Noninvasive Monitoring (noninvasive + monitoring)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Effect of Photothermal Therapy on Breast Tumor Vascular Contents: Noninvasive Monitoring by Near-infrared Spectroscopy,

Yueqing Gu
ABSTRACT The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of photothermal laser irradiation on rat breast tumor (DMBA-4) vascular contents. An 805-nm diode laser was used in our experiment with a power density ranging from 0.32 to 1.27 W/cm2. The dynamic changes of oxygenated hemoglobin and total hemoglobin concentrations, ,[HbO2] and ,[Hb]total, in rat tumors during photothermal irradiation were noninvasively monitored by a near-infrared spectroscopy system. A multichannel thermal detection system was also used simultaneously to record temperatures at different locations within the tumors. Our experimental results showed that: (1) photoirradiation did have the ability to induce hyperthermic effects inside the rat breast tumors in a single exponential trend; (2) the significant changes (P < 0.005) of ,[HbO2] and ,[Hb]total in response to a low dosage of laser irradiation (0.32 W/cm2) have a single exponential increasing trend, similar to that seen in the tumor interior temperature; and (3) the increase in magnitude of ,[Hb]total is nearly two times greater than that of ,[Hb]total, suggesting that photoirradiation may enhance tumor vascular oxygenation. The last observation may be important to reveal the hidden mechanism of photoirradiation on tumors, leading to improvement of tumor treatment efficiency. [source]

Pilot Study: Noninvasive Monitoring of Oral Flecainide's Effects on Atrial Electrophysiology during Persistent Human Atrial Fibrillation Using the Surface Electrocardiogram

Daniela Husser M.D.
Background: The relation between flecainide's plasma level and its influence on human atrial electrophysiology during acute and maintenance therapy of atrial fibrillation (AF) is unknown. Therefore, this study determined flecainide plasma levels and atrial fibrillatory rate obtained from the surface ECG during initiation and early maintenance of oral flecainide in patients with persistent lone AF and assessed their relationship. Methods and Results: In 10 patients (5 males, mean age 63 ± 14 years, left atrial diameter 46 ± 3 mm) with persistent lone AF, flecainide was administered as a single oral bolus (day 1) followed by 200,400 mg/day (days 2,5). The initial 300 mg flecainide bolus resulted in therapeutic plasma levels in all patients (range 288,629 ng/ml) with no side effects. Flecainide plasma levels increased on day 3 and remained stable thereafter. Day 5 plasma levels were lower (508 ± 135 vs 974 ± 276 ng/ml, P = 0.009) in patients with daily mean flecainide doses of 200 mg compared to patients with higher maintenance doses. Fibrillatory rate obtained from the surface electrocardiogram measuring 378 ± 17 fpm at baseline was reduced to 270 ± 18 fpm (P < 0.001) after the flecainide bolus but remained stable thereafter. Fibrillatory rate reduction was independent of flecainide plasma levels or clinical variables. Conclusion: A 300 mg oral flecainide bolus is associated with electrophysiologic effects that are not increased during early maintenance therapy in persistent human lone AF. In contrast to drug plasma levels, serial analysis of fibrillatory rate allows monitoring of individual drug effects on atrial electrophysiology. [source]

Noninvasive monitoring of wolves at the edge of their distribution and the cost of their conservation

J. Echegaray
Abstract Large predators are recolonizing areas in industrialized countries, where they have been absent for decades or centuries. As they reach these areas, the predators often encounter unwary livestock and unprepared keepers, which translates into large economic costs. The cost per individual may have important repercussions on the conservation and management of large predators. During the years 2003,2004, we collected 136 feces preliminarily identified as belonging to gray wolves Canis lupus along the north-eastern limit of the wolf range in the Iberia peninsula (Basque Country, Spain). Genetic analyses allowed us to identify the species of origin in 86 cases: 31 corresponded to wolves, two to red foxes Vulpes vulpes and 53 to dogs Canis familiaris. Among the wolves, we identified 16 different individuals. We estimated the cost of conserving wolves to be >,3000 per wolf per year, based on the cost of damage compensation and prevention during the 2003,2004 period. However, most of the wolf feces contained wild prey whereas dog feces contained mostly remains of domestic animals. This finding suggests that uncontrolled dogs could be responsible for some of the attacks on livestock, contributing to negative public attitudes toward wolf conservation and increasing its cost. [source]

