2009
Werner Poewe MD
Abstract Despite all recent advances in symptomatic therapy Parkinson's disease (PD) continues to be a relentlessly progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Therefore therapies that will slow or hold disease progression are a major medical unmet need in PD. Clinical measures of disease progression that have been used in disease modification trials so far have focused on indices of progression of cardinal motor features like bradykinesia, rigidity, and tremor as captured by the UPDRS and the emerging need for effective dopaminergic symptomatic therapy. Progression of global disability in PD, however, is driven by additional factors beyond progressive nigrostriatal denervation leading to increasing severity of cardinal motor features. Progressive pathology in extranigral sites in the brain or peripheral autonomic nervous system contribute to poorly levodopa responsive motor symptoms like postural instability, freezing and falls or nonmotor symptoms. In addition treatment-induced motor complications also impact on PD disability. Although it is widely accepted that clinical progression of PD is multidimensional and in addition includes effects of aging, there is no consensus how to best implement more clinically meaningful endpoints for disease progression trials that would reflect these complex interactions impacting on the evolution of global disability in PD. There is an urgent need for biomarkers for disease progression that would faithfully reflect advancing neurodegeneration and resulted clinical disability in PD and that could be used in shorter term clinical trials testing putative disease modifying agents. 2009 Movement Disorder Society [source]


Major nutritional issues in the management of Parkinson's disease,

MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 13 2009
Michela Barichella MD
Abstract As with other neurodegenerative diseases, neurologic and nutritional elements may interact affecting each other in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the long-term effects of such interactions on prognosis and outcome have not been given much attention and are poorly addressed by current research. Factors contributing to the clinical conditions of patients with PD are not only the basic features of PD, progression of disease, and the therapeutic approach but also fiber and nutrient intakes (in terms of both energy and protein content), fluid and micronutrient balance, and pharmaconutrient interactions (protein and levodopa). During the course of PD nutritional requirements frequently change. Accordingly, both body weight gain and loss may occur and, despite controversy, it seems that both changes in energy expenditure and food intake contribute. Nonmotor symptoms play a significant role and dysphagia may be responsible for the impairment of nutritional status and fluid balance. Constipation, gastroparesis, and gastro-oesophageal reflux significantly affect quality of life. Finally, any micronutrient deficiencies should be taken into account. Nutritional assessments should be performed routinely. Optimization of pharmacologic treatment for both motor and nonmotor symptoms is essential, but nutritional interventions and counseling could and should also be planned with regard to nutritional balance designed to prevent weight loss or gain; optimization of levodopa pharmacokinetics and avoidance of interaction with proteins; improvement in gastrointestinal dysfunction (e.g., dysphagia and constipation); prevention and treatment of nutritional deficiencies (micronutrients or vitamins). A balanced Mediterranean-like dietary regimen should be recommended before the introduction of levodopa; afterward, patients with advanced disease may benefit considerably from protein redistribution and low-protein regimens. 2009 Movement Disorder Society [source]


Impulsive and compulsive behaviors in Parkinson's disease,,

MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 11 2009
Andrew H. Evans FRACP
Abstract Antiparkinson therapy can be the primary cause of a range of nonmotor symptoms that include a set of complex disinhibitory psychomotor pathologies and are linked by their repetitive, reward or incentive-based natures. These behaviors relate to aberrant or excessive dopamine receptor stimulation and encompass impulse control disorders (ICDs), punding, and the dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS). Common ICDs include pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive eating, and compulsive buying. This review focuses on the phenomenology, epidemiology, and methods to identify and rate these disorders. The management of dopaminergic drug-related compulsive behaviors is discussed in the light of the current understanding of the neurobiological substrate of these disorders. 2009 Movement Disorder Society [source]


The PRIAMO study: A multicenter assessment of nonmotor symptoms and their impact on quality of life in Parkinson's disease,

MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 11 2009
Paolo Barone MD
Abstract We performed a multicenter survey using a semistructured interview in 1,072 consecutive patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) enrolled during 12 months in 55 Italian centers to assess the prevalence of nonmotor symptoms (NMSs), their association with cognitive impairment, and the impact on patients' quality of life (QoL). We found that 98.6% of patients with PD reported the presence of NMSs. The most common were as follows: fatigue (58%), anxiety (56%), leg pain (38%), insomnia (37%), urgency and nocturia (35%), drooling of saliva and difficulties in maintaining concentration (31%). The mean number of NMS per patient was 7.8 (range, 0,32). NMS in the psychiatric domain were the most frequent (67%). Frequency of NMS increased along with the disease duration and severity. Patients with cognitive impairment reported more frequently apathy, attention/memory deficit, and psychiatric symptoms. Apathy was the symptom associated with worse PDQ-39 score but also presence of fatigue, attention/memory, and psychiatric symptoms had a negative impact on QoL. These findings further support a key role for NMS in the clinical frame of PD and the need to address them specifically in clinical trials using dedicated scales. 2009 Movement Disorder Society [source]


Serotonin and Parkinson's disease: On movement, mood, and madness,

MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 9 2009
Susan H. Fox MRCP
Abstract An appreciation of the multiple roles that serotonin (5-HT) may play in Parkinson's disease (PD) has increased in recent years. Early pathological studies in PD demonstrated nonselective reductions of 5-HT in brain tissue but little correlation to comorbidities such as dyskinesia and mood disturbance. This, combined with treatment failures using serotonergic drugs in comparison to levodopa, meant the field was largely neglected until recently. The multitude of subtypes of 5-HT receptors in the brain and an increased understanding of the potential function 5-HT may play in modulating other neurotransmitter systems, including dopamine, GABA, and glutamate, have meant an expansion in efforts to develop potential serotonergic drugs for both motor and nonmotor symptoms in PD. However, several unanswered questions remain, and future studies need to focus on correlating changes in 5-HT neurotransmission in both pathological and in vivo imaging studies with a full clinical phenotype. 2009 Movement Disorder Society [source]


Dysautonomia rating scales in Parkinson's disease: Sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation,Critique and recommendations by movement disorders task force on rating scales for Parkinson's disease,

MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 5 2009
Marian L. Evatt MD
Abstract Upper and lower gastrointestinal dysautonomia symptoms (GIDS),sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and often socially as well as physically disabling for patients. Available invasive quantitative measures for assessing these symptoms and their response to therapy are time-consuming, require specialized equipment, can cause patient discomfort and present patients with risk. The Movement Disorders Society commissioned a task force to assess available clinical rating scales, critique their clinimetric properties, and make recommendations regarding their clinical utility. Six clinical researchers and a biostatistician systematically searched the literature for scales of sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation, evaluated the scales' previous use, performance parameters, and quality of validation data (if available). A scale was designated "Recommended" if the scale was used in clinical studies beyond the group that developed it, has been specifically used in PD reports, and clinimetric studies have established that it is a valid, reliable, and sensitive. "Suggested" scales met at least part of the above criteria, but fell short of meeting all. Based on the systematic review, scales for individual symptoms of sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation were identified along with three global scales that include these symptoms in the context of assessing dysautonomia or nonmotor symptoms. Three sialorrhea scales met criteria for Suggested: Drooling Severity and Frequency Scale (DSFS), Drooling Rating Scale, and Sialorrhea Clinical Scale for PD (SCS-PD). Two dysphagia scales, the Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire (SDQ) and Dysphagia-Specific Quality of Life (SWAL-QOL), met criteria for Suggested. Although Rome III constipation module is widely accepted in the gastroenterology community, and the earlier version from the Rome II criteria has been used in a single study of PD patients, neither met criteria for Suggested or Recommended. Among the global scales, the Scales for Outcomes in PD-Autonomic (SCOPA-AUT) and Nonmotor Symptoms Questionnaire for PD (NMSQuest) both met criteria for Recommended, and the Nonmotor Symptoms Scale (NMSS) met criteria for Suggested; however, none specifically focuses on the target gastrointestinal symptoms (sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation) of this report. A very small number of rating scales have been applied to studies of gastrointestinal-related dysautonomia in PD. Only two scales met "Recommended" criteria and neither focuses specifically on the symptoms of sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation. Further scale testing in PD among the scales that focus on these symptoms is warranted, and no new scales are needed until the available scales are fully tested clinimetrically. 2009 Movement Disorder Society [source]


The prodromal phase of sporadic Parkinson's disease: Does it exist and if so how long is it?,

MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 13 2008
Christopher H. Hawkes MD
Abstract It is frequently assumed that idiopathic Parkinson's disease starts with several nonmotor symptoms and signs, but the evidence for this stage in the disease process is of variable quality. This review evaluates the more robust prospective or pathologically confirmed publications to establish whether there is a premotor period and if so what is its duration. The most informative studies are considered to be those concerned with olfaction, dysautonomia, and sleep disorder. Estimates for the duration of the prodromal phase vary from months to decades. It is concluded that there probably is an early phase in the disease where a variety of nonmotor features develop, but the sequence and time of onset of such features is not well established. 2008 Movement Disorder Society [source]


Do motor and nonmotor symptoms in PD patients predict caregiver strain and depression?

MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 9 2008
Julie H. Carter MS
Abstract Our objective was to understand the impact of motor and nonmotor symptoms of patients with early and middle stage Parkinson's disease (PD) on their spouses' caregiver strain and depression. A sample of 219 spouse caregivers of PD patients participating in a clinical trial was evaluated for six dimensions of caregiver strain and depression using the Family Care Inventory. Motor and nonmotor (i.e., psychological) clinical symptoms collected from PD patients as part of the clinical trial protocol were used as predictors. Seven hierarchical regression analyses were used to determine the contribution of the motor and nonmotor clinical symptoms in explaining variation in each of the seven caregiver-dependent variables. Clinical symptoms explained 9,16% of the variance in caregiver strain and 10% of depression. Motor symptoms explained 0,6% of the variance and nonmotor psychological symptoms explained 7,13% of the variance in caregiver strain. Comparing our findings with literature that is deemed clinically relevant for patient symptoms that predict caregiver strain, we concluded that PD patient symptoms are important predictors of caregiver strain and depression. Patient nonmotor psychological symptoms have a much greater impact on caregiver strain and depression than patient motor symptoms. 2008 Movement Disorder Society [source]


Postoperative management of subthalamic nucleus stimulation for Parkinson's disease

MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue S3 2002
Paul Krack MD
Abstract The postoperative neurologic management of patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for Parkinson' s disease is a complex dynamic process that involves a progressive increase in stimulation intensity and a parallel decrease in antiparkinsonian medication while assessing the interactions of both treatments. Neurologists responsible for postoperative management of patients receiving STN DBS must have expert knowledge of the electroanatomy of the subthalamic area and be familiar with the medical treatment of motor and nonmotor symptoms, including the management of long-term complications of levodopa treatment. Neurosurgeons who perform DBS need to understand the principles that guide the postoperative adaptation of treatment. This article defines guidelines for setting stimulation parameters, adapting drugs and managing adverse effects. 2002 Movement Disorder Society [source]


Extrastriatal dopaminergic dysfunction in tourette syndrome

ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 2 2010
Thomas D. L. Steeves MD
Objective Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder presenting with tics and a constellation of nonmotor symptoms that includes attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive,compulsive disorder, and impulse control disorders. Accumulated evidence from pharmacological trials and postmortem analyses suggests that abnormalities of dopaminergic neurotransmission play a key role in the pathogenesis of TS. A substantial body of evidence has also accrued to implicate regions outside the striatum in the generation of tics. Methods We initiated an [11C]FLB 457 positron emission tomography study in conjunction with an amphetamine challenge to evaluate extrastriatal dopamine (DA) D2/D3 receptor binding and DA release in a group of treatment-naive, adult TS patients compared with a group of age- and sex-matched controls. Results At baseline, TS patients showed decreased [11C]FLB 457 binding potentials bilaterally in cortical and subcortical regions outside the striatum, including the cingulate gyrus, middle and superior temporal gyrus, occipital cortex, insula, and thalamus. Amphetamine challenge induced DA release in both control and TS subjects bilaterally in many cortical regions; however, in TS patients, regions of increased DA release were significantly more widespread and extended more anteriorly to involve anterior cingulate and medial frontal gyri. Conversely, and in contrast to healthy controls, no significant DA release was noted in the thalami of TS patients. Interpretation These abnormalities of dopaminergic function localize to brain regions previously implicated in TS and suggest a mechanism for the hyperexcitability of thalamocortical circuits that has been documented in the disorder. ANN NEUROL 2010;67:170,181 [source]