Nonlinear Effects (nonlinear + effects)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


On Selection of the Perturbation Amplitude Required to Avoid Nonlinear Effects in Impedance Measurements

ISRAEL JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY, Issue 3-4 2008
Bryan Hirschorn
Numerical simulations of electrochemical systems were used to explore the influence of large-amplitude potential perturbations on the measured impedance response. The amplitude of the input potential perturbation used for impedance measurements, normally fixed at a value of 10 mV for all systems, should instead be adjusted for each experimental system. Guidelines are developed for selection of appropriate perturbation amplitudes. A characteristic transition frequency is defined that can be used to tailor a frequency-dependent input signal to optimize signal-to-noise levels while maintaining a linear response. [source]


Nonlinear effects of exchange rate volatility on the volume of bilateral exports

JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMETRICS, Issue 1 2004
Christopher F. Baum
In this paper, we investigate empirically the impact of exchange rate volatility on real international trade flows utilizing a 13-country data set of monthly bilateral real exports for 1980,1998. We compute one-month-ahead exchange rate volatility from the intra-monthly variations in the exchange rate to better quantify this latent variable. We find that the effect of exchange rate volatility on trade flows is nonlinear, depending on its interaction with the importing country's volatility of economic activity, and that it varies considerably over the set of country pairs considered. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Antecedents of two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy

MICROSCOPY RESEARCH AND TECHNIQUE, Issue 1 2004
Barry R. Masters
Abstract In 1931, Maria Göppert-Mayer published her doctoral dissertation on the theory of two-photon quantum transitions (two-photon absorption and emission) in atoms. This report describes and analyzes the theoretical and experimental work on nonlinear optics, in particular two-photon excitation processes, that occurred between 1931 and the experimental implementation of two-photon excitation microscopy by the group of Webb in 1990. In addition to Maria Göppert-Mayer's theoretical work, the invention of the laser has a key role in the development of two-photon microscopy. Nonlinear effects were previously observed in different frequency domains (low-frequency electric and magnetic fields and magnetization), but the high electric field strength afforded by lasers was necessary to demonstrate many nonlinear effects in the optical frequency range. In 1978, the first high-resolution nonlinear microscope with depth resolution was described by the Oxford group. Sheppard and Kompfner published a study in Applied Optics describing microscopic imaging based on second-harmonic generation. In their report, they further proposed that other nonlinear optical effects, such as two-photon fluorescence, could also be applied. However, the developments in the field of nonlinear optical stalled due to a lack of a suitable laser source. This obstacle was removed with the advent of femtosecond lasers in the 1980s. In 1990, the seminal study of Denk, Strickler, and Webb on two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy was published in Science. Their paper clearly demonstrated the capability of two-photon excitation microscopy for biology, and it served to convince a wide audience of scientists of the potential capability of the technique. Microsc. Res. Tech. 63:3,11, 2004. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Analyzing dynamic performance of stressed power systems in vicinity of instability by modal series method

EUROPEAN TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRICAL POWER, Issue 8 2009
Ali H. Naghshbandy
Abstract Highly stressed power systems exhibit complex dynamic behaviors such as inter-area oscillations when subjected to large disturbances. In such conditions, nonlinear effects have dominant role in determining dynamic response of the systems. In this paper by using modal series method, dynamic behaviors of the stressed power systems in severe conditions and near instability have been studied. Also two measures, mode dominance measure (MDM) and most perturbed machine factor (MPF) have been introduced. They determine the most dominant modes and identify the most perturbed generators when the system is subjected to a given fault. Contribution factors have been used to show the links between identified modes and machines from the analysis. Time domain simulation has been helped for validation of the results. By using similarity transformation, state variables have been represented in modal space and utilized to check the results. The studies are carried out on the IEEE 50-generator test system which demonstrates a wide range of dynamic characteristics at different loading levels and fault scenarios. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Sources of plant-derived carbon and stability of organic matter in soil: implications for global change

GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 8 2009
SUSAN E. CROW
Abstract Alterations in forest productivity and changes in the relative proportion of above- and belowground biomass may have nonlinear effects on soil organic matter (SOM) storage. To study the influence of plant litter inputs on SOM accumulation, the Detritus Input Removal and Transfer (DIRT) Experiment continuously alters above- and belowground plant inputs to soil by a combination of trenching, screening, and litter addition. Here, we used biogeochemical indicators [i.e., cupric oxide extractable lignin-derived phenols and suberin/cutin-derived substituted fatty acids (SFA)] to identify the dominant sources of plant biopolymers in SOM and various measures [i.e., soil density fractionation, laboratory incubation, and radiocarbon-based mean residence time (MRT)] to assess the stability of SOM in two contrasting forests within the DIRT Experiment: an aggrading deciduous forest and an old-growth coniferous forest. In the deciduous forest, removal of both above- and belowground inputs increased the total amount of SFA over threefold compared with the control, and shifted the SFA signature towards a root-dominated source. Concurrently, light fraction MRT increased by 101 years and C mineralization during incubation decreased compared with the control. Together, these data suggest that root-derived aliphatic compounds are a source of SOM with greater relative stability than leaf inputs at this site. In the coniferous forest, roots were an important source of soil lignin-derived phenols but needle-derived, rather than root-derived, aliphatic compounds were preferentially preserved in soil. Fresh wood additions elevated the amount of soil C recovered as light fraction material but also elevated mineralization during incubation compared with other DIRT treatments, suggesting that not all of the added soil C is directly stabilized. Aboveground needle litter additions, which are more N-rich than wood debris, resulted in accelerated mineralization of previously stored soil carbon. In summary, our work demonstrates that the dominant plant sources of SOM differed substantially between forest types. Furthermore, inputs to and losses from soil C pools likely will not be altered uniformly by changes in litter input rates. [source]


Linear and threshold forecasts of output and inflation using stock and housing prices

JOURNAL OF FORECASTING, Issue 2 2008
Greg Tkacz
Abstract This study examines whether simple measures of Canadian equity and housing price misalignments contain leading information about output growth and inflation. Previous authors have generally found that the information content of asset prices in general, and equity and housing prices in particular, are unreliable in that they do not systematically predict future economic activity or inflation. However, earlier studies relied on simple linear relationships that would fail to pick up the potential nonlinear effects of asset price misalignments. Our results suggest that housing prices are useful for predicting GDP growth, even within a linear context. Meanwhile, both stock and housing prices can improve inflation forecasts, especially when using a threshold specification. These improvements in forecast performance are relative to the information contained in Phillips-curve type indicators for inflation and IS-curve type indicators for GDP growth. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Trigonal Na3Li(MoO4)2·6H2O , a new many-phonon SRS molybdate crystal offering numerous nonlinear-laser interactions: several cascaded lasing (,(3),,(2)) effects and more than sesqui-octave Stokes and anti-Stokes comb generation under one-micron picosecond pumping

LASER PHYSICS LETTERS, Issue 5 2009
A.A. Kaminskii
Abstract Trigonal Na3Li(MoO4)2·6H2O was found to be an attractive, simultaneously ,(2) - and ,(3) -active nonlinear optical crystal. We investigated its basic optical properties and observed several nonlinear effects, namely many-phonon SRS, almost twooctave Stokes and anti-Stokes lasing combs, SHG, THG, and efficient cascaded (,(3),,(2))-generation, as well as SRS arising from nonlinear interaction of two different ,(3) -active vibrations. All recorded nonlinear-lasing components were identified and attributed to SRS-promoting vibration modes. A short review of nonlinear-laser molybdates is given. (© 2009 by Astro Ltd., Published exclusively by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA) [source]


Tsunami generation and propagation from the Mjølnir asteroid impact

METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, Issue 9 2007
S. Glimsdal
The geological structure resulting from the impact is today known as the Mjølnir crater. The present work attempts to model the generation and the propagation of the tsunami from the Mjølnir impact. A multi-material hydrocode SOVA is used to model the impact and the early stages of tsunami generation, while models based on shallow-water theories are used to study the subsequent wave propagation in the paleo-Barents Sea. We apply several wave models of varying computational complexity. This includes both three-dimensional and radially symmetric weakly dispersive and nonlinear Boussinesq equations, as well as equations based on nonlinear ray theory. These tsunami models require a reconstruction of the bathymetry of the paleo-Barents Sea. The Mjølnir tsunami is characteristic of large bolides impacting in shallow sea; in this case the asteroid was about 1.6 km in diameter and the water depth was around 400 m. Contrary to earthquake- and slide-generated tsunamis, this tsunami featured crucial dispersive and nonlinear effects: a few minutes after the impact, the ocean surface was formed into an undular bore, which developed further into a train of solitary waves. Our simulations indicate wave amplitudes above 200 m, and during shoaling the waves break far from the coastlines in rather deep water. The tsunami induced strong bottom currents, in the range of 30,90 km/h, which presumably caused a strong reworking of bottom sediments with dramatic consequences for the marine environment. [source]


