Non-medical Use (non-medical + use)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Non-medical use of prescription stimulants among US college students: prevalence and correlates from a national survey

ADDICTION, Issue 1 2005
Sean Esteban McCabe
ABSTRACT Aims To examine the prevalence rates and correlates of non-medical use of prescription stimulants (Ritalin, Dexedrine or Adderall) among US college students in terms of student and college characteristics. Design A self-administered mail survey. Setting One hundred and nineteen nationally representative 4-year colleges in the United States. Participants A representative sample of 10 904 randomly selected college students in 2001. Measurements Self-reports of non-medical use of prescription stimulants and other substance use behaviors. Findings The life-time prevalence of non-medical prescription stimulant use was 6.9%, past year prevalence was 4.1% and past month prevalence was 2.1%. Past year rates of non-medical use ranged from zero to 25% at individual colleges. Multivariate regression analyses indicated non-medical use was higher among college students who were male, white, members of fraternities and sororities and earned lower grade point averages. Rates were higher at colleges located in the north-eastern region of the US and colleges with more competitive admission standards. Non-medical prescription stimulant users were more likely to report use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, ecstasy, cocaine and other risky behaviors. Conclusions The findings of the present study provide evidence that non-medical use of prescription stimulants is more prevalent among particular subgroups of US college students and types of colleges. The non-medical use of prescription stimulants represents a high-risk behavior that should be monitored further and intervention efforts are needed to curb this form of drug use. [source]


The prevalence of methamphetamine and amphetamine abuse in North America: a review of the indicators, 1992,2007

DRUG AND ALCOHOL REVIEW, Issue 3 2008
JANE CARLISLE MAXWELL PhD Senior Research Scientist
Abstract Introduction. This paper reviews epidemiological information about methamphetamine production and use in North America. Methods. Information is drawn from a range of sources, including, but not limited to, historical accounts, peer-reviewed papers, population surveys and large national databases. Results. Methamphetamine and amphetamine use in North America is characterised by geographic variations, with different types of the drug, different routes of administration and different types of users at various times. Unlike some other drug use patterns in North America, the nature of methamphetamine use in Canada, Mexico and the United States has been linked closely in terms of production and supply of the drug. According to their national household surveys, the annual prevalence for ,speed' use in Canada was 0.8% in 2004, 0.3% for ,anfetaminas' and 0.1% for ,metanfetaminas' in Mexico in 2002, and 1.4% for ,stimulants' in the United States in 2006. Discussion. Although the data sources in the three North American countries are not consistent in methodology, terminology or frequency of reporting, all show similar trends. The type of stimulant most used has shifted from non-medical use of pharmaceutical amphetamine to use of powder methamphetamine and then to use of ,ice'. The indicators show the problem is greatest in the western parts of the countries and is moving eastward, but the decreased availability of pseudoephedrine may have a significant impact on the nature of the epidemic in the future. Nevertheless, use of methamphetamine poses a number of risks for users and specialised treatment resources for these various populations are needed. [source]


Individual, partner and relationship factors associated with non-medical use of prescription drugs

ADDICTION, Issue 8 2010
Gregory G. Homish
ABSTRACT Aims The objective of the current report was to examine individual, partner and relationship factors (e.g. relationship satisfaction) associated with the non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) in a community sample of married adults. Design The current report used two waves of data from an ongoing study of couples who were recruited at the time they applied for their marriage license and are now in the 10th year of follow-up. Logistic regression models examined the relation between individual, partner and relationship factors and NMUPD. Participants This report is based on 273 couples. Measurements Participants completed questionnaires that assessed prescription drug use, alcohol use, other substance use, depression, marital satisfaction and socio-demographic factors. Findings Among wives, there was evidence that a partner's prescription drug use and relationship factors were associated with increased risk for NMUPD. There was some evidence suggesting that it was the increased access or availability, and not the partner's use per se, that was related to the NMUPD. These results persisted after controlling for other illicit drug use, heavy drinking, depressive symptomatology and socio-demographic factors. Among men, neither partner use nor relationship factors were associated with NMUPD after considering the impact of individual-level risk factors. Conclusion Prevention and intervention efforts directed at reducing the risk for NMUPD should consider the influence of partner and relationship factors in addition to individual-level risk factors. [source]


Non-medical use of prescription stimulants among US college students: prevalence and correlates from a national survey

ADDICTION, Issue 1 2005
Sean Esteban McCabe
ABSTRACT Aims To examine the prevalence rates and correlates of non-medical use of prescription stimulants (Ritalin, Dexedrine or Adderall) among US college students in terms of student and college characteristics. Design A self-administered mail survey. Setting One hundred and nineteen nationally representative 4-year colleges in the United States. Participants A representative sample of 10 904 randomly selected college students in 2001. Measurements Self-reports of non-medical use of prescription stimulants and other substance use behaviors. Findings The life-time prevalence of non-medical prescription stimulant use was 6.9%, past year prevalence was 4.1% and past month prevalence was 2.1%. Past year rates of non-medical use ranged from zero to 25% at individual colleges. Multivariate regression analyses indicated non-medical use was higher among college students who were male, white, members of fraternities and sororities and earned lower grade point averages. Rates were higher at colleges located in the north-eastern region of the US and colleges with more competitive admission standards. Non-medical prescription stimulant users were more likely to report use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, ecstasy, cocaine and other risky behaviors. Conclusions The findings of the present study provide evidence that non-medical use of prescription stimulants is more prevalent among particular subgroups of US college students and types of colleges. The non-medical use of prescription stimulants represents a high-risk behavior that should be monitored further and intervention efforts are needed to curb this form of drug use. [source]


