Nonlinear Regression Analysis (nonlinear + regression_analysis)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Estimation of seismic drift and ductility demands in planar regular X-braced steel frames

Theodore L. Karavasilis
Abstract This paper summarizes the results of an extensive study on the inelastic seismic response of X-braced steel buildings. More than 100 regular multi-storey tension-compression X-braced steel frames are subjected to an ensemble of 30 ordinary (i.e. without near fault effects) ground motions. The records are scaled to different intensities in order to drive the structures to different levels of inelastic deformation. The statistical analysis of the created response databank indicates that the number of stories, period of vibration, brace slenderness ratio and column stiffness strongly influence the amplitude and heightwise distribution of inelastic deformation. Nonlinear regression analysis is employed in order to derive simple formulae which reflect the aforementioned influences and offer a direct estimation of drift and ductility demands. The uncertainty of this estimation due to the record-to-record variability is discussed in detail. More specifically, given the strength (or behaviour) reduction factor, the proposed formulae provide reliable estimates of the maximum roof displacement, the maximum interstorey drift ratio and the maximum cyclic ductility of the diagonals along the height of the structure. The strength reduction factor refers to the point of the first buckling of the diagonals in the building and thus, pushover analysis and estimation of the overstrength factor are not required. This design-oriented feature enables both the rapid seismic assessment of existing structures and the direct deformation-controlled seismic design of new ones. A comparison of the proposed method with the procedures adopted in current seismic design codes reveals the accuracy and efficiency of the former. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

QSARs for aromatic hydrocarbons at several trophic levels

Walter Di Marzio
Abstract Quantitative structure,activity relationships (QSARs) with aromatic hydrocarbons were obtained. Biological response was measured by acute toxicity of several aquatic trophic levels. The chemicals assayed were benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o -xylene, m -xylene, p -xylene, isopropylbenzene, n -propylbenzene, and butylbenzene. Acute toxicity tests were carried out with Scenedesmus quadricauda, as representative of primary producers; Daphnia spinulata, a zooplanctonic cladoceran; Hyalella curvispina, a benthic macroinvertebrate; and Bryconamericus iheringii, an omnivorous native fish. The EC50 or LC50 was calculated from analytical determinations of aromatic hydrocarbons. Nonlinear regression analysis between the logarithm of the octanol,water partition coefficient (log Kow) of each compounds and the toxicity end points was performed. QSARs were positively related to increases in log Kow at all trophic levels. Intertaxonomic differences were found in comparisons of algae with animals and of invertebrates with vertebrates. We observed that these differences were not significant with a log Kow higher than 3 for all organisms. Aromatic hydrocarbons with log Kow values of less than 3 showed different toxicity responses, with algae more resistant than fish and invertebrates. We concluded that this was a result of the narcotic mode of action related to liposolubility and the ability of the compound to reach its target site in the cell. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) achieved to start nonpolar narcosis fell almost 1 order of magnitude below the BCF expected from the log Kow. Predicted critical body residues for nonpolar narcosis ranged between 2 and 1 mM. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 21: 118,124, 2006. [source]

Propagation Dynamics of Epileptiform Activity Acutely Induced by Bicuculline in the Hippocampal,Parahippocampal Region of the Isolated Guinea Pig Brain

