Nonlinear Behavior (nonlinear + behavior)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Influence of Semi-Rigid Connections and Local Joint Damage on Progressive Collapse of Steel Frameworks

Yuxin Liu
This article extends the threat-independent method for progressive-failure analysis of rigid frames to analysis accounting for semi-rigid connections. The influence of joint damage caused by disengagement of member(s) is also considered in the analysis, and the degree of damage is modeled by a health index. A compound element model is employed to include the contributions of nonlinear behavior of beam-to-column connections, connection and member-end damage, member inelasticity, member shear deformation, and geometrical nonlinearity to structural response. Four beam collapse modes are illustrated for the progressive collapse analysis associated with debris loading generated when disengaged structural components fall onto lower parts of the structure. The impact effect is taken into account for the quasi-static nonlinear analysis by utilizing an impact amplification factor according to GSA and DoD guidelines. Any progressive collapse occurring thereafter involves a series of collapse events associated with topological changes of the frame. The analysis procedure is illustrated for the progressive collapse behavior of two planar steel frames. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is potentially an effective tool for the progressive collapse analysis of semi-rigid steel frames under abnormal loading events. [source]

Probabilistic estimate of seismic response design values of RC frames

Angelo D'Ambrisi
Abstract Probabilistically controlled design values of the nonlinear seismic response of reinforced concrete frames are obtained using a method previously proposed by the authors. The method allows to calculate conservative design values characterized by a predefined non-exceedance probability, using a limited number of spectrum-fitting generated accelerograms. Herein the method is applied to elastic-strain hardening single degree of freedom systems representative of RC framed structures and is then assessed with reference to four reinforced concrete model frames designed according to EC8. The frames are characterized by different natural periods and aspect ratios. The results, compared with those obtained applying current EC8 recommendations, show the effectiveness of the proposed method. EC8 provides for design values of the seismic response of a structure with a nonlinear behavior computed as the mean value of the responses to seven accelerograms or as the maximum value of the responses to three accelerograms. These two criteria lead to design values characterized by very different and uncontrolled non-exceedance probability levels, while the proposed method allows the analyst to directly control the non-exceedance probability level of the calculated design values. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Effect of Contact Mode on the Electrical Transport and Field-Emission Performance of Individual Boron Nanowires

Fei Liu
Abstract Vapor,liquid,solid processing of boron nanowires (BNWs) can be carried out either using a bottom-up or top-down growth mode, which results in different contact modes between the nanowire and the substrate. The contact mode may strongly affect the electrical transport and field-emission performance of the individual boron nanowires grown on a Si substrate. The electrical transport and field-emission characteristics of individual boron nanowires of different contact modes are investigated in situ using a scanning electron microscope. The contact barriers are very distinct for the different contact modes. Moreover, the transition from a "contact-limited" to a "bulk-limited" field-emission (FE) process is demonstrated in nanoemitters for the first time, and the proposed improved metal,insulator,vacuum (MIV) model may better illustrate the nonlinear behavior of the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) plots in these nanoscale systems. Individual BNWs with different contact modes have a discrepancy in their emission stability and vacuum breakdown characteristics though they have similar aspect ratios, which suggests that their electrical transport and field-emission performance are closely related to their contact mode. Boron nanowires grown in the base-up mode have better field-emission performances and are more beneficial than those grown in the top-down mode for various device applications. [source]

Broadband Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene Dispersions

Jun Wang
A series of unoxidized and defect-free graphene dispersions with large populations of single and multilayer graphenes is prepared by employing high-yield exfoliation of graphene in the liquid phase. The graphene dispersions exhibit broadband optical limiting at 532 and 1064,nm. Nonlinear scattering, originated from the thermally induced solvent bubbles and microplasmas, is responsible for this nonlinear behavior. [source]

Modeling power and intermodulation behavior of microwave transistors with unified small-signal/large-signal neural network models

F. Giannini
Abstract This article presents a detailed procedure to learn a nonlinear model and its derivatives to as many orders as desired with multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural networks. A modular neural network modeling a nonlinear function and its derivatives is introduced. The method has been used for the extraction of the large-signal model of a power MESFET device, modeling the nonlinear relationship of drain-source current Ids as well as gate and drain charge Qg and Qd with respect to intrinsic voltages Vgs and Vds over the whole operational bias region. The neural models have been implemented into a user-defined nonlinear model of a commercial microwave simulator to predict output power performance as well as intermodulation distortion. The accuracy of the device model is verified by harmonic load-pull measurements. This neural network approach has demonstrated to predict nonlinear behavior with enough accuracy even if based only on first-order derivative information. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J RF and Microwave CAE 13: 276,284, 2003. [source]

Closed-loop identification of the time-varying dynamics of variable-speed wind turbines

