Noninvasive Ventilation (noninvasive + ventilation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Noninvasive ventilation in the pediatric intensive care unit for children with acute respiratory failure,,

W. Gerald Teague MD
Abstract Noninvasive ventilation, a novel treatment to increase alveolar ventilation, is accomplished with either subatmospheric or positive pressure administered via an external interface. In adults with acute respiratory failure, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) is superior to standard therapy in preventing intubation and reducing mortality. The role of NPPV in pediatric-age patients with acute respiratory distress is not as well established. Early case reports showed that NPPV treatment does acutely improve both the clinical manifestations of respiratory distress and respiratory gas exchange in children with respiratory distress. However, it is not clear whether NPPV in this setting can prevent vs. delay endotracheal intubation. Other uses of NPPV in the pediatric intensive care unit include the treatment of upper airway obstruction, atelectasis, and exacerbations of neuromuscular disorders, and to facilitate weaning from invasive mechanical ventilation. Successful use of NPPV in young infants with respiratory distress is impeded by the lack of suitable size interfaces, and the response characteristics of commercially available bilevel ventilators. Despite these challenges, NPPV is a promising alternate to standard therapies in the treatment of acute respiratory distress in the pediatric-age patient. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2003; 35:418,426. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Recurrent pneumothoraces associated with nocturnal noninvasive ventilation in a patient with muscular dystrophy

Lee R. Choo-Kang MD
Abstract Although a common complication of mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory failure, spontaneous pneumothorax has been rarely reported among patients on chronic, intermittent, noninvasive positive pressure support. We report the first case of recurrent pneumothoraces associated with nocturnal bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation via a nasal mask. A 26-year old man with chronic respiratory failure secondary to an unclassified neuromuscular condition suffered four separate episodes of spontaneous pneumothorax over a 12-month period. Two episodes occurred while he was asleep on bilevel positive airway pressure support. He was found to have numerous subpleural blebs, and we propose a mechanism for their development. Following open pleurodesis and blebectomy, the patient has not had another pneumothorax. Given the increasing utilization of chronic nocturnal bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation, we suggest that healthcare providers and patients be made aware of this potentially life-threatening complication. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2002; 34:73,78. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Noninvasive Ventilation Outcomes in 2,430 Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Patients: An ADHERE Registry Analysis

Thomas A. Tallman DO
Abstract Objectives:, Continuous or bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation, called noninvasive ventilation (NIV), is a controversial therapy for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). While NIV is considered safe and effective in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), clinical trial data that have addressed safety in ADHF patients are limited, with some suggestion of increased mortality. The objective of this study was to assess mortality outcomes associated with NIV and to determine if a failed trial of NIV followed by endotracheal intubation (ETI) (NIV failure) is associated with worse outcomes, compared to immediate ETI. Methods:, This was a retrospective analysis of the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry (ADHERE), which enrolls patients with treatment for, or with a primary discharge diagnosis of, ADHF. The authors compared characteristics and outcomes in four groups: no ventilation, NIV success, NIV failure, and ETI. One-way analysis of variance or Wilcoxon testing was performed for continuous data, and chi-square tests were used for categorical data. In addition, multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust mortality comparisons for risk factors. Results:, Entry criteria were met by 37,372 patients, of which 2,430 had ventilation assistance. Of the ventilation group, 1,688 (69.5%) were deemed NIV success, 72 (3.0%) were NIV failures, and 670 (27.6%) required ETI. The NIV failure group had the lowest O2 saturation (SaO2) (84 16%), compared to either NIV success (89.6 10%) or ETI (88 13%; p = 0.017). ETI patients were more likely to receive vasoactive medications (p < 0.001) than the NIV success cohort. When comparing NIV failures to ETI, there were no differences in treatment during hospitalization (p > 0.05); other than that the NIV failure group more often received vasodilators (68.1% vs. 54.3%; p = 0.026). In-hospital mortality was 7.9% with NIV, 13.9% with NIV failure, and 15.4% with ETI. After risk adjustment, the mortality odds ratio for NIV failure versus ETI increased to 1.43, although this endpoint was not statistically significant. Conclusions:, In this analysis of ADHF patients receiving NIV to date, patients placed on NIV for ADHF fared better than patients requiring immediate ETI. Patients who failed NIV and required ETI still experienced lower mortality than those initially placed on ETI. Thus, while the ETI group may be more severely ill, starting therapy with NIV instead of immediate ETI will likely not harm the patient. When ETI is required, mortality and length of stay may be adversely affected. Since a successful trial of NIV is associated with improved outcomes in patients with ADHF, application of this therapy may be a reasonable treatment option. [source]

Helmet-delivered continuous positive airway pressure with heliox in respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis

J Mayordomo-Colunga
Abstract Aim:, The objective of this study was to check the feasibility and efficacy of helmet-delivered heliox-continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in infants with bronchiolitis. Methods:, Children <3 months of age diagnosed with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis and recurrent apnoeas or a venous PCO2 >55 mmHg or a transcutaneous oxygen saturation <92% in room air were eligible for inclusion in the study. CPAP was delivered by a noninvasive ventilator connected to a heliox port. The interface was a helmet. Results:, Eight consecutive infants fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Apnoeas were present in six children before respiratory support was started; they disappeared in five of them. Two infants had to be changed to pressure support noninvasive ventilation, and one of them required intubation. No side effects were recorded. Conclusion:, We propose a relatively new device to deliver heliox-CPAP in small infants with bronchiolitis. Although this is just a descriptive study with a short sample, this system seems to be feasible and effective. [source]