Noninvasive Samples (noninvasive + sample)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Noninvasive genetic analysis in birds: testing reliability of feather samples

G. Segelbacher
Abstract Noninvasive samples are useful for molecular genetic analysis of free-ranging animals. I tested whether moulted feathers collected in the field are a reliable source of DNA for genotyping microsatellite loci. I prescreened extracts for DNA quantity and, using only samples with higher amounts of DNA, obtained reliable genotyping results. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification success was higher from extracts of plucked feathers than moulted feathers. DNA quantity in larger feathers was higher than that in smaller feathers. This study clearly demonstrates that moulted feathers could be used for genetic studies in birds. [source]

SNPs in ecological and conservation studies: a test in the Scandinavian wolf population

Abstract Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have the potential to become the genetic marker of choice in studies of the ecology and conservation of natural populations because of their capacity to access variability across the genome. In this study, we provide one of the first demonstrations of SNP discovery in a wild population in order to address typical issues of importance in ecology and conservation in the recolonized Scandinavian and neighbouring Finnish wolf Canis lupus populations. Using end sequence from BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) clones specific for dogs, we designed assays for 24 SNP loci, 20 sites of which had previously been shown to be polymorphic in domestic dogs and four sites were newly identified as polymorphic in wolves. Of the 24 assayed loci, 22 SNPs were found to be variable within the Scandinavian population and, importantly, these were able to distinguish individual wolves from one another (unbiased probability of identity of 4.33 10,8), providing equivalent results to that derived from 12 variable microsatellites genotyped in the same population. An assignment test shows differentiation between the Scandinavian and neighbouring Finnish wolf populations, although not all known immigrants are accurately identified. An exploration of the misclassification rates in the identification of relationships shows that neither 22 SNP nor 20 microsatellite loci are able to discriminate across single order relationships. Despite the remaining obstacle of SNP discovery in nonmodel organisms, the use of SNPs in ecological and conservation studies is encouraged by the advent of large scale screening methods. Furthermore, the ability to amplify extremely small fragments makes SNPs of particular use for population monitoring, where faecal and other noninvasive samples are routinely used. [source]

Development of microsatellite markers for noninvasive DNA samples of the eastern green lizard Lacerta viridis

Abstract We report the isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for the eastern green lizard (Lacerta viridis) usable for noninvasive samples. Ten polymorphic loci were obtained by screening 3000 recombinant clones and tested on 39 noninvasive DNA samples of individuals from different locations of the Danube area, Germany. Allelic richness ranged from three to nine alleles, the observed heterozygosity from 0.33 to 0.80, and the expected heterozygosity from 0.36 to 0.85. Our 10 loci, along with another 12 loci previously described, deliver effective analytical tools to analyse the genetic variability and to assess the social structure of eastern green lizard populations. [source]

Validation of salivary cortisol and testosterone assays in chimpanzees by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

Nobuyuki Kutsukake
Abstract Owing to its high temporal sensitivity, saliva has distinct advantages for measuring steroids, compared with other noninvasive samples such as urine and feces. Here, we report the validity of assaying salivary cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in captive male chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. For both the C and T concentrations, we found positive relationships between saliva and plasma. The concentrations of C and T in saliva showed clear patterns of diurnal fluctuation, whereas those in urine and feces did not. These results suggest that the salivary steroid concentrations can be regarded as good indicators of circulating steroid levels. We also developed and validated an efficient method for collecting saliva samples from cotton rope. Although rope includes inherent steroid-like compounds and may affect the accuracy of steroid measurements, our rope-washing procedures effectively removed intrinsic steroidal materials. There was a significant association between the C and T concentrations measured from saliva collected from rope licked by the chimpanzees and those measured from saliva collected directly from the mouth. Salivary T values estimated by LC/MS-MS were similar to those measured by radioimmunoassay. The results indicate the usefulness of saliva as a noninvasive steroid measure and that steroids in the saliva of chimpanzees can be accurately measured by LC-MS/MS. Am. J. Primatol. 71:696,706, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Cross-species amplification of human microsatellite markers using noninvasive samples from white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar)

Karen E. Chambers
Abstract Analysis of the population genetic structure and reproductive strategies of various primate species has been facilitated by cross-species amplification (i.e., the use of microsatellite markers developed in one species for analysis of another). In this study we screened 47 human-derived markers to assess their utility in the white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar). Only eight produced accurate, reliable results, and exhibited levels of polymorphism that were adequate for individual identification. This low success rate was surprising given that human microsatellite markers typically work well in species (such as macaques) that are evolutionarily more distant from humans than are gibbons. In addition, we experienced limited success in using a set of microsatellite markers that have been reported to be useful in the closely-related H. muelleri, and applying our set of microsatellite markers to samples obtained from one H. pileatus individual. Our results emphasize the importance of extensively screening potential markers in representatives of the population of interest. Am. J. Primatol. 64:19,27, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]