EPILEPSIA, Issue 12 2005
Laura Uva
Summary:,Purpose: Aim of the study is to investigate the involvement of parahippocampal subregions in the generation and in the propagation of focal epileptiform discharges in an acute model of seizure generation in the temporal lobe induced by arterial application of bicuculline in the in vitro isolated guinea pig brain preparation. Methods: Electrophysiological recordings were simultaneously performed with single electrodes and multichannel silicon probes in the entorhinal, perirhinal, and piriform cortices and in the area CA1 of the hippocampus of the in vitro isolated guinea pig brain. Interictal and ictal epileptiform discharges restricted to the temporal region were induced by a brief (3,5 min) arterial perfusion of the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline methiodide (50 ,M). Current source density analysis of laminar field profiles performed with the silicon probes was carried out at different sites to establish network interactions responsible for the generation of epileptiform potentials. Nonlinear regression analysis was conducted on extracellular recordings during ictal onset in order to quantify the degree of interaction between fast activities generated at different sites, as well as time delays. Results: Experiments were performed in 31 isolated guinea pig brains. Bicuculline-induced interictal and ictal epileptiform activities that showed variability of spatial propagation and time course in the olfactory,temporal region. The most commonly observed pattern (n = 23) was characterized by the initial appearance of interictal spikes (ISs) in the piriform cortex (PC), which propagated to the lateral entorhinal region. Independent and asynchronous preictal spikes originated in the entorhinal cortex (EC)/hippocampus and progressed into ictal fast discharges (around 25 Hz) restricted to the entorhinal/hippocampal region. The local generation of fast activity was verified and confirmed both by CSD and phase shift analysis performed on laminar profiles. Fast activity was followed by synchronous afterdischarges that propagated to the perirhinal cortex (PRC) (but not to the PC). Within 1,9 min, the ictal discharge ceased and a postictal period of depression occurred, after which periodic ISs in the PC resumed. Unlike preictal ISs, postictal ISs propagated to the PRC. Conclusions: Several studies proposed that reciprocal connections between the entorhinal and the PRC are under a very efficient inhibitory control (1). We report that ISs determined by acute bicuculline treatment in the isolated guinea pig brain progress from the PC to the hippocampus/EC just before ictal onset. Ictal discharges are characterized by a peculiar pattern of fast activity that originates from the entorhinal/hippocampal region and only secondarily propagates to the PRC. Postictal propagation of ISs to the PRC occured exclusively when an ictal discharge was generated in the hippocampal/entorhinal region. The results suggest that reiteration of ictal events may promote changes in propagation pattern of epileptiform discharges that could act as trigger elements in the development of temporal lobe epilepsy. [source]

Programming Optimal Atrioventricular Delay in Dual Chamber Pacing Using Peak Endocardial Acceleration: Comparison with a Standard Echocardiographic Procedure

DUPUIS, J.-M.,et al.: Programming Optimal Atrioventricular Delay in Dual Chamber Pacing Using Peak Endocardial Acceleration: Comparison with a Standard Echocardiographic Procedure.Optimization of programmed atrioventricular delay in dual chamber pacing is essential to the hemodynamic efficiency of the heart. Automatic AV delay optimization in an implanted pacemaker is highly desirable. Variations of peak endocardial acceleration (PEA) with AV delay at rest correlate well with echocardiography derived observations, particularly with end-diastolic filling and mitral valve closure timings. This suggests the possibility of devising a procedure for the automatic determination of the optimal AV delay. The aim of this study was to compare a proposed algorithm for optimal AV delay determination with an accepted echocardiographic method. Fifteen patients with high degree AV block received BEST-Living pacing systems. Automatic AV delay scans were performed at rest (60,300 ms in 20-ms steps with 60 beats per step) in DDD at 90 ppm, while simultaneously recording cycle-by-cycle PEA values, which were averaged for each AV delay to obtain a PEA versus AV delay curve. Nonlinear regression analysis based on a Boltzmann sigmoid curve was performed, and the optimal AV delay (OAVD) was chosen as the sigmoid inflection point of the regression curve. The OAVD was also evaluated for each patient using the Ritter echocardiographic method. Good sigmoid fit was obtained in 13 of 15 patients. The mean OAVD obtained by the PEA sigmoid algorithm was146.9 32.1 ms, and the corresponding result obtained by echocardiography was156.4 34.3 ms(range 31.8,39.7 ms). Correlation analysis yielded r = 0.79, P = 0.0012. In conclusion, OAVD estimates obtained by PEA analysis during automatic AV delay scanning are consistent with those obtained by echocardiography. The proposed algorithm can be used for automatic OAVD determination in an implanted pacemaker pulse generator. (PACE 2003; 26:[Pt. II]:210,213) [source]

Performance evaluation of steel reduced flange plate moment connections

Chung-Che Chou
Abstract This study details a new moment connection that overcomes difficulties in achieving field-weld quality and eliminates steel beam buckling encountered in steel moment connections. This study presents cyclic test and finite element analysis results of full-scale subassemblies using steel reduced flange plates (RFPs) to connect steel beam flanges and the column without any other direct connection. Since the RFP connection is designed as strong column-strong beam-weak RFPs, the RFP functions as a structural fuse that eliminates weld fractures and beam buckling. Test and analytical results show that (1) the connections transferred the entire beam flexural strength to the column and reached an interstorey drift of 4% with minor strength degradation, (2) failure of the connections was owing to buckling or fracturing of the RFP and not of the beam, and (3) the RFP connection subassembly, modelled using the nonlinear finite element computer program ABAQUS, exhibited hysteretic behaviour similar to that of the flange plate (FP) moment connection subassembly. The inelastic buckling force of the RFP was also evaluated by nonlinear regression analyses performed on a nonlinear model that relates buckling force to RFP geometries. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Pharmacokinetics of detomidine administered to horses at rest and after maximal exercise