J. W. van Wingerden
Abstract The trend with offshore wind turbines is to increase the rotor diameter as much as possible to decrease the costs per kWh. The increasing dimensions have led to the relative increase in the loads on the wind turbine structure. Because of the increasing rotor size and the spatial load variations along the blade, it is necessary to react to turbulence in a more detailed way: each blade separately and at several separate radial distances. This combined with the strong nonlinear behavior of wind turbines motivates the need for accurate linear parameter-varying (LPV) models for which advanced control synthesis techniques exist within the robust control framework. In this paper we present a closed-loop LPV identification algorithm that uses dedicated scheduling sequences to identify the rotational dynamics of a wind turbine. We assume that the system undergoes the same time variation several times, which makes it possible to use time-invariant identification methods as the input and the output data are chosen from the same point in the variation of the system. We use time-invariant techniques to identify a number of extended observability matrices and state sequences that are inherent to subspace identification identified in a different state basis. We show that by formulating an intersection problem all states can be reconstructed in a general state basis from which the system matrices can be estimated. The novel algorithm is applied on a wind turbine model operating in closed loop. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


ABSTRACT An integrated approach consisting of compression and stress relaxation is performed with a simulated model system of poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS), a viscoelastic polymer material when the compressive strain, height of sample and crosshead speed were varied. The parameters derived are the forces at the end of compression and relaxation, energy for compression and the extent of elasticity of the sample based on the ratios of forces as well as the proposed energy values. The results were verified with food doughs undergoing large deformations that show a nonlinear behavior. The proposed extent of elasticity based on the ratios of energy stored and compression can be used as an index for the characterization of viscoelasticity. A nonlinear three-parameter model had also been proposed to predict the stress decay characteristics as a function of time, which was found suitable for the PDMS system, and was better than the two-parameter Peleg model as judged by lower variance values (0.0006,0.018 and 0.002,0.048, respectively). Further, an actual system of food doughs in the form of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) flour dough was used to verify the proposed model and viscoelastic index at different moisture contents (27,39%) subjected to compressive strains of 25,75%. The nonlinear relaxation characteristics of the food dough are sensitive to moisture content as well as to strain level. [source]

Mechanics of column beds: II.

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 3 2003
Modeling of coupled stress-strain-flow behavior
The rheological behavior of a bed of packing material during its consolidation was investigated using an elastic-plastic model, the Frictional Material Model. This model takes into account the behavior of the packing material under compression stress, its consolidation, its internal friction, its friction against the column wall, and the dependence of the bed's permeability on the local void fraction. The complexity of the problem arises from the nonlinear behavior of the relationships between the critical parameters controlling the column bed behavior and the external stresses applied to this bed. Solutions of the model were calculated for combinations of axial compression and seepage stresses, the latter corresponding to the flow of the mobile-phase stream under typical conditions used in HPLC. The results demonstrate the importance of the internal angle of friction of the packing material used on the degree of radial and axial heterogeneity of the beds of chromatographic columns packed with this material. [source]

Temperature Dependence of Tensile Strength for a Woven Boron-Nitride-Coated Hi-NicalonÔ SiC Fiber-Reinforced Silicon-Carbide-Matrix Composite

Shuqi Guo
The temperature dependence of tensile fracture behavior and tensile strength of a two-dimensional woven BN-coated Hi-NicalonÔ SiC fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composite fabricated by polymer infiltration pyrolysis (PIP) were studied. A tensile test of the composite was conducted in air at temperatures of 298 (room temperature), 1200, 1400, and 1600 K. The composite showed a nonlinear behavior for all the test temperatures; however, a large decrease in tensile strength was observed above 1200 K. Young's modulus was estimated from the initial linear regime of the tensile stress,strain curves at room and elevated temperatures, and a decrease in Young's modulus became significant above 1200 K. The multiple transverse cracking that occurred was independent of temperature, and the transverse crack density was measured from fractographic observations of the tested specimens at room and elevated temperatures. The temperature dependence of the effective interfacial shear stress was estimated from the measurements of the transverse crack density. The temperature dependence of in situ fiber strength properties was determined from fracture mirror size on the fracture surfaces of fibers. The decrease in the tensile strength of the composite up to 1400 K was attributed to the degradation in the strength properties of in situ fibers, and to the damage behavior exception of the fiber properties for 1600 K. [source]

Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of Mg-doped ZnO thin films prepared by the sol,gel method

Shenghong Yang
Abstract Zn1,xMgx O (ZMO) thin films with x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 were prepared on Si(100) substrates by the sol,gel method. The influence of Mg content on the structural and the optical properties was studied by X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) in the UV,visible region. The measured SE spectra were analyzed with an appropriate procedure to accurately determine the thickness and the optical constants of the thin films. It was found that the optical constants of the ZMO films are functions of the film composition. The refractive indices of the ZMO films decrease with increasing Mg content, and the optical bandgap energy exhibits nonlinear behavior or a bowing effect with the change of Mg mole fraction. A maximum band gap of ,3.91 eV was achieved at x = 0.3. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

A nonlinear theoretical model for prediction of mechanical behavior of particulate composites and experimental verification of the model predictions

