Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers (nonmelanoma + skin_cancers)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for High-Risk Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers

DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 7 2007
RACHEL E. SAHN
BACKGROUND Although the utility of the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in the staging of melanoma is well established, its usefulness in high-risk nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is yet to be determined. OBJECTIVE The objective was to report our experience with patients who underwent SLNB for the staging of a high-risk NMSC. MATERIALS AND METHODS We identified 13 patients with a high-risk NMSC who underwent SLNB between 1998 and 2006 and conducted a retrospective review of their medical records and tumor pathology. Their status as regards tumor recurrence and survival was obtained when possible. RESULTS Of 13 patients, 9 had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 2 had sebaceous gland carcinoma, 1 had porocarcinoma, and 1 had atypical fibroxanthoma. All SLNB were negative for metastatic disease, but 1 appeared to be a false-negative finding. CONCLUSION Compared to melanoma, SCC of the skin are much less predictable as regards their tendency to metastasize to the regional lymph nodes. Although the SLNB appears to be a reliable staging procedure for NMSC (especially SCC), the yield may be too low to justify its routine use in this patient population. More data are needed to determine when a SLNB is justified in the management of NMSC. [source]


Curettage prior to Mohs' Micrographic Surgery for Previously Biopsied Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers: What Are We Curetting?

DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 1 2005
Comparative Study, Prospective, Retrospective
Background Curettage prior to excision and Mohs' micrographic surgery for nonmelanoma skin cancer is performed based on the assumption that the curette will remove softer, more friable tumor-infiltrated dermis and leave structurally intact normal skin. This assumption, however, has not been objectively examined in the dermatologic surgery literature. Objective We performed a study to examine the ability of curettage to selectively remove and delineate nonmelanoma skin cancer prior to Mohs' micrographic surgery. Methods The study included 150 previously biopsied basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas less than 1.5 cm in size. We conducted (1) a retrospective study of 50 tumors curetted prior to Mohs' surgery by a surgeon who routinely curettes preoperatively; (2) a prospective study in which a surgeon who routinely does not curette preoperatively curetted 50 tumors prior to Mohs' surgery; and (3) a comparative historical group of 50 noncuretted tumors treated with Mohs' surgery by the latter surgeon. All curetted tissue was evaluated histologically. Results Only 50% of the curetted tissue demonstrated the presence of tumor in the curettings, but in 76% of these, the curette left residual tumor at the surgical margins. Of the other 50% in which the curette removed only non,cancer-containing skin, 34% had tumor present at the surgical margin. Overall, the curette removed tumor, leaving no residual tumor at the surgical margins in only 12% of lesions. Comparison with historical noncuretted tumors operated on by the same surgeon showed that curettage did not affect the mean number of stages or the proportion of tumors requiring more than one stage for histologic clearance. Conclusion Although curettage may be helpful in debulking friable skin prior to Mohs' micrographic surgery, it does not reliably delineate the extent of a tumor. MING H. JIH, MD, PHD, PAUL M. FRIEDMAN, MD, LEONARD H. GOLDBERG, MD, AND ARASH KIMYAI-ASADI, MD, HAVE INDICATED NO SIGNIFICANT INTEREST WITH COMMERCIAL SUPPORTERS. [source]


Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Murine and Human Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers: Implications for Therapeutic Approaches,

PHOTOCHEMISTRY & PHOTOBIOLOGY, Issue 1 2002
Kathy P. An
ABSTRACT Inflammatory stimuli result in the production of cutaneous eicosanoids, which are known to contribute to the process of tumor promotion. Cyclooxygenase (COX), the rate-limiting enzyme for the production of prostaglandins (PG) from arachidonic acid, exists in at least two isoforms, COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is constitutively expressed in most tissues and plays various physiological roles, whereas increased COX-2 expression is known to occur in several types of epithelial neoplasms. Enhanced PG synthesis is a potential contributing factor in UVB-induced nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC). Increased COX-2 staining occurs in murine skin neoplasms after chronic exposure to carcinogenic doses of UVB. In this study, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses were employed to assess longitudinally COX-2 expression in a standard mouse UVB complete carcinogenesis protocol and in human basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). During UVB irradiation of mice, COX-2 expression consistently increased in the hyperplastic skin, the benign papillomas and the SCC. COX-2 expression was also increased in human actinic keratoses, SCC and BCC as well as in murine SCC and BCC. The pattern of COX-2 expression was quite variable, occurring in a patchy distribution in some lesions with staining confined mainly to suprabasal cell layers. In general, COX-2 expression progressively became more extensive in benign papillomas and well-differentiated murine SCC. The staining was predominantly cytoplasmic and perinuclear in some focal areas in tissue stroma around both murine and human tumors. Western blot analysis confirmed negative COX-2 expression in normal skin, whereas acute UVB exposure resulted in increased enzyme expression, which continued to increase in developing papillomas and SCC. Because of the evidence indicating a pathogenic role for eicosanoids in murine and human skin neoplasms, we performed studies to assess the anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects of green tea extracts, which are potent antioxidants. Acute exposure of the human skin to UVB (minimum erythema dose 4) caused a transient enhancement of the COX-2 expression, which reverted to baseline within hours; however, in murine skin the expression persisted for several days. Pretreatment with the topically applied green tea extract (1 mg/cm2) largely abrogated the acute COX-2 response to UVB in mice or humans. In summary, enhanced COX-2 expression serves as a marker of epidermal UVB exposure for murine and human NMSC. These results suggest that COX-2 inhibitors could have potent anticarcinogenic effects in UVB-induced skin cancer. [source]


