Noninvasive Methods (noninvasive + methods)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Noninvasive Semiconductor Field Imaging: Imaging the Electric-Field Distribution in Organic Devices by Confocal Electroreflectance Microscopy (Adv. Funct.

Noninvasive methods for diagnosis of organic devices are based on optical probes. At Politecnico di Milano, M. Celebrano et al. have developed a new method to optically map the electric field inside organic planar devices, as described on page 1180. Their technique involves the combination of electroreflectance spectroscopy with confocal microscopy to achieve high spatial resolution. The cover image shows an artistic impression of the optical probing of a CuPcF16 -based device. [source]

3D MR angiography of intratumoral vasculature using a novel macromolecular MR contrast agent

Hisataka Kobayashi
Abstract Noninvasive methods to visualize blood flow in the intratumoral vasculature have not previously been studied. In the present study, the use of a novel intravascular MR contrast agent with a generation-6 polyamidoamine dendrimer core (G6-(1B4M-Gd)192; MW: 175kD) was investigated, and the vasculature in experimental tumors was visualized using 3D MR angiography (MRA). Xenografted tumors in nude mice of two different histologies,KT005 (human osteogenic sarcoma) and LS180 (human colon carcinoma),were used to obtain 3D MRA using G6-(1B4M-Gd)192 and Gd-DTPA. The contrast MR sectional images were correlated with the corresponding histological sections. The intratumoral vasculature in the KT005 tumor was clearly visualized by 3D MRA, which became more evident with the growth of the tumor xenograft. In contrast, the intratumoral vasculature in the LS180 tumor was sparser and much less developed than that in KT005 tumors. Blood vessels with a diameter as small as 100 ,m based on histology were visualized using 0.033 mmol Gd/kg of G6-(1B4M-Gd)192. In conclusion, intratumoral vasculature with a 100-,m diameter was visualized better using 3D MRA with G6-(1B4M-Gd)192 than with Gd-DTPA. Magn Reson Med 46:579,585, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Noninvasive methods for assessment of airway inflammation in occupational settings

ALLERGY, Issue 4 2010
S. Quirce
To cite this article: Quirce S, Lemière C, de Blay F, del Pozo V, Gerth Van Wijk R, Maestrelli P, Pauli G, Pignatti P, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Sastre J, Storaas T, Moscato G. Noninvasive methods for assessment of airway inflammation in occupational settings. Allergy 2010; 65: 445,458. Abstract The present document is a consensus statement reached by a panel of experts on noninvasive methods for assessment of airway inflammation in the investigation of occupational respiratory diseases, such as occupational rhinitis, occupational asthma, and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. Both the upper and the lower airway inflammation have been reviewed and appraised reinforcing the concept of ,united airway disease' in the occupational settings. The most widely used noninvasive methods to assess bronchial inflammation are covered: induced sputum, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) concentration, and exhaled breath condensate. Nasal inflammation may be assessed by noninvasive approaches such as nasal cytology and nasal lavage, which provide information on different aspects of inflammatory processes (cellular vs mediators). Key messages and suggestions on the use of noninvasive methods for assessment of airway inflammation in the investigation and diagnosis of occupational airway diseases are issued. [source]

Transthoracic Doppler Echocardiographic Coronary Flow Imaging in Identification of Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Stenosis in Patients with Left Bundle Branch Block

Ozer Soylu M.D.
Background: Conventional noninvasive methods have well-known limitations for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB). However, advancements in Doppler echocardiography permit transthoracic imaging of coronary flow velocities (CFV) and measurement of coronary flow reserve (CFR). Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic value of transthoracic CFR measurements for detection of significant left anterior descending (LAD) stenosis in patients with LBBB and compare it to that of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). Methods: Simultaneous transthoracic CFR measurements and MPS were analyzed in 44 consecutive patients with suspected CAD and permanent LBBB. Typical diastolic predominant phasic CFV Doppler spectra of distal LAD were obtained at rest and during a two-step (0.56,0.84 mg/kg) dipyridamole infusion protocol. CFR was defined as the ratio of peak hyperemic velocities to the baseline values. A reversible perfusion defect at LAD territory was accepted as a positive scintigraphy finding for significant LAD stenosis. A coronary angiography was performed within 5 days of the CFR studies. Results: The hyperemic diastolic peak velocity (44 ± 9 cm/sec vs 62 ± 2 cm/sec; P=0.01) and diastolic CFR (1.38 ± 0.17 vs 1.93 ± 0.3; P=0.001) were significantly lower in patients with LAD stenosis compared to those without LAD stenosis. The diastolic CFR values of <1.6 yielded a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 94% in the identification of significant LAD stenosis. In comparison, MPS detected LAD stenosis with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 29%. Conclusions: CFR measurement by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography is an accurate method that may improve noninvasive identification of LAD stenosis in patients with LBBB. [source]

