Nonlinear Interactions (nonlinear + interaction)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Disparate Scale Nonlinear Interactions in Edge Turbulence

CONTRIBUTIONS TO PLASMA PHYSICS, Issue 1-3 2008
M. Yagi
Abstract In this topical review, we explain the recent achievement in the study of nonlinear interactions, putting an emphasis on the relevance to edge turbulence. First, we start from the survey of the essence in the nonlinear theory of drift wave -zonal flows systems, and visit the experimental observations of the nonlinear interactions of tokamak edge turbulence. Secondly, the universality of intermittent convective transport in the SOL of different magnetic devices are shown. Then, we discuss evolution of collisional drift wave instability in the linear plasma configuration, which is bounded by end plates having analogy to SOL plasmas. By introducing the Numerical Linear Device, the intermittent evolution of large-amplitude instabilities, generation mechanism of the poloidal flow and other nonlinear process are examined. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Towards high-fidelity two-photon quantum communications

FORTSCHRITTE DER PHYSIK/PROGRESS OF PHYSICS, Issue 4-5 2003
G. Kurizki
We propose two alternative scheme for highly efficient nonlinear interaction between weak optical fields. The first scheme is based on the attainment of electromagnetically induced transparency simultaneously for two fields via transitions between magnetically split F = 1 atomic sublevels, in the presence of two driving fields. The second scheme relies on simultaneous electromagnetically- and self-induced transparencies of the two fields. Thereby, equal slow group velocities and giant cross-phase modulation of the weak fields over long distances are achieved. [source]


Nonlinear response of laterally loaded piles and pile groups

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL METHODS IN GEOMECHANICS, Issue 7 2009
Wei Dong Guo
Abstract In spite of extensive studies on laterally loaded piles carried out over years, none of them offers an expedite approach as to gaining the nonlinear response and its associated depth of mobilization of limiting force along each pile in a group. To serve such a need, elastic,plastic solutions for free-head, laterally loaded piles were developed recently by the author. They allow the response to be readily computed from elastic state right up to failure, by assigning a series of slip depths, and a limiting force profile. In this paper, equivalent solutions for fixed-head (FixH) single piles were developed. They are subsequently extended to cater for response of pile groups by incorporating p -multipliers. The newly established solutions were substantiated by existing numerical solutions for piles and pile groups. They offer satisfactory prediction of the nonlinear response of all the 6 single piles and 24 pile groups investigated so far after properly considering the impact of semi-FixH restraints. They also offer the extent to ultimate state of pile groups via the evaluated slip depths. The study allows ad hoc guidelines to be established for determining input parameters for the solutions. The solutions are tailored for routine prediction of the nonlinear interaction of laterally loaded FixH piles and capped pile groups. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Estimating Long-term Trends in Tropospheric Ozone Levels

INTERNATIONAL STATISTICAL REVIEW, Issue 1 2002
Michael Smith
Summary This paper develops Bayesian methodology for estimating long-term trends in the daily maxima of tropospheric ozone. The methods are then applied to study long-term trends in ozone at six monitoring sites in the state of Texas. The methodology controls for the effects of meteorological variables because it is known that variables such as temperature, wind speed and humidity substantially affect the formation of tropospheric ozone. A semiparametric regression model is estimated in which a nonparametric trivariate surface is used to model the relationship between ozone and these meteorological variables because, while it is known that the relatinship is a complex nonlinear one, its functional form is unknown. The model also allows for the effects of wind direction and seasonality. The errors are modeled as an autoregression, which is methodologically challenging because the observations are unequally spaced over time. Each function in the model is represented as a linear combination of basis functions located at all of the design points. We also estimate an appropriate data transformation simulataneously with the functions. The functions are estimated nonparametrically by a Bayesian hierarchical model that uses indicator variables to allow a non-zero probability that the coefficient of each basis term is zero. The entire model, including the nonparametric surfaces, data transformation and autoregression for the unequally spaced errors, is estimated using a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling scheme with a computationally efficient transition kernel for generating the indicator variables. The empirical results indicate that key meteorological variables explain most of the variation in daily ozone maxima through a nonlinear interaction and that their effects are consistent across the six sites. However, the estimated trends vary considerably from site to site, even within the same city. [source]


Trigonal Na3Li(MoO4)26H2O , a new many-phonon SRS molybdate crystal offering numerous nonlinear-laser interactions: several cascaded lasing (,(3),,(2)) effects and more than sesqui-octave Stokes and anti-Stokes comb generation under one-micron picosecond pumping

