Non-invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (non-invasive + positive_pressure_ventilation)

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Selected Abstracts

EFNS task force on management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: guidelines for diagnosing and clinical care of patients and relatives

An evidence-based review with good practice points
Despite being one of the most devastating diseases known, there is little evidence for diagnosing and managing patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Although specific therapy is lacking, correct early diagnosis and introduction of symptomatic and specific therapy can have a profound influence on the care and quality of life of the patient and may increase survival time. This document addresses the optimal clinical approach to ALS. The final literature search was performed in the spring of 2005. Consensus recommendations are given graded according to the EFNS guidance regulations. Where there was lack of evidence but consensus was clear we have stated our opinion as good practice points. People affected with possible ALS should be examined as soon as possible by an experienced neurologist. Early diagnosis should be pursued and a number of investigations should be performed with high priority. The patient should be informed of the diagnosis by a consultant with a good knowledge of the patient and the disease. Following diagnosis, the patient and relatives should receive regular support from a multidisciplinary care team. Medication with riluzole should be initiated as early as possible. PEG is associated with improved nutrition and should be inserted early. The operation is hazardous in patients with vital capacity <50%. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation improves survival and quality of life but is underused. Maintaining the patients ability to communicate is essential. During the entire course of the disease, every effort should be made to maintain patient autonomy. Advance directives for palliative end of life care are important and should be fully discussed early with the patient and relatives respecting the patients social and cultural background. [source]

Non-invasive ventilation in the treatment of ventilatory failure following corrective spinal surgery

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 3 2001
M. J. Doherty
Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation has previously been used successfully to treat both acute and chronic ventilatory failure secondary to a number of conditions, including scoliosis. We report two patients in whom it was used, on three separate occasions, to treat acute ventilatory failure following corrective spinal surgery. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation may be useful postoperatively in high-risk patients undergoing major spinal surgery in an attempt to prevent intubation and its attendant complications. [source]

Flow-dependent resistance of nasal masks used for non-invasive positive pressure ventilation

RESPIROLOGY, Issue 4 2006
Objective and background: Endotracheal tube resistance is known to be flow-dependent and this understanding has improved the application of invasive ventilation. However, similar physiological studies on the interface between patients and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) have not been performed. Therefore, this study was aimed at investigating the resistance of nasal masks used for NPPV. Methodology: The flow-dependent pressure drop of the small (S), medium-small (MS) and medium (M) Contour Nasal Mask (Respironics Inc., Murrysville, PA, USA) was measured with and without a connecting tube (length 18 cm, internal diameter 1.5 cm) in a laboratory study. The resistance was calculated by Rohrer's equation using the standard least-squares-fit technique. The present study explicitly differentiated between the resistance of the nasal mask alone when measured against atmosphere and the additional resistance caused by the nasal mask when airtightly fitted to a model head (interaction with the face). Results: Higher flow rates resulted in a non-linearly increasing pressure drop across the interface. This flow-dependent resistance of the S/MS/M mask was comparably low when not interacting with the face, but increased when interacting with the face. This flow-dependent resistance of the mask was several-fold higher when adding the connection tube and tended to be higher during expiration. Conclusion: There is a non-linear flow-dependent pressure drop across the nasal mask which is low and independent of its size, but increases when interacting with the face. The connecting tube is the major determinant of the resistance originating from facial appliances used for NPPV. [source]

A complication of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 4 2001
F. Rosemeier
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Non-invasive ventilation for treatment of postoperative respiratory failure after oesophagectomy

P. Michelet
Background: The aim of this case,control study was to compare the efficacy of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) with that of conventional treatment in patients who develop postoperative acute respiratory failure (ARF) after oesophagectomy. Methods: Thirty-six consecutive patients with ARF treated by NPPV were matched for diagnosis, age within 5 years, sex, preoperative radiochemotherapy and Charlson co-morbidity index with 36 patients who received conventional treatment (control group). Results: NPPV was associated with a lower reintubation rate (nine versus 23 patients; P = 0008), lower frequency of acute respiratory distress syndrome (eight versus 19 patients; P = 0015), and a reduction in intensive care stay (mean(s.d.) 14(13) versus 22(18) days; P = 0034). Anastomotic leakage was less common in patients receiving NPPV (two versus ten; P = 0027). These patients also showed a greater improvement in gas exchange in the first 3 days after onset of ARF (P = 0013). Conclusion: The use of NPPV for the treatment of postoperative ARF may decrease the incidence of endotracheal intubation and related complications, without increasing the risk of anastomotic leakage after oesophagectomy. Copyright 2008 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Nasal CPAP and surfactant for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome and prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia

Henrik Verder
Abstract The Scandinavian approach is an effective combined treatment for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). It is composed of many individual parts. Of significant importance is the early treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) and surfactant treatment. The approach may be supplemented with caffeine citrate and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for apnoea. The low incidence of BPD seen as a consequence of the treatment strategy is mainly due to a reduced need for mechanical ventilation (MV). Conclusion:, Early-postnatal treatment with nCPAP and surfactant decreases the severity and mortality of RDS and BPD. This is mainly due to a diminished use of MV in the first days of life. [source]