Cutaneous head and neck squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to parotid and cervical lymph nodes

HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 7 2007
FRANZCR, Michael J. Veness MMed (Clin Epi)
Abstract Nonmelanoma skin cancers occur at an epidemic rate in Australia and are increasing in incidence worldwide. In most patients, local treatment is curative. However, a subset of patients will be diagnosed with a high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and are defined as patients at increased risk of developing metastases to regional lymph nodes. Patients with high-risk SCC may be identified based on primary lesion and patient factors. Most cutaneous SCC arises on the sun-exposed head and neck. The parotid and upper cervical nodes are common sites for the development of metastases arising from ear, anterior scalp, temple/forehead, or scalp SCC. The mortality and morbidity associated with high-risk cutaneous SCC is usually a consequence of uncontrolled metastatic nodal disease and, to a lesser extent, distant metastases. Patients with operable nodal disease have traditionally been recommended for surgery. The efficacy of adjuvant radiotherapy has previously been questioned based on weak evidence in the early literature. Recent evidence from larger studies has, however, strengthened the case for adjuvant radiotherapy as a means to improve locoregional control and survival. Despite this, many patients still experience relapse and die. Research aimed at improving outcome such as a randomized trial incorporating the addition of chemotherapy to adjuvant radiotherapy is currently in progress in Australia and New Zealand. Ongoing research also includes the development of a proposed new staging system and investigating the role of molecular factors such as the epidermal growth factor receptor. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2007 [source]


Effect of NSAIDs on the recurrence of nonmelanoma skin cancer

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 3 2006
Maria V. Grau
Experimental studies have consistently shown a protective effect of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) against nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC). However, little human epidemiological research has been done in this regard. We used data from the Skin Cancer Chemoprevention Study to explore the association of NSAID use and with the risk of basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC). 1,805 subjects with a recent history of NMSC were randomized to placebo or 50 mg of daily ,-carotene. Participants were asked about their use of over-the-counter and prescription medications at baseline and every 4 months during the trial. Skin follow-up examinations were scheduled annually with a study dermatologist; confirmed lesions were the endpoints in the study. We used a risk set approach to the analysis of grouped times survival data and unconditional logistic regression to compute odds ratios [ORs] for various exposures to NSAIDs. The use of NSAIDs was reported in over 50% of questionnaires. For BCC, NSAIDs exhibited a weak protective effect in crude analyses, which attenuated markedly after adjustment. For SCC, the use of NSAIDs in the year previous to diagnosis reduced the odds by almost 30% (adjusted OR= 0.71, 95% CI 0.48,1.04). When we accounted for frequency of use, results for BCC were not striking, and there were inconsistent suggestions of an inverse association with SCC. There were some indications of a modest, nonsignificant reduction on the number of BCCs and SCCs with NSAID use. Our data suggest a weak and inconsistent chemopreventive effect of NSAIDs on BCC and SCC. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Mycosis fungoides associated with malignant melanoma and dysplastic nevus syndrome