Antecedents of two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy

MICROSCOPY RESEARCH AND TECHNIQUE, Issue 1 2004
Barry R. Masters
Abstract In 1931, Maria Göppert-Mayer published her doctoral dissertation on the theory of two-photon quantum transitions (two-photon absorption and emission) in atoms. This report describes and analyzes the theoretical and experimental work on nonlinear optics, in particular two-photon excitation processes, that occurred between 1931 and the experimental implementation of two-photon excitation microscopy by the group of Webb in 1990. In addition to Maria Göppert-Mayer's theoretical work, the invention of the laser has a key role in the development of two-photon microscopy. Nonlinear effects were previously observed in different frequency domains (low-frequency electric and magnetic fields and magnetization), but the high electric field strength afforded by lasers was necessary to demonstrate many nonlinear effects in the optical frequency range. In 1978, the first high-resolution nonlinear microscope with depth resolution was described by the Oxford group. Sheppard and Kompfner published a study in Applied Optics describing microscopic imaging based on second-harmonic generation. In their report, they further proposed that other nonlinear optical effects, such as two-photon fluorescence, could also be applied. However, the developments in the field of nonlinear optical stalled due to a lack of a suitable laser source. This obstacle was removed with the advent of femtosecond lasers in the 1980s. In 1990, the seminal study of Denk, Strickler, and Webb on two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy was published in Science. Their paper clearly demonstrated the capability of two-photon excitation microscopy for biology, and it served to convince a wide audience of scientists of the potential capability of the technique. Microsc. Res. Tech. 63:3,11, 2004. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Thermo-optic nonlinear response of silver nanoparticle colloids under a low power laser irradiation at 532,nm

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (B) BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 2 2010
Rouhollah Karimzadeh
Abstract The thermo-optical properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the water are investigated under irradiation of a continuous wave (CW) laser at 532,nm. Thermal conductivity of the AgNP colloids is estimated using the Maxwell model. The closed Z-scan measurements reveal thermal contribution for the nonlinear refractive index of the AgNPs. The Z-scan behavior is investigated based on nonlocal thermo-optic process. It is shown that the aberrant thermal lens model is in excellent agreement with the Z-scan experimental results of the sample. A fit allows extracting the values of nonlinear refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient to be ,1.0,×,10,8,cm2/W and ,0.99,×,10,4,W/mK, respectively. Our results suggest that thermal nonlinear effects play an important role in the development of photonic application involving metal nanoparticle colloids and in the investigation of nonlocal nonlinear processes. [source]


Coherent control of ground state excitons in the nonlinear regime within an ensemble of self-assembled InAs quantum dots

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 4 2009
Thomas Moldaschl
Abstract In this work femtosecond spectral hole burning spectroscopy is used to resonantly excite ground state excitons in an ensemble of self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots with a strong pump pulse. Two fundamental coherent nonlinear effects are observed with the aid of the intrinsic time- and frequency resolution of the setup: The low temperature Rabi oscillation of the two-level system associated with the excitonic ground state transition and the observation of two-photon absorption in the surrounding GaAs crystal matrix. The emergence of the latter effect also infers the existence of charged excitons in the nominally undoped QD sample, backed up by the observation of additional spectral holes next to the excitonic transitions. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Experimental investigation of a moored floating system

PROCEEDINGS IN APPLIED MATHEMATICS & MECHANICS, Issue 1 2008
Daniel Beyer
Floating structures are generally excited by a more or less irregular sea state. Therefore the structure undergoes a nonlinear dynamical behaviour which results from hydrodynamic effects or the kinematic coupling of different components. The motions of these structures have been analysed intensively with numerical techniques which predict a wide range of nonlinear effects. On the other hand, experiments are still important when it comes to verifying these theoretical findings. Investigating such a floating structure experimentally requires a complex setup: A wave generator needs to be driven in an appropriate way to yield waves with the required characteristics at the structure. The structure itself is usually designed similar to a real,world system and it has to allow for a comparison with numerical analyses. Sensors which measure the tracks of the individual components not only have to reach a prescribed precision but also need to ensure that the motion is not perturbed as a result of the measurements. Lastly, unwanted disturbances have to be avoided. For experiments in a wave tank this includes that reflections have to be minimized. This talk addresses the development of an experimental setup for the investigation of a floating structure. It highlights components which are found to be critical for the obtained accuracy and proposes techniques to reduce experimental errors. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Statistical investigation of the nonlinear dynamical behavior of offshore structures