Usefulness of prescription monitoring programs for surveillance,analysis of Schedule II opioid prescription data in Massachusetts, 1996,2006,

PHARMACOEPIDEMIOLOGY AND DRUG SAFETY, Issue 2 2010
Nathaniel Katz
Abstract Purpose Electronic prescription monitoring programs (PMPs) have been developed in many states as a public health surveillance tool. We analyze herein 11 years of Massachusetts PMP data to evaluate trends in opioid prescribing, dispensing, and usage. Methods Prescription records from the Massachusetts PMP for Schedule II opioids from fiscal year 1996 to 2006 were analyzed. ,Questionable activity' (potential ,doctor shopping') estimates were based on individual use of multiple prescribers and pharmacies, and early refills. Results The number of prescriptions, doses prescribed, and individuals receiving Schedule II prescription opioids steadily increased from 1996 to 2006. Most individuals (87.5%) used 1,2 prescribers, 1,2 pharmacies, and had no early refills (2006). The greater the number of prescribers used, the greater the number of pharmacies used. When defined as the use of ,4 prescribers and ,4 pharmacies, questionable activity accounted for 2748 individuals, 47,953 prescriptions, and 2,966,056 doses (2006). The Schedule II opioid most highly associated with questionable activity was short-acting oxycodone. Conclusions PMPs can become a useful public health surveillance tool to monitor the medical and non-medical use of prescription opioids and to inform public health and safety policy. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Detecting signals of opioid analgesic abuse: application of a spatial mixed effect poisson regression model using data from a network of poison control centers,

PHARMACOEPIDEMIOLOGY AND DRUG SAFETY, Issue 11 2008
Meredith Y. Smith MPA
Abstract Purpose The recent rise in the non-medical use of opioid analgesics in the US has underscored the importance of comprehensive post-marketing surveillance of these products. To assist pharmacovigilance efforts, we developed a methodology for detecting geo-specific "signals" of potential outbreaks of prescription drug abuse by 3-digit ZIP (3DZ) code. Methods The number of intentional exposure calls involving nine specific opioid analgesics were obtained from eight regional poison control centers between first quarter 2003 and fourth quarter 2004. The unit of analysis was a combination of drug,quarter/year,3DZ. We fitted an empirical Bayes mixed effects Poisson,Gamma regression model that adjusted for differences across 3DZs in opioid analgesic exposure. A relative report rate (RR) ,3 at a probability of >0.95 was the signal threshold criterion. Results A total of 15,769 valid drug,time,3DZ combinations were identified. Of these, 1.9% (n,=,294) met the signal threshold criterion. The number of signals generated per drug,quarter/year,3DZ combination ranged from 0 to 13. The largest number of signals were those involving methadone (n,=,71), hydrocodone (n,=,57), and branded oxycodone extended-release (n,=,45). Signals for methadone and branded oxycodone extended-release were predominantly clustered in Appalachia. Hydrocodone-related signals showed less geographic clustering with approximately 26% reported from California, and the remainder from other regions in the US. Conclusions Our results show marked regional differences in reported abuse of specific opioid analgesics. Additional research is needed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of signals obtained using this spatial mixed effect Poisson regression model. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


The role of traumatic event history in non-medical use of prescription drugs among a nationally representative sample of US adolescents

THE JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES, Issue 1 2010
Jenna L. McCauley
Background:, Building on previous research with adolescents that examined demographic variables and other forms of substance abuse in relation to non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD), the current study examined potentially traumatic events, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other substance use, and delinquent behavior as potential correlates of past-year non-medical use of prescription drugs. Method:, A nationally representative sample of 3,614 non-institutionalized, civilian, English-speaking adolescents (aged 12,17 years) residing in households with a telephone was selected. Demographic characteristics, traumatic event history, mental health, and substance abuse variables were assessed. NMUPD was assessed by asking if, in the past year, participants had used a prescription drug in a non-medical manner. Multivariable logistic regressions were conducted for each theoretically derived predictor set. Significant predictors from each set were then entered into a final multivariable logistic regression to determine significant predictors of past-year NMUPD. Results:, NMUPD was endorsed by 6.7% of the sample (n = 242). The final multivariable model showed that lifetime history of delinquent behavior, other forms of substance use/abuse, history of witnessed violence, and lifetime history of PTSD were significantly associated with increased likelihood of NMUPD. Conclusions: Risk reduction efforts targeting NMUPD among adolescents who have witnessed significant violence, endorsed abuse of other substances and delinquent behavior, and/or endorsed PTSD are warranted. Interventions for adolescents with history of violence exposure or PTSD, or those adjudicated for delinquent behavior, should include treatment or prevention modules that specifically address NMUPD. [source]