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
J. A. Pielop MD
Background The increased risk of second malignancies, including nonmelanoma skin cancers, in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) patients has been well documented. However, relatively few studies of malignant melanoma in CTCL patients have been reported. Methods A database of 250 CTCL patients registered over a 3-year period was searched to identify patients with diagnoses of both mycosis fungoides (MF) and malignant melanoma. Results We identified six cases of MF associated with malignant melanoma and one associated with dysplastic nevus syndrome, which is a marker of increased risk of melanoma. In four patients, melanoma was diagnosed along with or before MF. In the remaining two patients, MF was diagnosed prior to melanoma, although dysplastic nevi were noted at the time MF was diagnosed. These two patients received treatment for their MF (one with topical nitrogen mustard and another with radiation therapy and nitrogen mustard) prior to the histologic confirmation of melanoma. Six patients had early stages of MF (IA or IB), while one patient presented with simultaneous erythrodermic mycosis fungoides involving the lymph nodes as well as melanoma metastatic to the lymph nodes from an unknown primary. Conclusion There is an elevated prevalence of malignant melanoma in MF patients compared to the general US population (P < 0.00001) with a relative risk of 15.3 for observing malignant melanoma in MF patients (95% confidence interval 7.0,33.8). Possible pathologic links between the two diagnoses include effects of mycosis fungoides therapies, immunosuppression secondary to mycosis fungoides, and genetic alterations in the p16 tumor suppressor protein. [source]


Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Murine and Human Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers: Implications for Therapeutic Approaches,

PHOTOCHEMISTRY & PHOTOBIOLOGY, Issue 1 2002
Kathy P. An
ABSTRACT Inflammatory stimuli result in the production of cutaneous eicosanoids, which are known to contribute to the process of tumor promotion. Cyclooxygenase (COX), the rate-limiting enzyme for the production of prostaglandins (PG) from arachidonic acid, exists in at least two isoforms, COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is constitutively expressed in most tissues and plays various physiological roles, whereas increased COX-2 expression is known to occur in several types of epithelial neoplasms. Enhanced PG synthesis is a potential contributing factor in UVB-induced nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC). Increased COX-2 staining occurs in murine skin neoplasms after chronic exposure to carcinogenic doses of UVB. In this study, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses were employed to assess longitudinally COX-2 expression in a standard mouse UVB complete carcinogenesis protocol and in human basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). During UVB irradiation of mice, COX-2 expression consistently increased in the hyperplastic skin, the benign papillomas and the SCC. COX-2 expression was also increased in human actinic keratoses, SCC and BCC as well as in murine SCC and BCC. The pattern of COX-2 expression was quite variable, occurring in a patchy distribution in some lesions with staining confined mainly to suprabasal cell layers. In general, COX-2 expression progressively became more extensive in benign papillomas and well-differentiated murine SCC. The staining was predominantly cytoplasmic and perinuclear in some focal areas in tissue stroma around both murine and human tumors. Western blot analysis confirmed negative COX-2 expression in normal skin, whereas acute UVB exposure resulted in increased enzyme expression, which continued to increase in developing papillomas and SCC. Because of the evidence indicating a pathogenic role for eicosanoids in murine and human skin neoplasms, we performed studies to assess the anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects of green tea extracts, which are potent antioxidants. Acute exposure of the human skin to UVB (minimum erythema dose 4) caused a transient enhancement of the COX-2 expression, which reverted to baseline within hours; however, in murine skin the expression persisted for several days. Pretreatment with the topically applied green tea extract (1 mg/cm2) largely abrogated the acute COX-2 response to UVB in mice or humans. In summary, enhanced COX-2 expression serves as a marker of epidermal UVB exposure for murine and human NMSC. These results suggest that COX-2 inhibitors could have potent anticarcinogenic effects in UVB-induced skin cancer. [source]


Skin Cancer in Organ Transplant Recipients,Where Do We Stand Today?

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 11 2008
C. Ulrich
Skin cancers are the most frequent malignancies in organ transplant recipients (OTR), with 95% being nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC), especially squamous (SCC) and basal cell carcinomas. Most OTR with a first SCC subsequently develop multiple NMSC within 5 years, highlighting the concept of ,field cancerization', and are also at high risk for noncutaneous cancers. In order to reduce the tumor burden in these patients, their management requires an interdisciplinary approach including revision of immunosuppression, new dermatological treatments and adequate education about photoprotection in specialized dermatology clinics for OTR. Whereas surgery remains the gold-standard therapy for NMSC, noninvasive methods have shown promising results to treat superficial keratoses and subclinical lesions on large body areas. Although the threshold of skin cancer necessitating revision of immunosuppression is debated, this measure should be envisaged at the occurrence of the first SCC, or in case of multiple non-SCC NMSC. While the role of immunosuppressants in the occurrence of NMSC is widely recognized, the best immunosuppressive strategies remain to be defined. Presently, randomized prospective studies assess the burden of new skin tumors, as well as graft and patient survival, in patients with one or several NMSC after the introduction of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitors. [source]


