Non-malignant Cells (non-malignant + cell)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Molecular targeted therapies for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma based on apoptosis profiles,

Saskia AGM Cillessen
Abstract Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma and is treated with chemotherapy in combination with rituximab. Despite this aggressive therapy, the disease is fatal in 30,40% of patients. Inhibition of the apoptosis signalling pathways is strongly related to response to chemotherapy and eventual clinical outcome. In order to survive, lymphoma cells depend on disruption of the apoptosis pathway by mutations in apoptosis inducing genes or by continuous expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. The development of molecules targeting these apoptosis inhibitors provides a very promising opportunity to specifically target tumour cells without toxicity to non-malignant cells in DLBCL patients. Sensitivity for most of these antagonists can be predicted based on biological markers, suggesting the possibility of pre-defining patients who will most likely benefit from these targeted therapies. Experimental therapies aimed at restoring the upstream apoptosis pathway or targeting apoptosis inhibitors are currently being tested in clinical trials and are expected to be effective particularly in chemotherapy-refractory DLBCL, providing hope for patients who are refractory to current therapies. Copyright 2009 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Activated macrophages in the tumour microenvironment,dancing to the tune of TLR and NF-,B,

Simon Hallam
Abstract A large number of variables have been identified which appear to influence macrophage phenotype within the tumour microenvironment. These include reciprocal chemical and physical interactions with tumour cells and with non-malignant cells of the tumour microenvironment, tissue oxygen tension, and the origin and prior experience of the particular macrophage population. In this review we outline the key evidence for these influences and consider how macrophage phenotype is acquired and the relevance of the TLR,NF-,B pathway. Copyright 2009 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Differential responsiveness of human hepatoma cells versus normal hepatocytes to TRAIL in combination with either histone deacetylase inhibitors or conventional cytostatics

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 8 2008
Johanna Dzieran
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising candidate for the treatment of cancer because it elicits cell death in many tumor cells while sparing most normal cells. Liver cancer, however, is largely resistant to TRAIL and, thus, requires sensitization for TRAIL-mediated cytotoxicity. Sensitization may be achieved by cotreatment with chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we comparatively investigated the treatment efficacy of TRAIL in combination with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDI) versus TRAIL in combination with conventional cytostatics in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 and in the childhood hepatoblastoma cell line Huh6. We found that TRAIL resistance could be overcome by cotreatment with the HDI vorinostat, sodium butyrate and MS-275, but not by cotreatment with the cytostatics carboplatin and etoposide. However, TRAIL combination treatment bears the risk of sensitizing otherwise TRAIL-resistant normal cells. We thus explored a potential cytotoxic effect of combined HDI/TRAIL treatment in normal hepatocytes: TRAIL in conjunction with HDI did not impose any cytotoxicity on the non-malignant cells. In searching for the determinants of HDI-mediated TRAIL sensitization in hepatoma cells, we observed that HDI treatment did not increase cell-surface expression of proapoptotic TRAIL receptors. Instead, HDI treatment enhanced TRAIL-induced cleavage of Bid. In conclusion, our data suggest that HDI are potent sensitizers to TRAIL in hepatoma cells and that the combination of HDI and TRAIL is selectively active in hepatoma cells without affecting normal hepatocytes, indicating that the combination of HDI and TRAIL may be an effective approach for the treatment of advanced liver cancer. (Cancer Sci 2008; 99: 1685,1692) [source]

Inhibition of NF-,B activation by the histone deacetylase inhibitor 4-Me2N-BAVAH induces an early G1 cell cycle arrest in primary hepatocytes

P. Papeleu
4-Me2N-BAVAH has been shown to induce histone hyperacetylation and to inhibit proliferation in Friend erythroleukaemia cells in vitro. However, the molecular mechanisms have remained unidentified. Materials and Methods:,In this study, we evaluated the effects of 4-Me2N-BAVAH on proliferation in non-malignant cells, namely epidermal growth factor-stimulated primary rat hepatocytes. Results and Conclusion:,We have found that 4-Me2N-BAVAH inhibits HDAC activity at non-cytotoxic concentrations and prevents cells from responding to the mitogenic stimuli of epidermal growth factor. This results in an early G1 cell cycle arrest that is independent of p21 activity, but instead can be attributed to inhibition of cyclin D1 transcription through a mechanism involving inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB activation. In addition, 4-Me2N-BAVAH delays the onset of spontaneous apoptosis in primary rat hepatocyte cultures as evidenced by down-regulation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bid and Bax, and inhibition of caspase-3 activation. [source]