LASER PHYSICS LETTERS, Issue 5 2009
A.A. Kaminskii
Abstract Trigonal Na3Li(MoO4)26H2O was found to be an attractive, simultaneously ,(2) - and ,(3) -active nonlinear optical crystal. We investigated its basic optical properties and observed several nonlinear effects, namely many-phonon SRS, almost twooctave Stokes and anti-Stokes lasing combs, SHG, THG, and efficient cascaded (,(3),,(2))-generation, as well as SRS arising from nonlinear interaction of two different ,(3) -active vibrations. All recorded nonlinear-lasing components were identified and attributed to SRS-promoting vibration modes. A short review of nonlinear-laser molybdates is given. ( 2009 by Astro Ltd., Published exclusively by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA) [source]


Disparate Scale Nonlinear Interactions in Edge Turbulence

CONTRIBUTIONS TO PLASMA PHYSICS, Issue 1-3 2008
M. Yagi
Abstract In this topical review, we explain the recent achievement in the study of nonlinear interactions, putting an emphasis on the relevance to edge turbulence. First, we start from the survey of the essence in the nonlinear theory of drift wave -zonal flows systems, and visit the experimental observations of the nonlinear interactions of tokamak edge turbulence. Secondly, the universality of intermittent convective transport in the SOL of different magnetic devices are shown. Then, we discuss evolution of collisional drift wave instability in the linear plasma configuration, which is bounded by end plates having analogy to SOL plasmas. By introducing the Numerical Linear Device, the intermittent evolution of large-amplitude instabilities, generation mechanism of the poloidal flow and other nonlinear process are examined. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Endogenous Fractal Dynamics at Alpine Treeline Ecotones

GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS, Issue 3 2006
Yu Zeng
Many of the hypotheses proposed to explain ecotones are based on an individualistic paradigm and are essentially static. While they include local feedbacks, they ignore the interactions between pattern and process across scales. These feedbacks in ecotones are nonlinear in nature and complicate the relations of pattern and process in vegetation, which, combined with observed fractal patterns, suggests a complexity science approach to investigate ecotone dynamics. A cellular automaton of alpine treeline, including nonlinear, local, positive, and negative feedbacks in tree establishment and mortality, as reported in field studies, is used as a model system. Fourier analysis of simulated alpine treelines shows fractal patterns across the treeline landscapes, which are created by patch development. The temporal evolution of the spatial pattern is also fractal. Landscape scale linear correlations between spatial pattern and the rate of advance of trees into tundra arise from localized nonlinear interactions. A tree-patch-landscape scale explanation of pattern,process interaction is proposed in which the endogenous feedbacks determine the spatial and temporal fractal properties of the ecotone. The simulated treeline advance exhibits self-organized complexity and may indicate a potential strategy for monitoring change. [source]


Tetragonal Ba2MgGe2O7 , a novel multifunctional optical crystal with numerous manifestations of nonlinear-laser effects: almost sesqui-octave Stokes and anti-Stokes combs and cascaded ,(3),,(2) lasing with involved second and third harmonic generation

LASER PHYSICS LETTERS, Issue 12 2008
A.A. Kaminskii
Abstract Melilite-type Ba2MgGe2O7 was found to be an attractive, simultaneously ,(2) - and ,(3) -active nonlinear optical crystal. Under one-micron picosecond pumping we observed several manifestations of nonlinear interactions, namely almost sesqui-octave Stokes and anti-Stokes lasing combs, collinear and "Cherenkov"-type SHG, THG, SFG, and cascaded selfconversion ,(3),,(2) generation in the visible and UV range. All recorded lasing components were identified and attributed to a single SRS-promoting vibration mode ,SRS = 771.5 cm,1. A short review of melilite-type compounds is given. ( 2008 by Astro Ltd., Published exclusively by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA) [source]


A Gill,Matsuno-type mechanism explains the tropical Atlantic influence on African and Indian monsoon rainfall

THE QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, Issue 640 2009
F. Kucharski
Abstract Recent studies using coupled atmosphere,ocean models have shown that the tropical Atlantic has a significant impact on the Indian monsoon. In this article, the observational basis for this teleconnection is examined and the physical mechanism responsible for bridging sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Atlantic and precipitation over India is investigated with idealized atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments in which constant SST anomalies are prescribed and ,switched on' in the tropical Atlantic region. A simple Gill,Matsuno-type quadrupole response is proposed to explain the teleconnection between the tropical Atlantic and the Indian basin, with an enforcement of the eastward response likely due to nonlinear interactions with the mean monsoon circulation. The simplicity of this mechanism suggests the reproducibility of this result with a broad range of AGCMs. Copyright 2009 Royal Meteorological Society [source]


Wavelet analysis and the governing dynamics of a large-amplitude mesoscale gravity-wave event along the East Coast of the United States