A population-based study of skin cancer incidence and prevalence in renal transplant recipients

BRITISH JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
F.J. Moloney
Summary Background, Cancers occurring following solid organ transplantation are a rapidly growing public health concern. Defining the extent of the problem has been limited by surveillance systems with incomplete registration of cases and the paucity of reliable national incidence data. Objectives, To determine the incidence of all cancers following renal transplantation and to make a detailed examination of trends and patterns associated with postrenal transplant skin cancers. Methods, Integration of data from the national renal transplant database and the national cancer registry in Ireland enabled accurate determination of the number of renal transplant recipients (RTRs) with skin cancers and other malignancies in the time period 1 January 1994 to 31 December 2001. Results, We demonstrated a biphasic increase in skin cancer incidence following renal transplantation, determined by the age at transplantation. There was a steady increase in risk for older RTRs (age 50+ years) from year 2 post-transplant, whereas the increased risk in younger RTRs (age <,50 years) occurred later but much more significantly, reaching 200 times the risk for an age-matched nontransplanted population by year 6 post-transplant. The number of nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) registered in RTRs accounted for 1% of all NMSCs registered nationally over the study period. The standardized incidence rates for invasive NMSC (33-fold increase) and in situ carcinoma of the skin (65-fold increase) were significantly increased (P < 005). The risk for invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was increased 82-fold compared with the nontransplanted population. Male RTRs were at particular risk of invasive SCC at sun-exposed sites such as the scalp and the external ear. Risk of malignant melanoma and Kaposi sarcoma were also increased relative to the nontransplanted population. Conclusions, This comprehensive national study illustrates how rates of skin cancer in Irish RTRs have influenced the national incidence of skin cancer. The high incidence of SCC, basal cell carcinoma and Bowen's disease in the early post-transplant period for older patients and the cumulative risk in younger patients with increased duration of transplantation highlight the importance of implementing early and continued cancer surveillance regimens post-transplant. [source]


Sentinel lymphonodectomy in nonmelanoma skin malignancies

BRITISH JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
C. Michl
Summary Background Whereas the value of sentinel lymphonodectomy (SLNE) in malignant melanoma is established, experience with SLNE in nonmelanoma skin cancers is limited. Objectives The feasibility of SLNE in nonmelanoma skin tumours is evaluated. Methods Thirty-seven patients with high-risk nonmelanoma skin tumours underwent SLNE: 11 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), seven Merkel cell carcinomas (MCCs), five cutaneous lymphomas, eight adnexal carcinomas and six other skin cancers, all clinical stage N0. Results In nine patients (four MCCs, two SCCs, three lymphomas) the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) showed histological evidence of microinvolvement. In five of these nine patients, radical lymph node dissection (RLND) was performed, revealing further micrometastases in three patients (two SCCs, one MCC). No patient with negative SLN showed tumour dissemination during the follow-up over a mean of 25 years (range 2 months to 45 years, median 24 years). Conclusions Our data provide evidence that SLNE is a minimally invasive and highly sensitive staging tool in selected patients with high-risk nonmelanoma skin cancers. [source]


Leukaemia inhibitory factor and interleukin-8 expression in nonmelanoma skin cancers

CLINICAL & EXPERIMENTAL DERMATOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
Jacek C. Szepietowski
Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and interleukin (IL)-8 possess activities which may contribute to the development of carcinomas. LIF can stimulate proliferation of some tumour cell lines and IL-8 is angiogenic. Using semiquantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT,PCR), we measured the expression of LIF and IL-8 mRNA in cultured normal keratinocytes (NKC) and the malignant carcinoma cells lines A431, SiHa, HeLa, and in biopsies of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and normal skin. Protein expression for LIF was assessed by immunohistochemistry in the biopsies. LIF mRNA expression was increased significantly (P < 0.01) in all carcinoma lines, except SiHa, compared with NKC but the IL-8 mRNA expression in carcinoma cell lines was similar to that in NKC. Expression of LIF mRNA was elevated in BCC and SCC compared with normal skin, but a significant difference was observed only between SCC and normal skin (P < 0.01). Both BCC and SCC showed significantly greater expression of IL-8 compared with normal skin (P < 0.01). There was no correlation between LIF and IL-8 mRNA expression either in BCCs or in SCCs. Immunoreactivity for LIF was absent throughout BCC and SCC, however, normal epidermis surrounding the tumour stained positive, as in normal skin. These data may suggest a role for LIF and IL-8 in the development of skin carcinomas, but without co-ordinate regulation of these two cytokines in this process. [source]