Engineered measles virus as a novel oncolytic viral therapy system for hepatocellular carcinoma,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
Boris Blechacz
The oncolytic measles virus Edmonston strain (MV-Edm), a nonpathogenic virus targeting cells expressing abundant CD46, selectively destroys neoplastic tissue. Clinical development of MV-Edm would benefit from noninvasive monitoring strategies to determine the speed and extent of the spread of the virus in treated patients and the location of virus-infected cells. We evaluated recombinant MV-Edm expressing carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) or the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) for oncolytic potential in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and efficiency in tracking viruses in vivo by noninvasive monitoring. CD46 expression in human HCC and primary hepatocytes was assessed by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Infectivity, syncytium formation, and cytotoxicity of recombinant MV-Edm in HCC cell lines were evaluated by fluorescence microscopy, crystal violet staining, and the MTS assay. Transgene expression in HCC cell lines after infection with recombinant MV-Edm in vitro and in vivo was assessed by CEA concentration, 125I-uptake, and 123I-imaging studies. Toxicology studies were performed in IfnarKO×CD46 transgenic mice. The CD46 receptor was highly expressed in HCC compared to nonmalignant hepatic tissue. Recombinant MV-Edm efficiently infected HCC cell lines, resulting in extensive syncytium formation followed by cell death. Transduction of HCC cell lines and subcutaneous HCC xenografts with recombinant MV-Edm resulted in high-level expression of transgenes in vitro and in vivo. MV-Edm was nontoxic in susceptible mice. Intratumoral and intravenous therapy with recombinant MV-Edm resulted in inhibition of tumor growth and prolongation of survival with complete tumor regression in up to one third of animals. In conclusion, engineered MV-Edm may be a potent and novel cancer gene therapy system for HCC. MV-Edm expressing CEA or hNIS elicited oncolytic effects in human HCC cell lines in vitro and in vivo, enabling the spread of the virus to be monitored in a noninvasive manner. (HEPATOLOGY 2006;44:1465,1477.) [source]

Stroke units: many questions, some answers

Blanca Fuentes
Background The development of specialized stroke units has been a landmark innovation in acute stroke care. However, the high scientific evidence level for the recommendation for stroke units to provide clinical attention for acute stroke patients does not correspond to the level of stroke unit implementation. A narrative, nonsystematic review on published studies on stroke units was conducted, with special emphasis on those demonstrating their efficacy and effectiveness. We also attempt to provide some answers to several open questions regarding practical issues of stroke units. Summary of review Stroke units represent the most efficacious model for care provision compared with general ward care and stroke teams. Every stroke patient can benefit from stroke unit care. These units are efficient, cost-effective and their benefits are consistent over time. Compared with other specific stroke therapies such as aspirin or intravenous thrombolytic agents, stroke units have a higher target population and higher benefit in terms of number of deaths and/or dependencies avoided. New approaches in stroke unit management such as the implementation of noninvasive monitoring or alternative clinical pathways could improve their benefit even further. Conclusion Stroke units are cost-effective and need to be considered as a priority in health-care provision for stroke patients. [source]

Altered Autonomic Cardiac Control Predicts Restenosis After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Background: Early and late restenosis in up to 30% remains a major problem for long-term success after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Compared to bare metal stents, the use of drug-eluting stents reduces restenosis below 10%, but implant coasts have to be considered. In restenosis noninvasive testing lacks diagnostic power. We applied a new approach to identify patients with a high risk for restenosis after PCI by combining heart rate (HR) and blood pressure variability (BPV) analyses. Methods: In 52 patients with clinical suspicion of restenosis and history of PCI, we investigated patterns of cardiovagal autonomic regulation prior to cardiac catheterization. The patients were separated in (i) patients with restenosis (CAD+R) and (ii) patients without restenosis (CAD,R), where restenosis is defined as a stenosis greater than 75% of luminal diameter in at least one main vessel. The following parameters/methods were evaluated: Canadian Cardiovascular Society grade (CCS-grade), vessel disease score (CAD-level), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), heart rate variability (HRV), BPV, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), as well as HR turbulence and blood pressure (BP) potentiation caused by premature ventricular complexes. Results: Whereas age, LVEF, CAD-level, CCS-grade, and mean BP did not differ between CAD+R and CAD,R, significant differences were found in (i) BPV: diastolic LF/P, systolic, and diastolic UVLF, (ii) in BRS: slope of tachycardic sequences, and (iii) in extrasystolic parameters: heart rate turbulence onset (HRTO) and potentiation of systolic BP (SBPP). Standard HRV parameters did not show significant differences between the groups. Using the two parameters diastolic LF/P (threshold >0.2) and HRTO (threshold >0) restenosis were predicted in 83.4%. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that indicators of sympathetic activation or vagal depression identify restenosis in patients after PCI, thus opening a perspective for a new noninvasive monitoring. [source]

