Noninvasive Study (noninvasive + study)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Noninvasive Study of Ventricular Preexcitation Using Multichannel Magnetocardiography

FENICI, R., et al.: Noninvasive Study of Ventricular Preexcitation Using Multichannel Magnetocardiography. In clinical practice, noninvasive classification of ventricular preexcitation (VPX) is usually done with ECG algorithms, which provide only a qualitative localization of accessory pathways. Since 1984, single or multichannel magnetocardiograpy (MMCG) has been used for three-dimensional localization of VPX sites, but a systematic study comparing the results of ECG and MMCG methods was lacking. This study evaluated the reliability of MMCG in an unshielded electrophysiological catheterization laboratory, and compared VPX classification as achieved with the five most recent ECG algorithms with that obtained by MMCG mapping and imaging techniques. A nine-channel direct current superconducting quantum interference device (DC-SQUID) MMCG system (sensitivity is 20 fT/Hz0.5) was used for sequential MMCG from 36 points on the anterior chest wall, within an area20 20 cm. Twenty-eight patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome were examined at least twice, on the same day or after several months to test the reproducibility of the measurements. In eight patients, the reproducibility of MMCG was also evaluated using different MCG instrumentation during maximal VPX and/or atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia induced by transesophageal atrial pacing via a nonmagnetic catheter. The results of VPX localization with ECG algorithms and MMCG were compared. Equivalent current dipole, effective magnetic dipole, and distributed currents imaging models were used for the inverse solution. MMCG classification of VPX was found to be more accurate than ECG methods, and also provided additional information for the identification of paraseptal pathways. Furthermore, in patients with complex activation patterns during the delta wave, distributed currents imaging revealed two different activation patterns, suggesting the existence of multiple accessory pathways. (PACE 2003; 26[Pt. II]:431,435) [source]

Monitoring of glucose permeability in monkey skin in vivo using Optical Coherence Tomography

Mohamad G. Ghosn
Abstract Topical trans-dermal delivery of drugs has proven to be a promising route for treatment of many dermatological diseases. The aim of this study is to monitor and quantify the permeability rate of glucose solutions in rhesus monkey skin noninvasively in vivo as a primate model for drug diffusion. A time-domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) system was used to image the diffusion of glucose in the skin of anesthetized monkeys for which the permeability rate was calculated. From 5 experiments on 4 different monkeys, the permeability for glucose-20% was found to be (4.41 0.28) 10,6 cm/sec. The results suggest that OCT might be utilized for the noninvasive study of molecular diffusion in the multilayered biological tissues in vivo. ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Astrocytic hypertrophy in dysmyelination influences the diffusion anisotropy of white matter

Laura A. Harsan
Abstract The effect of a proteolipid protein (PLP) mutation on the developing white matter anisotropy was examined by diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) in a noninvasive study of a mouse model of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD). The jimpy PLP mutation in mice produces an irreversible dysmyelination in jimpy males, whereas heterozygous females exhibit a transient hypomyelination, as assessed by a longitudinal study of the same mice during development. Modifications of the different individual DT-MRI parameters were highlighted by specific changes in tissue structures caused by the mutation that includes the hypomyelination, axonal abnormalities, and recovery. Astrocytic hypertrophy is a striking cellular event in dysmyelinated jimpy brain, where most axons or bundles of fibers are entirely wrapped by astrocyte cytoplasmic processes, so its influences on DT-MRI parameters in dysmyelination were examined for the first time. DT-MRI data of the jimpy brain were compared with those obtained from dysmyelination of (oligo-TTK) transgenic mice, induced by oligodendrocyte killing, which have a mild astrocyte hypertrophy (Jalabi et al., 2005), and from recovering jimpy females, which have reduced astrocyte hypertrophy. The unique morphological feature of astrocytes in jimpy males coupled with an increase in the water channel protein aquaporin 4 (AQP4) was found to facilitate the directional water diffusion in the white matter. In addition to the major changes of DT-MRI parameters in the two dysmyelinated mice caused by the myelin loss and axonal modifications, the amplified magnitude of radial and axial diffusions in jimpy males was attributed principally to the strongly pronounced astrocyte hypertrophy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Altered knee kinematics in ACL-deficient non-copers: A comparison using dynamic MRI

Peter J. Barrance
Abstract Kinematics measured during a short arc quadriceps knee extension exercise were compared in the knees of functionally unstable ACL-deficient patients, these patients' uninjured knees, and uninjured control subjects' knees. Cine phase contrast dynamic magnetic resonance imaging, in combination with a model-based tracking algorithm developed by the authors, was used to measure tibiofemoral kinematics as the subjects performed the active, supine posture knee extension exercise in the terminal 30 degrees of motion. Two determinants of tibiofemoral motion were measured: anterior/posterior location of the tibia relative to the femur, and axial rotation of the tibia relative to the femur. We hypothesized that more anterior tibial positioning, as well as differences in axial tibial rotation patterns, would be observed in ACL-deficient (ACL-D) knees when compared to uninjured knees. Multifactor ANOVA analyses were used to determine the dependence of the kinematic variables on (i) side (injured vs. uninjured, matched by subject in the control group), (ii) flexion angle measured at five-degree increments, and (iii) subject group (ACL-injured vs. control). Statistically significant anterior translation and external tibial rotation (screw home motion) accompanying knee extension were found. The ACL-D knees of the injured group exhibited significantly more anterior tibial positioning than the uninjured knees of these subjects (average difference over extension range,=,3.4,,2.8 mm, p,<,0.01 at all angles compared), as well as the matched knees of the control subjects. There was a significant effect of interaction between side and subject group on A/P tibial position. We did not find significant differences in external tibial rotation associated with ACL deficiency. The changes to active joint kinematics documented in this entirely noninvasive study may contribute to cartilage degradation in ACL-D knees, and encourage more extensive investigations using similar methodology in the future. 2005 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res [source]

Low genotyping error rates in wild ungulate faeces sampled in winter

Abstract We show that Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) and Corsican mouflon (Ovis musimon) faeces yield useful DNA for microsatellite analysis, however, we detected higher genotyping error rates for spring faeces than for winter faeces. We quantified the genotyping error rate by repeatedly genotyping four microsatellites. Respectively, 99 and 95% of mouflon and ibex genotyping repetitions provided a correct genotype using winter samples, whereas spring samples provided only 52 and 59% correct genotypes. Thus, before starting a noninvasive study, we recommend that researchers conduct a pilot study to quantify genotyping error rates for each season, population and species to be studied. [source]