Non-invasive Species (non-invasive + species)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A comparison of invasive and non-invasive dayflowers (Commelinaceae) across experimental nutrient and water gradients

Jean H. Burns
ABSTRACT Little is known about the traits and mechanisms that determine whether or not a species will be invasive. Invasive species are those that establish and spread after being introduced to a novel habitat. A number of previous studies have attempted to correlate specific plant traits with invasiveness. However, many such studies may be flawed because they fail to account for shared evolutionary history or fail to measure performance directly. It is also clear that performance is context dependent. Thus, an approach that corrects for relatedness and incorporates multiple experimental conditions will provide additional information on performance traits of invasive species. I use this approach with two or three pairs of invasive and closely related non-invasive species of Commelinaceae grown over experimental gradients of nutrient and water availability. Invasive species have been introduced, established, and spread outside their native range; non-invasive species have been introduced, possibly (but not necessarily) established, but are not known to have spread outside their native range. The invasive species had higher relative growth rates (RGR) than non-invasive congeners at high nutrient availabilities, but did not differ from non-invasive species at low nutrient availabilities. This is consistent with a strategy where these particular invasive species are able to rapidly use available resources. Relative growth rates were also higher for two out of three invasive species across a water availability gradient, but RGR did not differ in plasticity between the invasive and non-invasive species. This suggests that nutrient addition, but not changes in water availability, might favour invasion of dayflowers. This approach is novel in comparing multiple pairs of invasive and non-invasive congeners across multiple experimental conditions and allows evaluation of the robustness of performance differences. It also controls for some of the effects of relatedness that might confound multispecies comparisons. [source]

A meta-analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive plant species

Mark Van Kleunen
Ecology Letters (2010) 13: 235,245 Abstract A major aim in ecology is identifying determinants of invasiveness. We performed a meta-analysis of 117 field or experimental-garden studies that measured pair-wise trait differences of a total of 125 invasive and 196 non-invasive plant species in the invasive range of the invasive species. We tested whether invasiveness is associated with performance-related traits (physiology, leaf-area allocation, shoot allocation, growth rate, size and fitness), and whether such associations depend on type of study and on biogeographical or biological factors. Overall, invasive species had significantly higher values than non-invasive species for all six trait categories. More trait differences were significant for invasive vs. native comparisons than for invasive vs. non-invasive alien comparisons. Moreover, for comparisons between invasive species and native species that themselves are invasive elsewhere, no trait differences were significant. Differences in physiology and growth rate were larger in tropical regions than in temperate regions. Trait differences did not depend on whether the invasive alien species originates from Europe, nor did they depend on the test environment. We conclude that invasive alien species had higher values for those traits related to performance than non-invasive species. This suggests that it might become possible to predict future plant invasions from species traits. [source]

Invasions and niche width: does niche width of an introduced crayfish differ from a native crayfish?

Summary 1. Human activities have promoted the spread of species worldwide. Several crayfish species have been introduced into new areas, posing a threat to native crayfish and other biota. Invader success may depend on the ability to utilise a wide variety of habitats and resources. Successful invaders are generally expected to have broader niches and to be more plastic than non-invasive species. 2. Using stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen we compared the niche widths of native noble crayfish and introduced signal crayfish, a successful invader of Swedish streams. The calculation of niche width took account of between-site differences in basal resource isotope signature ranges. We also assessed whether population density, prey biomass or prey diversity affected niche width. 3. At the species level, signal crayfish had twice the niche width of noble crayfish. However, individual populations of noble crayfish and signal crayfish in Swedish streams had similar niche widths. This suggests that signal crayfish has greater plasticity with respect to habitat utilisation and feeding than noble crayfish. Niche width in both species correlated positively with benthic invertebrate biomass and diversity, indicating that animal food sources are important for crayfish. 4. We find that assessing niche width in relation to invader success can be a useful tool trying to predict the impact of invasions on different scales. The findings in this study suggest that invaders and natives will have a similar impact on the stream scale whereas the invader will have a larger impact on the regional scale due to the ability to utilise a wider range of streams. [source]

The naturalization to invasion transition: Are there introduction-history correlates of invasiveness in exotic plants of Australia?

Abstract Of the large number of exotic plant species that become naturalized in new geographic regions, only a subset make the transition to become invasive. Identifying the factors that underpin the transition from naturalization to invasion is important for our understanding of biological invasions. To determine introduction-history correlates of invasiveness among naturalized plant species of Australia, we compared geographic origin, reason for introduction, minimum residence time and growth form between naturalized non-invasive species and naturalized invasive plant species. We found that more invasive species than expected originated from South America and North America, while fewer invasive species than expected originated from Europe and Australasia. There was no significant difference between invasive and non-invasive species with respect to reason for introduction to Australia. However, invasive species were significantly more likely to have been resident in Australia for a longer period of time than non-invasive species. Residence times of invasive species were consistently and significantly higher than residence times of non-invasive species even when each continent of origin was considered separately. Furthermore, residence times for both invasive and non-invasive species varied significantly as a function of continent of origin, with species from South America having been introduced to Australia more recently on average than species from Europe, Australasia and North America. We also found that fewer invasive species than expected were herbs and more invasive species than expected were primarily climbers. Considered together, our results indicate a high propensity for invasiveness in Australia among exotic plant species from South America, given that they appear in general capable of more rapid shifts to invasiveness than aliens from other regions. Furthermore, our findings support an emerging global generality that introduction-history traits must be statistically controlled for in comparative studies exploring life-history and ecological correlates of invasion success. [source]