Development and application of an excitation ratiometric optical pH sensor for bioprocess monitoring

Ramachandram Badugu
Abstract The development of a fluorescent excitation ratiometric pH sensor (AHQ-PEG) using a novel allylhydroxyquinolinium (AHQ) derivative copolymerized with polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEG) is described. The AHQ-PEG sensor film is shown to be suitable for real-time, noninvasive, continuous, online pH monitoring of bioprocesses. Optical ratiometric measurements are generally more reliable, robust, inexpensive, and insensitive to experimental errors such as fluctuations in the source intensity and fluorophore photobleaching. The sensor AHQ-PEG in deionized water was shown to exhibit two excitation maxima at 375 and 425 nm with a single emission peak at 520 nm. Excitation spectra of AHQ-PEG show a decrease in emission at the 360 nm excitation and an increase at the 420 nm excitation with increasing pH. Accordingly, the ratio of emission at 420:360 nm excitation showed a maximum change between pH 5 and 8 with an apparent pKa of 6.40. The low pKa value is suitable for monitoring the fermentation of most industrially important microorganisms. Additionally, the AHQ-PEG sensor was shown to have minimal sensitivity to ionic strength and temperature. Because AHQ is covalently attached to PEG, the film shows no probe leaching and is sterilizable by steam and alcohol. It shows rapid (,2 min) and reversible response to pH over many cycles without any photobleaching. Subsequently, the AHQ-PEG sensor film was tested for its suitability in monitoring the pH of S. cereviseae (yeast) fermentation. The observed pH using AHQ-PEG film is in agreement with a conventional glass pH electrode. However, unlike the glass electrode, the present sensor is easily adaptable to noninvasive monitoring of sterilized, closed bioprocess environments without the awkward wire connections that electrodes require. In addition, the AHQ-PEG sensor is easily miniaturized to fit in microwell plates and microbioreactors for high-throughput cell culture applications. [source]

Detection of Overexpressed COX-2 in Precancerous Lesions of Hamster Pancreas and Lungs by Molecular Imaging: Implications for Early Diagnosis and Prevention

CHEMMEDCHEM, Issue 6 2006
Abstract The enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in many cancers, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and arthritis. Selective inhibitors of COX-2 have been developed as therapeutics or preventive agents for these diseases. However, recent reports have revealed a significant increase in cardiovascular mortality in long-term users of the COX-2 inhibitors Vioxx and Celebrex, emphasizing the need for noninvasive tests that allow the identification of individuals whose COX-2 levels are overexpressed prior to assignment to treatment with these drugs. In this study, we have prepared a radioiodinated analogue of the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib, and verified its binding to the COX-2 enzyme in,vitro. Biodistribution studies in hamsters demonstrated significantly higher levels of radiotracer in animals treated with the tobacco carcinogen NNK in lung, pancreas, and liver. Assessment of COX-2 levels by whole-body planar nuclear imaging two hours after injection of the radiotracer was suggestive of a distinct increase in COX-2 in the pancreas and liver of a hamster treated for 10 weeks with NNK, in the lungs and liver of a second animal, and in the liver only, in two additional animals from the same treatment group. Immunostains showed selective overexpression of COX-2 in pre-neoplastic lesions of the pancreas and lungs in only those animals that showed tracer accumulation in these organs and in the livers of all NNK-treated hamsters. Immunostains for COX-1 yielded detectable reactions in the intestinal epithelium but not in pancreas, lungs, or liver, supporting the specificity of the tracer for COX-2. Our data provide proof of principle for the hypothesis that molecular imaging with radiolabeled COX-2 inhibitors can be used for the noninvasive monitoring of overexpressed COX-2 levels. [source]