Summary Reason for performing study: Increased doses of detomidine are required to produce sedation in horses after maximal exercise compared to calm or resting horses. Objectives: To determine if the pharmacokinetics of detomidine in Thoroughbred horses are different when the drug is given during recuperation from a brief period of maximal exercise compared to administration at rest. Methods: Six Thoroughbred horses were preconditioned by exercising them on a treadmill. Each horse ran a simulated race at a treadmill speed that caused it to exercise at 120% of its maximal oxygen consumption. One minute after the end of exercise, horses were treated with detomidine. Each horse was treated with the same dose of detomidine on a second occasion a minimum of 14 days later while standing in a stocks. Samples of heparinised blood were obtained at various time points on both occasions. Plasma detomidine concentrations were determined by liquid chromatographymass spectrometry. The plasma concentration vs. time data were analysed by nonlinear regression analysis. Results: Median back-extrapolated time zero plasma concentration was significantly lower and median plasma half-life and median mean residence time were significantly longer when detomidine was administered after exercise compared to administration at rest. Median volume of distribution was significantly higher after exercise but median plasma clearance was not different between the 2 administrations. Conclusions and potential relevance: Detomidine i.v. is more widely distributed when administered to horses immediately after exercise compared to administration at rest resulting in lower peak plasma concentrations and a slower rate of elimination. The dose requirement to produce an equivalent effect may be higher in horses after exercise than in resting horses and less frequent subsequent doses may be required to produce a sustained effect. [source]

Biodegradation kinetics of benzene, methyl tert -butyl ether, and toluene as a substrate under various substrate concentrations

Chi-Wen Lin
Abstract Owing to the complexity of conventional methods and shortcomings in determining kinetic parameters, a convenient approach using the nonlinear regression analysis of Monod or Haldane type nonlinear equations is presented. This method has been proven to provide accurate estimates of kinetic parameters. The major work in this study consisted of the testing of aromatic compound-degrading cultures in batch experiments for the biodegradation of benzene, methyl tert -butyl ether (MTBE), and toluene. Additionally, batch growth data of three pure cultures (i.e., Pseudomonas aeruginosa YAMT421, Ralstonia sp. YABE411 and Pseudomonas sp. YATO411) isolated from an industrial petrochemical wastewater treatment plant under aerobic conditions were assessed with the nonlinear regression technique and with a trial-and-error procedure to determine the kinetic parameters. The growth rates of MTBE-, benzene-, and toluene-degrading cultures on MTBE, benzene, and toluene were significant. Monod's model was a good fit for MTBE, benzene and toluene at low substrate concentrations. In contrast, Haldane's equation fitted well in substrate inhibition concentration. Monod and Haldane's expressions were found to describe the results of these experiments well, with fitting values higher than 98%. The kinetic parameters, including a maximum specific growth rate (m), a half-saturation constant (Ks), and an inhibition constant (Ki), were given. Copyright 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Determination of the binding constant between alprostadil and alpha-cyclodextrin by capillary electrophoresis: Implications for a freeze-dried formulation

Benjamin R. Schipper
Abstract The binding constant between alprostadil (PGE1) and ,-cyclodextrin (,-CD) was determined at three temperatures by capillary electrophoresis. ,-CD is an excipient material in Caverject Dual Chamber Syringe (DCS), added to enhance stability. The binding constant was used to calculate the amount of PGE1 free upon reconstitution and injection, the latter of which is critical to product performance. Measurement was made in a pH 7.2 separation buffer to ensure a negative charge on PGE1. The concentration of PGE1 was fixed while the concentration of ,-CD was varied over a suitable range. As the amount of PGE1 bound to ,-CD increases, the weighted average of the resultant mobility decreases, thereby allowing a binding isotherm to be generated from which the stability constant was extracted via nonlinear regression analysis. A value of 708,,64 M,1 was obtained at 27C, while at physiological temperature (37C) the value was 537,,27 M,1. These results compare favorably to values previously obtained by NMR. Calculation of the percent PGE1 free upon reconstitution and injection show it to be near the desired outcome of 100%. Hence, we were able to conclude that the amount of free drug delivered by Caverject DCS is nominally the same as for Caverject S. Po., an earlier-developed product that contains no ,-CD. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 94:1528,1537, 2005 [source]


