Nonlinear Behaviour (nonlinear + behaviour)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Sensitivity of seismically isolated structures

Ioannis Politopoulos
Abstract In this paper we study the sensitivity of seismically isolated structures to a small variability of the earthquake excitation and of some structural properties with respect to the probability of failure and floor spectra. In particular, the influence of the nonlinear behaviour of the isolated superstructure on the vulnerability and on the floor spectra is investigated by means of a series of Monte Carlo simulations of simple two degrees-of-freedom systems. Several types of passive and active isolation systems are examined and three different idealized nonlinear constitutive laws are considered for the superstructure. It is found that, in general, the probability of failure does not depend on the specific cyclic behaviour of the assumed constitutive law and general trends regarding the impact of different isolation devices on vulnerability are established. As for the floor spectra, the influence of moderate nonlinear behaviour of isolated superstructures, with the exception of the case of a non-dissipative elastic nonlinear law, is negligible, contrary to the case of conventional structures. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Seismic design of RC structures: A critical assessment in the framework of multi-objective optimization

Nikos D. Lagaros
Abstract The assessment of seismic design codes has been the subject of intensive research work in an effort to reveal weak points that originated from the limitations in predicting with acceptable precision the response of the structures under moderate or severe earthquakes. The objective of this work is to evaluate the European seismic design code, i.e. the Eurocode 8 (EC8), when used for the design of 3D reinforced concrete buildings, versus a performance-based design (PBD) procedure, in the framework of a multi-objective optimization concept. The initial construction cost and the maximum interstorey drift for the 10/50 hazard level are the two objectives considered for the formulation of the multi-objective optimization problem. The solution of such optimization problems is represented by the Pareto front curve which is the geometric locus of all Pareto optimum solutions. Limit-state fragility curves for selected designs, taken from the Pareto front curves of the EC8 and PBD formulations, are developed for assessing the two seismic design procedures. Through this comparison it was found that a linear analysis in conjunction with the behaviour factor q of EC8 cannot capture the nonlinear behaviour of an RC structure. Consequently the corrected EC8 Pareto front curve, using the nonlinear static procedure, differs significantly with regard to the corresponding Pareto front obtained according to EC8. Furthermore, similar designs, with respect to the initial construction cost, obtained through the EC8 and PBD formulations were found to exhibit different maximum interstorey drift and limit-state fragility curves. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Relation of apical dendritic spikes to output decision in CA1 pyramidal cells during synchronous activation: a computational study

José M. Ibarz
Abstract Recent studies on the initiation and propagation of dendritic spikes have modified the classical view of postsynaptic integration. Earlier we reported that subthreshold currents and spikes recruited by synaptic currents play a critical role in defining outputs following synchronous activation. Experimental factors strongly condition these currents due to their nonlinear behaviour. Hence, we have performed a detailed parametric study in a CA1 pyramidal cell model to explore how different variables interact and initiate dendritic spiking, and how they influence cell output. The input pattern, the relative excitability of axon and dendrites, the presence/modulation of voltage-dependent channels, and inhibition were cross analysed. Subthreshold currents and spikes on synaptically excited branches fired spikes in other branches to jointly produce different modalities of apical shaft spiking with a variable impact on cell output. Synchronous activation initiated a varying number and temporal scatter of firing branches that produced in the apical shaft-soma axis nonpropagating spikes, pseudosaltatory or continuous forward conduction, or backpropagation. As few as 6,10 local spikes within a time window of 2 ms ensure cell output. However, the activation mode varied extremely when two or more variables were cross-analysed, becoming rather unpredictable when all the variables were considered. Spatially clustered inputs and upper modulation of dendritic Na+ or Ca2+ electrogenesis favour apical decision. In contrast, inhibition biased the output decision toward the axon and switched between dendritic firing modes. We propose that dendrites can discriminate input patterns and decide immediate cell output depending on the particular state of a variety of endogenous parameters. [source]

Nonlinear FE-analysis of tunnel excavation , comparison of EC7 design approaches.

