Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy (nonischemic + cardiomyopathy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Different Forms of Ventricular Tachycardia Involving the Left Anterior Fascicle in Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy: Critical Sites of the Reentrant Circuit in Low-Voltage Areas

JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 8 2009
CHRISTOPHER REITHMANN M.D.
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine the reentrant circuit of ventricular tachycardias (VTs) involving the left anterior fascicle (LAF) in nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Methods and Results: Six patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy presented with VTs involving the LAF. Potentials in the diastolic or presystolic phase of the VT were identified close to the LAF in 3 patients and in the mid or inferior left ventricular (LV) septum in 3 patients. Superimposed on a CARTO or NavX 3-dimensional voltage map, the diastolic and presystolic potentials were recorded within or at the border of a low-voltage zone in the LV septum in all cases. In 2 patients, both left bundle fascicles participated in the reentrant circuit including a possible interfascicular VT in one case. Ablation targeting the diastolic or presystolic potentials near the LAF or in the midinferior LV septum eliminated the VTs in all patients with the occurrence of a left posterior fascicular block and the delayed occurrence of a complete atrioventricular block in each one patient. During the follow-up of 23 ± 20 months after ablation, 4 patients were free of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Due to detoriation of heart failure, one patient died after 12 months and one patient underwent heart transplantation after 40 months. Conclusions: Slow conduction in diseased myocardium close to the LAF or in the middle and inferior aspects of the LV septum may represent the diastolic pathway of VT involving the LAF. [source]


Characterization of the Electroanatomic Substrate for Monomorphic Ventricular Tachycardia in Patients with Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy

PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 7 2002
HENRY H. HSIA
HSIA, H.H., et al.: Characterization of the Electroanatomic Substrate for Monomorphic Ventricular Tachycardia in Patients with Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy. Ventricular arrhythmias are common in the setting of nonischemic cardiomyopathy. The etiology for the cardiomyopathy is frequently not identified and the label of "idiopathic" is applied. Interstitial fibrosis with conduction system involvement and associated left bundle branch block characterizes the disease process in some patients and the mechanism for monomorphic ventricular tachycardia is commonly bundle branch reentry. However, most patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy have VT due to myocardial reentry and demonstrate marked myocardial fibrosis and electrogram abnormalities. Although patient specific, the overall distribution of electroanatomic abnormalities appears to be equal on the endocardium and epicardium. The extent of electrogram abnormalities appears to parallel arrhythmia presentation and/or inducibility. Patients with sustained uniform morphology VT have the most extensive endocardial and epicardial electrogram abnormalities. Magnetic electroanatomic voltage mapping provides a powerful tool to characterize the location and extent of the arrhythmia substrate. Basal left ventricular myocardial involvement, as indexed by the location of contiguous electrogram abnormalities, is common in patients with sustained VT and left ventricular cardiomyopathy. The relatively equal distribution of electrogram abnormalities on the endocardium and epicardium, and the results of mapping and ablation attempts, suggest that critical parts of the reentrant circuit may be epicardial. Unique features of the electroanatomic substrate associated with cardiomyopathy due to Chagas' disease, sarcoidosis, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia are also discussed. [source]


Prophylactic Implantation of Cardioverter Defibrillators in Idiopathic Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy for the Primary Prevention of Death: A Narrative Review

CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
Cihan Cevik MD, FESC
Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy reduces sudden cardiac death rates and reduces mortality in patients with ischemic heart disease and low ejection fractions. One-third of the deaths in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy are sudden. However, the efficacy of ICDs in the primary prevention of death in these patients is less clear. The most common cause of mortality in patients treated with ICDs is heart failure progression. ICD shocks can cause direct myocardial injury, fibrosis, inflammation, and adverse psychological outcomes, and these changes may contribute to the ventricular dysfunction in patients who already have a significantly depressed ejection fraction. We have reviewed the published randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis of prophylactic ICD therapy in the primary prevention of death in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. The individual randomized controlled trials do not report a statistically significant reduction of mortality unless the ICD treatment is added to cardiac resynchronization therapy, but the meta-analysis did show a significant mortality reduction and favored ICD therapy in these patients. Medical management of many study participants was suboptimal, at least based on current guidelines. The patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy have good outcomes with medical therapy, and ICD therapy in this relatively low-risk population needs better selection criteria. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


ALPHA (Prognostic Value of T-wave Alternans in Patients with Heart Failure due to Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy)

CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue 7 2007
Article first published online: 2 AUG 200
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Cardiac MRI evaluation of nonischemic cardiomyopathies

JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, Issue 3 2010
Christopher J. François MD
Abstract The purpose of this manuscript is to review the major MRI findings in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathies. Cardiac MRI has become an integral part in the diagnosis and management of patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathies. Findings on cardiac MRI studies can help distinguish between different types of cardiomyopathies and can provide valuable diagnostic and prognostic information. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2010;31:518,530. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Mechanical Bridging to Improvement in Severe Acute ,Nonischemic, Nonmyocarditis' Heart Failure

CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE, Issue 2 2004
O.H. Frazier MD
Improved myocardial function has been observed in patients with acute myocarditis who have had short-term support with a ventricular assist system. Additionally, a limited number of patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy have undergone successful device explantation after their myocardial function improved during ventricular assist system support. The authors present their experience with four patients who had acute, severe heart failure without coronary artery disease or biopsy-proven myocarditis. After receiving prolonged ventricular assist system support, all four patients had significantly improved left ventricular function, returning to New York Heart Association functional class I without inotropic therapy. In each case, dobutamine stress echocardiography and invasive hemodynamic tests were performed to confirm improvement of cardiac function before device explantation was undertaken. In all four cases, device explantation was followed by early successful maintenance of left ventricular function. These cases reveal a unique clinical syndrome that may be successfully treated with early institution of ventricular assist system support followed by explantation after myocardial recovery. [source]


Limited Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in Patients with Concomitant Right Ventricular Dysfunction

JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
M.P.H., PAUL B. TABEREAUX M.D.
Limited Response to CRT in Patients with RVD.,Introduction: Patients with left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) and LV dyssynchrony may respond to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). However, right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) is a predictor of decreased survival in patients with LVD, and its influence on clinical response to CRT is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of RVD on the clinical response to CRT. Methods and Results: A retrospective cohort of consecutive patients who underwent implantation of a CRT implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) were included and deemed to have RVD based on a RV ejection fraction <0.40. A lack of response to CRT was defined as: death, heart transplantation, implantation of an LV assist device, absent improvement in NYHA functional class at 6 months or hospice care. Among 130 patients included (mean age 58 ± 11 years, 68.5% male, 87.7% Caucasian, 51.5% nonischemic cardiomyopathy), 77 (59.2%) had no response to CRT as defined above. Of the nonresponders, 43 (56%) had RVD and 34 (44%) did not have RVD (P = 0.02). After adjustment for age, race, gender, cardiomyopathy type, atrial fibrillation, serum sodium, and severe mitral regurgitation, RVD (adjusted OR = 0.34, 95%CI 0.14,0.82), female gender (adjusted OR = 0.36, 95%CI 0.14,0.95), and serum creatinine (adjusted OR = 0.25, 95%CI 0.09,0.71) were independently associated with decreased odds of response to CRT. There was a significant difference in survival of patients with and without RVD after CRT (log rank P = 0.01). Conclusion: RVD represents a strong predictor of lack of clinical response to CRT in patients with CHF due to LVD and should be considered when prescribing CRT. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 21, pp. 431,435, April 2010) [source]


Different Forms of Ventricular Tachycardia Involving the Left Anterior Fascicle in Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy: Critical Sites of the Reentrant Circuit in Low-Voltage Areas

JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 8 2009
CHRISTOPHER REITHMANN M.D.
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine the reentrant circuit of ventricular tachycardias (VTs) involving the left anterior fascicle (LAF) in nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Methods and Results: Six patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy presented with VTs involving the LAF. Potentials in the diastolic or presystolic phase of the VT were identified close to the LAF in 3 patients and in the mid or inferior left ventricular (LV) septum in 3 patients. Superimposed on a CARTO or NavX 3-dimensional voltage map, the diastolic and presystolic potentials were recorded within or at the border of a low-voltage zone in the LV septum in all cases. In 2 patients, both left bundle fascicles participated in the reentrant circuit including a possible interfascicular VT in one case. Ablation targeting the diastolic or presystolic potentials near the LAF or in the midinferior LV septum eliminated the VTs in all patients with the occurrence of a left posterior fascicular block and the delayed occurrence of a complete atrioventricular block in each one patient. During the follow-up of 23 ± 20 months after ablation, 4 patients were free of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Due to detoriation of heart failure, one patient died after 12 months and one patient underwent heart transplantation after 40 months. Conclusions: Slow conduction in diseased myocardium close to the LAF or in the middle and inferior aspects of the LV septum may represent the diastolic pathway of VT involving the LAF. [source]


Effect of Chronic Ethanol Ingestion and Gender on Heart Left Ventricular p53 Gene Expression