ABSTRACT In order to investigate the firmness of tomato slices, two experiments were performed. In the first one, Monte Carlo simulation was used to study the variation in firmness within and between slices. Adding more slices and more measurements per slice reduced the SD, but in general, the efficiency of adding more slices was higher. In the second experiment, the firmness of tomato slices was measured by puncture test during storage, using one of three flat-tipped cylindrical probes (3.5-, 2.5- and 1.5-mm diameter) in two directions, along or perpendicular to the main axis of the fruit. Changes in firmness were studied by nonlinear regression analysis. The same model could be applied to all combinations of probe size and direction with the same correction for shear and compression. It suggests that shear and compression forces decay with storage time according to the same mechanism, irrespective of the measurement direction. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Methodologies for both firmness evaluation and data analysis were presented. Monte Carlo simulation was used to optimize the number of samples for firmness assays. After calculating the experimental SD from preliminary experimental results, simulations were performed with different numbers of replicates and measurements per replicate, to find an optimal experimental design where the SD is minimized. Using nonlinear regression, the effects on firmness of probe size, puncture direction in relation to the plant tissue and storage time can be analyzed simultaneously. The incorporation of a correction factor to account for differences in firmness due to probe size was proposed. The relative influence of shear (s) and compression force (c) on the observed force is estimated. Results of interest for the industry were presented, confirming previous findings that the firmness of ripened tomato slices measured by puncture analysis does not change significantly during short-term storage at low temperature. [source]


Ashu Jain
ABSTRACT: This paper presents the findings of a study aimed at evaluating the available techniques for estimating missing fecal coliform (FC) data on a temporal basis. The techniques investigated include: linear and nonlinear regression analysis and interpolation functions, and the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs). In all, seven interpolation, two regression, and one ANN model structures were investigated. This paper also investigates the validity of a hypothesis that estimating missing FC data by developing different models using different data corresponding to different dynamics associated with different trends in the FC data may result in a better model performance. The FC data (counts/100 ml) derived from the North Fork of the Kentucky River in Kentucky were employed to calibrate and validate various models. The performance of various models was evaluated using a wide variety of standard statistical measures. The results obtained in this study are able to demonstrate that the ANNs can be preferred over the conventional techniques in estimating missing FC data in a watershed. The regression technique was not found suitable in estimating missing FC data on a temporal basis. Further, it has been found that it is possible to achieve a better model performance by first decomposing the whole data set into different categories corresponding to different dynamics and then developing separate models for separate categories rather than developing a single model for the composite data set. [source]

Potential association between endogenous leptin and sympatho-vagal activities in young obese Japanese women

Tamaki Matsumoto
Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that decreases food intake and increases energy expenditure through the activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Notwithstanding recent intensive research, the underlying physiological mechanism of leptin as well as the etiology of obesity in humans remains elusive. The present study attempted to investigate the potential association between endogenous circulating leptin and sympatho-vagal activities in age- and height-matched obese and nonobese healthy young women. Plasma leptin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. The autonomic nervous system activity was assessed during the resting condition by means of a recently devised power spectral analysis of heart rate variability, which serves to identify three separate frequency components, very low (VLO), low (LO), and high (HI). Plasma leptin concentrations were greater in the obese than in the control group (45.7 5.89 vs. 11.2 1.10 ng ml,1, P < 0.01). As to the contribution of endogenous leptin to SNS activity, both the ratios of the VLO frequency component reflecting thermoregulatory sympathetic function and the global SNS index [(VLO + LO)/HI] to plasma leptin concentration were markedly reduced in the obese compared to the control group (VLO per leptin: 5.9 1.39 vs. 37.8 8.1 ms2 ml ng,1, P < 0.01; SNS index per leptin: 0.04 0.008 vs. 0.33 0.01 ml,,,ng,1, P < 0.01). Additionally, a nonlinear regression analysis revealed that these ratios exponentially decreased as a function of body fat content (VLO per leptin r2 = 0.57, P < 0.01; SNS index per leptin r2 = 0.53, P < 0.01). Our data suggest that reduced sympathetic responsiveness to endogenous leptin production, implying peripheral leptin resistance, might be a pathophysiological feature of obesity in otherwise healthy young women. The findings regarding the association of leptin, body fat content, and SNS activity further indicate that the 30% of total body fat, which has been used as a criterion of obesity, might be a critical point at which leptin resistance is induced. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 15:8,15, 2003. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]