Nichtlineare FE-Analysen im Tunnelbau, Vergleich der Nachweisverfahren des EC
Structural analysis; Support; Statik; Stützmittel Abstract Although Eurocode 7 does not mention tunnelling explicitly it is under discussion amongst practitioners to what extent the principles of EC7 can be applied to the design of tunnels. In EC7 three different design approaches, which differ in the application of partial factors on actions, soil strength and resistance, have been established. A characteristic feature of tunnelling is that the surrounding soil or rock represents loading and support for tunnel, similar to deep excavation problems. In addition, the highly nonlinear behaviour of shotcrete linings needs special attention and therefore care must be taken when choosing partial factors of safety. In this contribution the applicability of the different design approaches for tunnelling employing numerical methods are investigated and the differences obtained are discussed. Two examples are presented, namely a station tunnel in soil and a tunnel in rock, both constructed based on NATM principles. Obwohl Tunnelbau im Eurocode 7 nicht explizit erwähnt wird, steht zur Diskussion, ob der EC7 prinzipiell auch für die Bemessung im Tunnelbau anwendbar ist. Im EC7 sind drei Nachweisverfahren definiert, die sich in der Anwendung der Teilsicherheitsfaktoren auf Einwirkungen, Widerstände und Bodenkennwerte unterscheiden. Ein wesentlicher Aspekt im Tunnelbau ist, dass der Baugrund sowohl Einwirkung als auch Widerstand sein kann, und somit sind Parallelen zur Bemessung von Baugruben gegeben. Zusätzlich kommt hinzu, dass das mechanische Verhalten von Spritzbeton hochgradig nichtlinear ist, was bei der Wahl der Teilsicherheitsbeiwerte beachtet werden muss. In diesem Beitrag wird die Anwendbarkeit der unterschiedlichen Nachweisverfahren des EC7 für den Tunnelbau bei Anwendung numerischer Methoden untersucht und die Unterschiede in den Ergebnissen aufgezeigt. Zwei Beispiele wurden gewählt, ein Stationstunnel im Lockergestein und ein Tunnel im Fels, beide nach der Neuen Österreichischen Tunnelbauweise aufgefahren. [source]

Modelling the dynamics of log-domain circuits

Alon Ascoli
Abstract Log-domain filters are an intriguing form of externally linear, internally nonlinear current-mode circuits, in which a compression stage is first used to convert the input currents to the logarithmic domain, then analogue processing is carried out on the resulting voltages, and finally input,output linearity is restored by mapping the output voltages to current form through an expansion stage. The compressing and expanding operations confer on log-domain filters a number of desirable features, but they may be responsible for the loss of external linearity. In this paper, sufficient conditions for the external linearity of log-domain LC-ladders are established, and the local nature of this external linearity is highlighted. Certain log-domain LC-ladders employing floating capacitors may exhibit externally nonlinear behaviour even for zero input and very small initial conditions. We show how transistor parasitic capacitances are central to the emergence of this behaviour, and must be incorporated in the circuit model. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Conundrums in mixed woody,herbaceous plant systems

Joanna I. House
Abstract Aims To identify approaches to improve our understanding of, and predictive capability for, mixed tree,grass systems. Elucidation of the interactions, dynamics and determinants, and identification of robust generalizations that can be broadly applied to tree,grass systems would benefit ecological theory, modelling and land management. Methods A series of workshops brought together scientific expertise to review theory, data availability, modelling approaches and key questions. Location Ecosystems characterized by mixtures of herbaceous and woody plant life-forms, often termed ,savannas', range from open grasslands with few woody plants, to woodlands or forests with a grass layer. These ecosystems represent a substantial portion of the terrestrial biosphere, an important wildlife habitat, and a major resource for provision of livestock, fuel wood and other products. Results Although many concepts and principles developed for grassland and forest systems are relevant to these dual life-form communities, the novel, complex, nonlinear behaviour of mixed tree,grass systems cannot be accounted for by simply studying or modelling woody and herbaceous components independently. A more robust understanding requires addressing three fundamental conundrums: (1) The ,treeness' conundrum. What controls the relative abundance of woody and herbaceous plants for a given set of conditions at given site? (2) The coexistence conundrum. How do the life-forms interact with each other? Is a given woody,herbaceous ratio dynamically stable and persistent under a particular set of conditions? (3) The net primary productivity (NPP) conundrum. How does NPP of the woody vegetation, the herbaceous vegetation, and the total ecosystem (woody + herbaceous) change with changes in the tree,grass ratio? Tests of the theory and conceptual models of determinants of mixed woody,herbaceous systems have been largely site- or region-specific and have seldom been broadly or quantitatively evaluated. Cross-site syntheses based on data and modelling are required to address the conundrums and identify emerging patterns, yet, there are very few data sets for which either biomass or NPP have been quantified for both the woody and the herbaceous components of tree,grass systems. Furthermore, there are few cross-site comparisons spanning the diverse array of woody,herbaceous mixtures. Hence, initial synthesis studies should focus on compiling and standardizing a global data base which could be (1) explored to ascertain if robust generalizations and consistent patterns exist; and (2) used to evaluate the performance of savanna simulation models over a range of woody,herbaceous mixtures. Savanna structure and productivity are the result of complex and dynamic interactions between climate, soils and disturbances, notably fire and herbivory. Such factors are difficult to isolate or experimentally manipulate in order to evaluate their impacts at spatial and temporal scales appropriate for assessing ecosystem dynamics. These factors can, however, be evaluated with simulation models. Existing savanna models vary markedly with respect to their conceptual approach, their data requirements and the extent to which they incorporate mechanistic processes. Model intercomparisons can elucidate those approaches most suitable for various research questions and management applications. Conclusion Theoretical and conceptual advances could be achieved by considering a broad continuum of grass,shrub,tree combinations using data meta-analysis techniques and modelling. [source]