PROCEEDINGS IN APPLIED MATHEMATICS & MECHANICS, Issue 1 2008
Jürgen Reimers
The increasing amount of reports concerning damages of ships, structures and loss of cargo due to wave structure interaction demand the development of systems to predict critical situations in the offshore environment. Within the last years, research has been done to predict encounter with critical wave or wave groups such as "rogue waves" or the so,called "three sisters". The aim of such research is to develop programs that predict dangerous incidents and possibly alert the crew in time. The dangers of such extreme wave situations are severe, but occurrence of them is rather rare. Additionally and more often, structures are endangered because of fluid,structure,interaction leading to critical dynamical system behaviour in a wave environment that shows no extreme wave heights. The severeness of these incidents then depends on the experience and correctness of decision concerning the evasive actions of the master and his crew. Taking nonlinear effects into account, the statistical investigation of structures in waves shows critical behaviour of ships and structures without the absolute necessity of heavy sea conditions or the occurrence of dangerous sea phenomena. This paper describes the development of a program that uses a Monte,Carlo,Simulation technique based on a common panel,method for the creation of added masses and added dampings to predict the behaviour of the structure in several wave conditions. It shows possible ways to prevent the occurrence using similar early warning systems to those in development for critical wavegroups. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Coupled nonlinear effects in modeling field emission from CNTs

PROCEEDINGS IN APPLIED MATHEMATICS & MECHANICS, Issue 1 2007
R.V.N. Melnik
Field emission from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is a complex process involving a range of physical effects and phenomena. In this paper, we systematically develop a multiphysics model to describe this process. We integrate the model numerically to estimate the output current from a CNT based field emission device. Numerical simulations have been able to capture the transients in current as observed in actual experiments. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Self and nonself recognition of chiral catalysts: The origin of nonlinear effects in the amino-alcohol catalyzed asymmetric addition of diorganozincs to aldehydes

THE CHEMICAL RECORD, Issue 2 2001
Ryoji Noyori
Abstract Asymmetric addition of dialkylzincs to aldehydes in the presence of (2S)-3- exo -(dimethylamino)isoborneol [(S)-DAIB] exhibits various nonclassical phenomena. The enantiomeric excess (ee) of the alkylation product, obtained with partially resolved DAIB, is much higher than that of the chiral amino alcohol, while the rate decreases considerably as the ee of DAIB is lowered. The asymmetric amplification effects reflect the relative turnover numbers of two enantiomorphic catalytic cycles, where an essential feature is the reversible homochiral and heterochiral dimerization of the coexisting enantiomeric DAIB-based Zn catalysts. The interplay between the thermodynamics of the monomer/dimer equilibration and the kinetics of alkylation reaction strongly affect the overall profile of asymmetric catalysis. The self and nonself recognition of the chiral Zn catalysts is a general phenomenon when (S)-DAIB is mixed with its enantiomer, diastereomer, or even an achiral ,-amino alcohol. The degree of nonlinearity is highly affected not only by the structures and purity of catalysts but also by various reaction parameters. The salient features have been clarified on the basis of molecular weight measurements, NMR and X-ray crystallographic studies of organozinc complexes, and kinetic experiments, as well as computer-aided quantitative analysis. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and The Japan Chemical Journal Forum Chem Rec 1:85,100, 2001 [source]


TRUST IN HEALTH PROVIDERS AS A CATALYST FOR MALARIA PREVENTION: HETEROGENEOUS IMPACTS OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN RURAL GHANA

THE DEVELOPING ECONOMIES, Issue 3 2010
Thomas De HOOP
O12; I18; I39 Although knowledge about effectiveness of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) is fairly widespread in Ghana, their use remains far from universal. We test and validate the hypothesis that health education of hospitals and health centers in rural Ghana is more effective for groups that display relatively high trust to health providers. We estimate heterogeneous impacts of health education on ITN and/or bed net use and on fever as a crude proxy for malaria in the Brong Ahafo and Upper East regions in Ghana, with help of propensity-adjusted regression. The degree of trust in health providers appears to be a key factor in determining the effectiveness of health education in both regions. The effect is not ruled out by controlling for general trust. There are indications of nonlinear effects. The Kassena-Nankana seems to be an exception to this rule,despite low trust in health providers, health education is highly effective for this ethnic group. [source]