Diastolic Blood Pressure-Estimated Left Ventricular dp/dt

Hüseyin Y, lmaz M.D.
Background: Peak dp/dt is one of the best isovolumic phase indexes of the myocardial contractile state requiring invasive procedures or presence of mitral regurgitation severe enough to measure in clinical practice by Doppler echocardiography. In this study, we sought the correlation between two noninvasive methods of measurements for left ventricular dp/dt-diastolic blood pressure- (DBP) estimated and continuous-wave Doppler-derived dp/dt-min electrocardiographic/echocardiographic study to emphasize the clinical feasibility of the DBP-estimated method. Method: Thirty-six randomized patients (27 male, 9 female; 58 ± 8 years) with mild mitral regurgitation were enrolled in this study. DBP-estimated dp/dt was calculated from DBP minus the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) over the isovolumetric contraction time (IVCT). LVEDP was assumed to be 10 mmHg for all patients. Doppler-determined left ventricular dp/dt was derived from the continuous-wave Doppler spectrum of mitral regurgitation jet by dividing the magnitude of the left ventricular atrial pressure gradient rise between 1 mm/sec,3 mm/sec of mitral regurgitant velocity signal by the time taken for this change. Results: Left ventricular dp/dt by Doppler was 1122 ± 303 mmHg/sec and blood pressure-estimated dp/dt was 1063 ± 294 mmHg/sec. There was a high correlation (r = 0.97, P < 0.001) of dp/dt between the two techniques. Conclusions: DBP and IVCT can generate left ventricular dp/dt without invasive procedures, even in the absence of mitral regurgitation in clinical practice. [source]

Lead accumulation in feathers of nestling black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) experimentally treated in the field

Nancy H. Golden
Abstract Although lead can attain high concentrations in feathers, interpretation of the biological significance of this phenomenon is difficult. As part of an effort to develop and validate noninvasive methods to monitor contaminant exposure in free-ranging birds, lead uptake by feathers of nestling black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) was evaluated in a controlled exposure study. Four- to 6-d-old heron nestlings (one/nest) at Chincoteague Bay, Virginia (USA), received a single intraperitoneal injection of dosing vehicle (control, n = 7) or a dose of lead nitrate in water (0.01, 0.05, or 0.25 mg Pb/g body wt of nestling; n = 6 or 7/dose) chosen to yield feather lead concentrations found at low- to moderately polluted sites. Nestlings were euthanized at 15 d of age. Lead accumulation in feathers was associated with concentrations in bone, kidney, and liver (r = 0.32,0.74, p < 0.02) but exhibited only modest dose dependence. Blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity was inhibited by lead, although effects on other biochemical endpoints were marginal. Tarsus growth rate was inversely related to feather lead concentration. Culmen growth rate was depressed in nestlings treated with the highest dose of lead but not correlated with feather lead concentration. These findings provide evidence that feathers of nestling herons are a sensitive indicator of lead exposure and have potential application for the extrapolation of lead concentrations in other tissues and the estimation of environmental lead exposure in birds. [source]