A. Ramazani S.A.
A model for prediction the stress-strain behavior of particulate composite over wide ranges of filler concentration and composite deformation has been developed through combination of Anderson's and Yilmizer's model. The constitutive equations are extracted from first law of thermodynamic and nonlinear dilatational effects which are produced by filler-matrix debonding process. In addition to nonlinear behavior that has been resulted by filler-matrix debonding and was presented by Yilmizer, the formation and growing of void or cavitations has been also introduced in this model, whereas Anderson's model, most important reason for deviation of linear behavior is filler-matrix debonding and has been indicated by change of modulus. Model predictions for effects of the filler concentration and its particle size and particle size distribution for some matrix-filler systems are compared with related experimental data from literature and some investigated systems in this work. An excellent agreement even better than prediction of Anderson's model between experimental data and model predictions can be observed in most cases especially for some concentrated systems. POLYM. COMPOS., 31:1150,1155, 2010. © 2009 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]

A Note on a Nonlinear Model of a Piezoelectric Rod

R. Gausmann Dipl.-Ing.
If piezoceramics are excited by weak electric fields a nonlinear behavior can be observed, if the excitation frequency is close to a resonance frequency of the system. To derive a theoretical model nonlinear constitutive equations are used, to describe the longitudinal oscillations of a slender piezoceramic rod near the first resonance frequency. Hamilton's principle is used to receive a variational principle for the piezoelectric rod. Introducing a Rayleigh Ritz ansatz with the eigenfunctions of the linearized system to approximate the exact solution leads to nonlinear ordinary differential equations. These equations are approximated with the method of harmonic balance. Finally it is possible to calculate the amplitudes of the displacements numerically. As a result it is shown, that the Duffing type nonlinearities found in measurements can be described with this model. [source]

Nonlinear dynamics and competing behavioral interpretations: Evidence from intra-day FTSE-100 index and futures data

David G. McMillan
Extant empirical research has reported nonlinear behavior within arbitrage relationships. In this article, the authors consider potential nonlinear dynamics within FTSE-100 index and index-futures. Such nonlinearity can be rationalized by the existence of transactions costs or through the interaction between informed and noise traders. They consider several empirical models designed to capture these alternative dynamics. Their empirical results provide evidence of a stationary basis term, and thus cointegration between index and index-futures, and the presence of nonlinear dynamics within that relationship. The results further suggest that noise traders typically engage in momentum trading and are more prone to this behavior type when the underlying market is rising. Fundamental, or arbitrage, traders are characterized by heterogeneity, such that there is slow movement between regimes of behavior. In particular, fundamental traders act more quickly in response to small deviations from equilibrium, but are reluctant to act quickly in response to larger mispricings that are exposed to greater noise trader price risk. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Jrl Fut Mark 26:343,368, 2006 [source]

Mathematical modeling of the circadian rhythm of key neuroendocrine,immune system players in rheumatoid arthritis: A systems biology approach

Michael Meyer-Hermann
Objective Healthy subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) exhibit circadian rhythms of the neuroendocrine,immune system. Understanding circadian dynamics is complex due to the nonlinear behavior of the neuroendocrine,immune network. This study was undertaken to seek and test a mathematical model for studying this network. Methods We established a quantitative computational model to simulate nonlinear interactions between key factors in the neuroendocrine,immune system, such as plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF), plasma cortisol (and adrenal cholesterol store), and plasma noradrenaline (NA) (and presynaptic NA store). Results The model was nicely fitted with measured reference data on healthy subjects and RA patients. Although the individual circadian pacemakers of cortisol, NA, and TNF were installed without a phase shift, the relative phase shift between these factors evolved as a consequence of the modeled network interactions. Combined long-term and short-term TNF increase (the "RA model") increased cortisol plasma levels for only a few days, and cholesterol stores started to become markedly depleted. This nicely demonstrated the phenomenon of inadequate cortisol secretion relative to plasma TNF levels, as a consequence of adrenal deficiency. Using the RA model, treatment with glucocorticoids between midnight and 2:00 AM was found to have the strongest inhibitory effect on TNF secretion, which supports recent studies on RA therapy. Long-term reduction of TNF levels by simulation of anti-TNF therapy normalized cholesterol stores under "RA" conditions. Conclusion These first in silico studies of the neuroendocrine,immune system in rheumatology demonstrate that computational biology in medicine, making use of large collections of experimental data, supports understanding of the pathophysiology of complex nonlinear systems. [source]

Simulation and Optimization of an Adiabatic Multi-Bed Catalytic Reactor for the Oxidation of SO2

A. Nodehi
Abstract A software package was developed for the simulation and optimization of a multi-bed adiabatic reactor for the catalytic oxidation of SO2, using a heterogeneous plug flow model. The orthogonal collocation (OC) technique with up to eight collocation points was used for the solution of a nonlinear, two-point boundary value differential equation for the catalyst particle, and it was shown that the use of the OC technique with two collocation points can describe the system well. Because of the nonlinear behavior of the effectiveness factor along the bed, optimal catalyst distribution between the beds and corresponding inlet temperatures were determined by two methods, including: the use of (1) intrinsic or (2) actual rate of reaction in the optimization criteria. The results showed that for the second case, the minimum amount of the catalyst can be reached at lower temperatures, the amount of catalyst required is always less, and the number of beds is greater than or equal to that of the first case. [source]