Asymmetry in the link between the yield spread and industrial production: threshold effects and forecasting

Ivan Paya
Abstract We analyse the nonlinear behaviour of the information content in the spread for future real economic activity. The spread linearly predicts one-year-ahead real growth in nine industrial production sectors of the USA and four of the UK over the last 40 years. However, recent investigations on the spread,real activity relation have questioned both its linear nature and its time-invariant framework. Our in-sample empirical evidence suggests that the spread,real activity relationship exhibits asymmetries that allow for different predictive power of the spread when past spread values were above or below some threshold value. We then measure the out-of-sample forecast performance of the nonlinear model using predictive accuracy tests. The results show that significant improvement in forecasting accuracy, at least for one-step-ahead forecasts, can be obtained over the linear model. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Quantification of gypsum crystal nucleation, growth, and breakage rates in a wet flue gas desulfurization pilot plant

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 10 2009
Brian B. Hansen
Abstract The aim of this work is to study the influence of nucleation, growth and breakage on the particle size distribution (PSD) of gypsum crystals produced by the wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process. The steady state PSD, obtained in a falling film wet FGD pilot plant during desulfurization of a 1000 ppm(v) SO2 gas stream, displayed a strong nonlinear behaviour (in a ln(n(l)) vs. l plot) at the lower end of the particle size range, compared to the well-known linear mixed suspension mixed product removal model. A transient population balance breakage model, fitted to experimental data, was able to model an increase in the fraction of small particles, but not to the extent observed experimentally. A three-parameter, size-dependent growth model, previously used for sodium sulphate decahydrate and potash alum, was able to describe the experimental data, indicating either size-dependent integration kinetics or growth rate dispersion. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009 [source]

Nonlinear modelling of periodic threshold autoregressions using Tsmars

We present new methods for modelling nonlinear threshold-type autoregressive behaviour in periodically correlated time series. The methods are illustrated using a series of average monthly flows of the Fraser River in British Columbia. Commonly used nonlinearity tests of the river flow data in each month indicate nonlinear behaviour in certain months. The periodic nonlinear correlation structure is modelled nonparametrically using TSMARS, a time series version of Friedman's extended multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) algorithm, which allows for categorical predictor variables. We discuss two methods of using the computational algorithm in TSMARS for modelling and fitting periodically correlated data. The first method applies the algorithm to data from each period separately. The second method models data from all periods simultaneously by incorporating an additional predictor variable to distinguish different behaviour in different periods, and allows for coalescing of data from periods with similar behaviour. The models obtained using TSMARS provide better short-term forecasts for the Fraser River data than a corresponding linear periodic AR model. [source]

A monotonically-damping second-order-accurate unconditionally-stable numerical scheme for diffusion

Nigel Wood
Abstract We present a new two-step temporal discretization of the diffusion equation, which is formally second-order-accurate and unconditionally stable. A novel aspect of the scheme is that it is monotonically damping: the damping rate is a monotonically-increasing function of the diffusion coefficient, independent of the size of the time step, when the diffusion coefficient is independent of the variable being diffused. Furthermore, the damping rate increases without bound as the diffusion coefficient similarly increases. We discuss the nonlinear behaviour of the scheme when the diffusion coefficient is a function of the diffused variable. The scheme is designed to maintain any steady-state solution. We present examples of the performance of the scheme. © Crown Copyright 2007. Reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A sigmoidal transcriptional response: cooperativity, synergy and dosage effects

ABSTRACT A sigmoidal transcriptional response (STR) is thought to act as amolecular switch to control gene expression. This nonlinear behaviour arises as a result of the cooperative recognition of a promoter/enhancer by transcription factors (TFs) and/or their synergy to attract the basal transcriptional machinery (BTM). Although this cooperation between TFs is additive in terms of energy, it leads to an exponential increase in affinity between the BTM and the pre-initiation complexes. This exponential increase in the strength of interactions is the principle that governs synergistic systems. Here, I propose a minimalist quasi-equilibrium model to explore qualitatively the STR taking into account cooperative recognition of the promoter/enhancer and synergy. Although the focus is on the effect of activators, a similar treatment can be applied to inhibitors. One of the main insights obtained from the model is that generation of a sigmoidal threshold is possible even in the absence of cooperative DNA binding provided the TFs synergistically interact with the BTM. On the contrary, when there is cooperative binding, the impact of synergy diminishes. It will also be shown that a sigmoidal response to a morphogenetic gradient can be used to generate a nested gradient of another morphogen. Previously, I had proposed that halving the amounts of TFs involved in sigmoidal transcriptional switches could account for the abnormal dominant phenotypes associated with some of these genes. This phenomenon, called haploinsufficiency (HI), has been recognised as the basis of many human diseases. Although a formal proof linking HI and a sigmoidal response is lacking, it is tempting to explore the model from the perspective of dosage effects. [source]