Resonant gravity-wave drag enhancement in linear stratified flow over mountains

THE QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, Issue 609 2005
M. A. C. Teixeira
Abstract High-drag states produced in stratified flow over a 2D ridge and an axisymmetric mountain are investigated using a linear, hydrostatic, analytical model. A wind profile is assumed where the background velocity is constant up to a height z1 and then decreases linearly, and the internal gravity-wave solutions are calculated exactly. In flow over a 2D ridge, the normalized surface drag is given by a closed-form analytical expression, while in flow over an axisymmetric mountain it is given by an expression involving a simple 1D integral. The drag is found to depend on two dimensionless parameters: a dimensionless height formed with z1, and the Richardson number, Ri, in the shear layer. The drag oscillates as z1 increases, with a period of half the hydrostatic vertical wavelength of the gravity waves. The amplitude of this modulation increases as Ri decreases. This behaviour is due to wave reflection at z1. Drag maxima correspond to constructive interference of the upward- and downward-propagating waves in the region znonlinear effects is presented, where zc appears to become more relevant, and flow over a 2D ridge qualitatively changes its character. But these effects, and their connection with linear theory, still need to be better understood. Copyright © 2005 Royal Meteorological Society. [source]


8 Tb/s long haul transmission over low dispersion fibers using 100 Gb/s PDM-QPSK channels paired with coherent detection

BELL LABS TECHNICAL JOURNAL, Issue 4 2010
Jérémie Renaudier
100Gb/s end-to-end broadband optical solutions are attractive to cope with the increasing demand for capacity. Polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM) quaternary-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) paired with coherent detection has been found to be promising for upgrading optical legacy systems based on 50GHz wavelength slots thanks to its high spectral efficiency (2bit/s/Hz) and its tolerance to linear effects. One of the major concerns for the deployment of such a solution is the transmission reach, mainly limited by nonlinear effects. This limitation can be exacerbated over non-zero dispersion shifted fiber (NZDSF) due to low local chromatic dispersion of the transmission fiber. The aim of this paper is first to report on the benefits brought by combining coherent detection techniques with advanced modulation formats as compared to conventional direct detection schemes for optical fiber communications. Digital signal processing paired with coherent detection is described to point out the efficiency of a coherent receiver to combat noise and to mitigate linear impairments. We then report on nonlinear tolerance of 100 Gb/s coherent PDM-QPSK through an 8 Tb/s transmission over a dispersion-managed link based on low dispersion fibers. © 2010 Alcatel-Lucent. [source]


Role of nutrient supply on cell growth in bioreactor design for tissue engineering of hematopoietic cells

BIOTECHNOLOGY & BIOENGINEERING, Issue 7 2005
Pragyansri Pathi
Abstract In the present study, a dynamic mathematical model for the growth of granulocyte progenitor cells in the hematopoietic process is developed based on the principles of diffusion and chemical reaction. This model simulates granulocyte progenitor cell growth and oxygen consumption in a three-dimensional (3-D) perfusion bioreactor. Material balances on cells are coupled to the nutrient balances in 3-D matrices to determine the effects of transport limitations on cell growth. The method of volume averaging is used to formulate the material balances for the cells and the nutrients in the porous matrix containing the cells. All model parameters are obtained from the literature. The maximum cell volume fraction reached when oxygen is depleted in the cell layer at 15 days and is nearly 0.63, corresponding to a cell density of 2.25 × 108 cells/mL. The substrate inhibition kinetics for cell growth lead to complex effects with respect to the roles of oxygen concentration and supply by convection and diffusion on cell growth. Variation in the height of the liquid layer above the cell matrix where nutrient supply is introduced affected the relative and absolute amounts of oxygen supply by hydrodynamic flow and by diffusion across a gas permeable FEP membrane. Mass transfer restrictions of the FEP membrane are considerable, and the supply of oxygen by convection is essential to achieve higher levels of cell growth. A maximum growth rate occurs at a specific flow rate. For flow rates higher than this optimal, the high oxygen concentration led to growth inhibition and for lower flow rates growth limitations occur due to insufficient oxygen supply. Because of the nonlinear effects of the autocatalytic substrate inhibition growth kinetics coupled to the convective transport, the rate of growth at this optimal flow rate is higher than that in a corresponding well-mixed reactor where oxygen concentration is set at the maximum indicated by the inhibitory kinetics. ©2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Process analytical technology and compensating for nonlinear effects in process spectroscopic data for improved process monitoring and control

BIOTECHNOLOGY JOURNAL, Issue 5 2009
Zengping Chen
First page of article [source]