THE QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, Issue 577 2001
Fuqing Zhang
Abstract Detailed diagnostic analyses are performed upon a mesoscale numerical simulation of a well-observed gravity-wave event that occurred on 4 January 1994 along the East Coast of the United States. The value of using wavelet analysis to investigate the evolving gravity-wave structure and of using potential vorticity (PV) inversion to study the nature of the flow imbalance in the wave generation region is demonstrated. The cross-stream Lagrangian Rossby number, the residual in the nonlinear balance equation, and the unbalanced geopotential-height field obtained from PV inversion are each evaluated for their usefulness in diagnosing the flow imbalance. All of these fields showed clear evidence of strong imbalance associated with a middle-to-upper tropospheric jet streak, and tropopause fold upstream of the large-amplitude gravity wave several hours before the wave became apparent at the surface. Analysis indicates that a train of gravity waves was continuously generated by geostrophic adjustment in the exit region of the unbalanced upper-level jet streak as it approached the inflection axis in the height field immediately downstream of the maximum imbalance associated with the tropopause fold. A split front in the middle troposphere, characterized by the advance of the dry conveyor belt above the warm front, was overtaken by one of these propagating waves. During this merger process, a resonant interaction resulted, which promoted the rapid amplification and scale contraction of both the incipient wave (nonlinear wave development) and the split front (frontogenesis). The gravity wave and front aloft became inseparable following this merger. The situation became even more complex within a few hours as the vertical motion enhanced by this front-wave interaction acted upon a saturated, potentially unstable layer to produce elevated moist convection. An analysis of the temporal changes in the vertical profile of wave energy flux suggests that moist convective downdraughts efficiently transported the wave energy from the midlevels downward beneath the warm-front surface, where the wave became ducted. However, pure ducting was not sufficient for maintaining and amplifying the waves; rather, wave-CISK (Conditional Instability of the Second Kind) was crucial. This complex sequence of nonlinear interactions produced a long-lived, large-amplitude gravity wave that created hazardous winter weather and disrupted society over a broad and highly populated area. Although gravity waves with similar appearance to this large-amplitude wave of depression occasionally have been seen in other strong cyclogenesis cases involving a jet streak ahead of the upper-level trough axis, it is unknown whether other such events share this same sequence of interactions. [source]


Mathematical modeling of the circadian rhythm of key neuroendocrine,immune system players in rheumatoid arthritis: A systems biology approach

ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 9 2009
Michael Meyer-Hermann
Objective Healthy subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) exhibit circadian rhythms of the neuroendocrine,immune system. Understanding circadian dynamics is complex due to the nonlinear behavior of the neuroendocrine,immune network. This study was undertaken to seek and test a mathematical model for studying this network. Methods We established a quantitative computational model to simulate nonlinear interactions between key factors in the neuroendocrine,immune system, such as plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF), plasma cortisol (and adrenal cholesterol store), and plasma noradrenaline (NA) (and presynaptic NA store). Results The model was nicely fitted with measured reference data on healthy subjects and RA patients. Although the individual circadian pacemakers of cortisol, NA, and TNF were installed without a phase shift, the relative phase shift between these factors evolved as a consequence of the modeled network interactions. Combined long-term and short-term TNF increase (the "RA model") increased cortisol plasma levels for only a few days, and cholesterol stores started to become markedly depleted. This nicely demonstrated the phenomenon of inadequate cortisol secretion relative to plasma TNF levels, as a consequence of adrenal deficiency. Using the RA model, treatment with glucocorticoids between midnight and 2:00 AM was found to have the strongest inhibitory effect on TNF secretion, which supports recent studies on RA therapy. Long-term reduction of TNF levels by simulation of anti-TNF therapy normalized cholesterol stores under "RA" conditions. Conclusion These first in silico studies of the neuroendocrine,immune system in rheumatology demonstrate that computational biology in medicine, making use of large collections of experimental data, supports understanding of the pathophysiology of complex nonlinear systems. [source]


Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in a strongly magnetised plasma

ASTRONOMISCHE NACHRICHTEN, Issue 1 2010
S. Sridhar
Abstract I present a review of incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in a strongly magnetised plasma. The approach is phenomenological even where a more rigorous theory is available, so that a reader armed with paper, pencil and some determination may be able to work through most of the physics. The focus is on the inertial-range spectra for very large (fluid and magnetic) Reynolds numbers. These theories of the inertial-range are built on two important facts: (i) Kraichnan's insight that the turbulent cascades are a result of nonlinear interactions between oppositely directed wavepackets of Elsasser fields; (ii) these oppositely directed wavepackets do not exchange energy, but contribute only to changing each other's spatial structures. I begin with a description and critique of the Iroshnikov-Kraichnan theory, and explore the fundamental departures necessitated by the anisotropic nature of the turbulence. Derivations of the inertial-range spectra of four regimes of MHD turbulence , the balanced weak, balanced strong, imbalanced weak and the imbalanced strong cascades , are then presented. The need for studying the spectra of imbalanced turbulence when the waves on the outer scale have a short correlation time is briefly discussed ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]