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2005
Heidi Jänkälä
Background: Although the beneficial effects of mild to moderate ethanol consumption have been implied with respect to heart, alcohol abuse has proven to be a major cause of nonischemic cardiomyopathy in Western society. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms, which mediate the pathologic cardiac effects of ethanol, remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of chronic ethanol exposure on cardiac apoptosis and expression of some of the genes associated with cardiac remodeling in vivo. Methods: Alcohol-avoiding Alko Non Alcohol rats of both sexes were used. The ethanol-exposed rats (females, n= 6; males, n= 8) were given 12% (v/v) ethanol as the only available fluid from age of three to 24 months of age. The control rats (females, n= 7; males, n= 5) had only water available. At the end of the experiment, free walls of left ventricles of hearts were immediately frozen. Cytosolic DNA fragmentation, reflecting apoptosis, was measured using a commercial quantitative sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, and mRNA levels were analyzed using a quantitative reverse transcriptase,polymerase chain reaction method. Results: Ethanol treatment for two years increased cardiac left ventricular p53 mRNA levels significantly (p= 0.014) compared with control rats. The gene expression was also dependent on the gender (p= 0.001), so that male rats had higher left ventricular p53 mRNA levels than female rats. However, no significant differences in levels of DNA fragmentation were detected. Conclusions: Chronic ethanol exposure in vivo induces rat cardiac left ventricular p53 gene expression. Expression of p53 is also gender-dependent, males having higher p53 mRNA levels than females. This preliminary finding suggests a role for the p53 gene in ethanol-induced cardiac remodeling. The results might also have some relevance for the known gender-dependent differences in propensity to cardiovascular disease. [source]


Role of Left Ventricular Scar and Purkinje-Like Potentials During Mapping and Ablation of Ventricular Fibrillation in Dilated Cardiomyopathy

PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
ANIL-MARTIN SINHA M.D., D.Phil.
Background: Purkinje-like potentials (PLPs) have been described as important contributors to initiation of ventricular fibrillation (VF) in patients with normal hearts, ischemic cardiomyopathy, and early after-myocardial infarction. Methods: Of the 11 consecutive patients with VF storm, nonischemic cardiomyopathy (68 ± 22 years, left ventricular ejection fraction 28 ± 8%) who were given antiarrhythmic drugs and/or heart failure management, five had recurrent VF and underwent electrophysiology study (EPS) and catheter ablation. Results: At EPS, frequent monomorphic premature ventricular contractions (PVC) and/or ventricular tachycardia did not occur. With isoproterenol, VF was induced in three patients, and sustained monomorphic PVCs were induced in one patient. Three-dimensional electroanatomical mapping using CARTO (Biosense-Webster Inc., Diamond Bar, CA) revealed posterior wall scar in four of the five patients. PLP in sinus rhythm were recorded around the scar border in these four patients, and radiofrequency ablation targeting PLP was successfully performed at these sites. The patient without PLP did not undergo ablation. During follow-up (12 ± 5 months), only the patient without PLP had four VF recurrences requiring implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shocks. Conclusion: In patients with VF and dilated cardiomyopathy, left ventricular posterior wall scar in the vicinity of the mitral annulus seems to be a common finding. Targeting PLP along the scar border zone for ablation seems to efficiently prevent VF recurrence in these patients. [source]


Evidence for Electrical Remodeling of the Native Conduction System with Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 5 2007
CHARLES A. HENRIKSON M.D.
Background:Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves hemodynamics and decreases heart failure symptoms. However, the potential of CRT to bring about electrical remodeling of the heart has not been investigated. Methods and Results:We studied 25 patients, of whom 17 had a nonischemic cardiomyopathy, and 8 had an ischemic cardiomyopathy; 16 had left bundle branch block (LBBB), 1 right bundle branch block (RBBB), and 8 nonspecific intraventricular conduction delay. During routine device clinic visits, patients with chronic biventricular pacing (>6 months) were reprogrammed to VVI 40 to allow for native conduction to resume. After 5 minutes of native rhythm, a surface electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded, and then the previous device settings were restored. This ECG was compared to the preimplant ECG. Preimplant mean ejection fraction was 19% (range, 10%,35%), and follow-up mean ejection fraction was 35% (12.5%,65%). Mean time from implant to follow-up ECG was 14 months (range, 6,31). The QRS interval prior to CRT was 155 ± 29 ms, and shortened to 144 ± 31 ms (P = 0.0006), and the QRS axis shifted from ,1 ± 59 to ,26 ± 53 (P = 0.03). There was no significant change in PR or QTc interval, or in heart rate. Conclusion:CRT leads to a decrease in the surface QRS duration, without affecting other surface ECG parameters. The reduced electrical activation time may reflect changes in the specialized conduction system or in intramyocardial impulse transmission. [source]


Characterization of the Electroanatomic Substrate for Monomorphic Ventricular Tachycardia in Patients with Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy

PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 7 2002
HENRY H. HSIA
HSIA, H.H., et al.: Characterization of the Electroanatomic Substrate for Monomorphic Ventricular Tachycardia in Patients with Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy. Ventricular arrhythmias are common in the setting of nonischemic cardiomyopathy. The etiology for the cardiomyopathy is frequently not identified and the label of "idiopathic" is applied. Interstitial fibrosis with conduction system involvement and associated left bundle branch block characterizes the disease process in some patients and the mechanism for monomorphic ventricular tachycardia is commonly bundle branch reentry. However, most patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy have VT due to myocardial reentry and demonstrate marked myocardial fibrosis and electrogram abnormalities. Although patient specific, the overall distribution of electroanatomic abnormalities appears to be equal on the endocardium and epicardium. The extent of electrogram abnormalities appears to parallel arrhythmia presentation and/or inducibility. Patients with sustained uniform morphology VT have the most extensive endocardial and epicardial electrogram abnormalities. Magnetic electroanatomic voltage mapping provides a powerful tool to characterize the location and extent of the arrhythmia substrate. Basal left ventricular myocardial involvement, as indexed by the location of contiguous electrogram abnormalities, is common in patients with sustained VT and left ventricular cardiomyopathy. The relatively equal distribution of electrogram abnormalities on the endocardium and epicardium, and the results of mapping and ablation attempts, suggest that critical parts of the reentrant circuit may be epicardial. Unique features of the electroanatomic substrate associated with cardiomyopathy due to Chagas' disease, sarcoidosis, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia are also discussed. [source]


Prophylactic Implantation of Cardioverter Defibrillators in Idiopathic Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy for the Primary Prevention of Death: A Narrative Review

CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
Cihan Cevik MD, FESC
Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy reduces sudden cardiac death rates and reduces mortality in patients with ischemic heart disease and low ejection fractions. One-third of the deaths in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy are sudden. However, the efficacy of ICDs in the primary prevention of death in these patients is less clear. The most common cause of mortality in patients treated with ICDs is heart failure progression. ICD shocks can cause direct myocardial injury, fibrosis, inflammation, and adverse psychological outcomes, and these changes may contribute to the ventricular dysfunction in patients who already have a significantly depressed ejection fraction. We have reviewed the published randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis of prophylactic ICD therapy in the primary prevention of death in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. The individual randomized controlled trials do not report a statistically significant reduction of mortality unless the ICD treatment is added to cardiac resynchronization therapy, but the meta-analysis did show a significant mortality reduction and favored ICD therapy in these patients. Medical management of many study participants was suboptimal, at least based on current guidelines. The patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy have good outcomes with medical therapy, and ICD therapy in this relatively low-risk population needs better selection criteria. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Glucagon-like Peptide-1 and Myocardial Protection: More than Glycemic Control

CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
Anjali V. Fields MD
Pharmacologic intervention for the failing heart has traditionally targeted neurohormonal activation and ventricular remodeling associated with cardiac dysfunction. Despite the multitude of agents available for the treatment of heart failure, it remains a highly prevalent clinical syndrome with substantial morbidity and mortality, necessitating alternative strategies of targeted management. One such area of interest is the ability to modulate myocardial glucose uptake and its impact on cardioprotection. Glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) infusions have been studied for decades, with conflicting results regarding benefit in acute myocardial infarction. Based on the same concepts, glucagon-like peptide-1-[7,36] amide (GLP-1) has recently been demonstrated to be a more effective alternative in left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. This paper provides a review on the current evidence supporting the use of GLP-1 in both animal models and humans with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Comparison of echocardiography and electron beam tomography in differentiating the etiology of heart failure

CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue 6 2000
Thuy Le M.D.
Abstract Background: The clinical manifestations in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy are often indistinguishable from those in patients with primary dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Clinicians often base work-up of patients with heart failure on echocardiographic wall motion abnormalities; however misclassification can lead to unnecessary coronary angiography. Hypothesis: The study was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic ability of echocardiography and electron beam tomography (EBT) to differentiate between ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Methods: The accuracy of EBT and echocardiography was compared in 111 patients undergoing coronary angiography for the evaluation of heart failure. The presence of coronary calcification (CC) by EBT or segmental wall motion abnormalities by echocardiography was used as evidence of coronary-induced cardiomyopathy. Results: Of 63 patients, 61 (97%) with obstructive coronary artery disease had CC by EBT. This sensitivity was significantly higher compared with 43 of 63 patients (68%) with segmental wall motion abnormalities by echocardiography (p < 0.001). Of 48 patients without obstructive coronary artery disease by angiography, 39 (81%) had no CC by EBT and 35 (73%) had no segmental wall motion (global hypokinesis) by echocardiography (p = 0.33). The overall accuracy of EBT to differentiate ischemic from nonischemic cardiomyopathy was 90%, significantly higher than echocardiography (70%, p < 0.001). Conclusion: This double-blind study demonstrates that the presence of CC by EBT is superior to that of segmental wall motion abnormalities by echocardiography to distinguish ischemic from nonischemic cardiomyopathy. This modality may prove to be an important diagnostic tool when the etiology of the cardiomyopathy is not clinically evident. [source]