SAFE biopsy: A validated method for large-scale staging of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
Giada Sebastiani
The staging of liver fibrosis is pivotal for defining the prognosis and indications for therapy in hepatitis C. Although liver biopsy remains the gold standard, several noninvasive methods are under evaluation for clinical use. The aim of this study was to validate the recently described sequential algorithm for fibrosis evaluation (SAFE) biopsy, which detects significant fibrosis (,F2 by METAVIR) and cirrhosis (F4) by combining the AST-to-platelet ratio index and Fibrotest-Fibrosure, thereby limiting liver biopsy to cases not adequately classifiable by noninvasive markers. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients (2035) were enrolled in nine locations in Europe and the United States. The diagnostic accuracy of SAFE biopsy versus histology, which is the gold standard, was investigated. The reduction in the need for liver biopsies achieved with SAFE biopsy was also assessed. SAFE biopsy identified significant fibrosis with 90.1% accuracy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-0.90) and reduced by 46.5% the number of liver biopsies needed. SAFE biopsy had 92.5% accuracy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.94) for the detection of cirrhosis, obviating 81.5% of liver biopsies. A third algorithm identified significant fibrosis and cirrhosis simultaneously with high accuracy and a 36% reduction in the need for liver biopsy. The patient's age and body mass index influenced the performance of SAFE biopsy, which was improved with adjusted Fibrotest-Fibrosure cutoffs. Two hundred two cases (9.9%) had discordant results for significant fibrosis with SAFE biopsy versus histology, whereas 153 cases (7.5%) were discordant for cirrhosis detection; 71 of the former cases and 56 of the latter cases had a Fibroscan measurement within 2 months of histological evaluation. Fibroscan confirmed SAFE biopsy findings in 83.1% and 75%, respectively. Conclusion: SAFE biopsy is a rational and validated method for staging liver fibrosis in hepatitis C with a marked reduction in the need for liver biopsy. It is an attractive tool for large-scale screening of HCV carriers. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.) [source]

Detection of apoptotic caspase activation in sera from patients with chronic HCV infection is associated with fibrotic liver injury

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 5 2004
Heike Bantel
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by inflammatory liver damage and is associated with a high risk of development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although histological examination of liver biopsies is currently the gold standard for the detection of early liver damage, there is a strong need for better noninvasive methods. We recently demonstrated that the proapoptotic activation of caspases is considerably enhanced in histological sections from HCV-infected liver tissue, suggesting an important role of apoptosis in liver damage. Here, we investigated whether caspase activation is detectable also in sera from patients with chronic HCV infection. Using a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that selectively recognizes a proteolytic neoepitope of the caspase substrate cytokeratin-18, we demonstrate that caspase activity is markedly increased in the sera of HCV patients. Interestingly, while 27% of patients with chronic HCV infection showed normal aminotransferase levels despite inflammatory and fibrotic liver damage, more than 50% of those patients exhibited already elevated serum caspase activity. Moreover, 30% of patients with normal aminotransferase but elevated caspase activity revealed higher stages of fibrosis. In conclusion, compared with conventional surrogate markers such as aminotransferases, detection of caspase activity in serum might be a more sensitive method of detecting early liver injury. Thus, measurement of caspase activity might provide a novel diagnostic tool, especially for patients with normal aminotransferases but otherwise undiagnosed histologically active hepatitis and progressive fibrosis. (HEPATOLOGY 2004;40:1078,1087.) [source]

Transient elastography: Applications and limitations

Kentaro Yoshioka
Transient elastgraphy with use of FibroScan is one of most accurate methods for assessment of liver fibrosis. FibroScan can be readily used with an operator with a short training. In many different studies, liver stiffness measured by transient elastgraphy correlates well with fibrosis stages, and cutoff values of liver stiffness for fibrosis staging are similar even among different diseases. However there is wide variation of stiffness values in the same fibrosis stage, and some overlap between the adjacent stages. In addition, inflammatory activity and size of nodule of cirrhosis affect the liver stiffness values. The reproducibility may be reduced by age, obesity, steatosis, narrow intercostal space and lower degrees of hepatic fibrosis in patients. Thus the estimation of fibrosis stages from liver stiffness should be cautiously done. To improve the accuracy of liver fibrosis staging, the combination of transient elastography with other noninvasive methods such as FibroTest should be required. [source]

Cytoplasmic melanoma-associated antigen (CYT-MAA) serum level in patients with melanoma: A potential marker of response to immunotherapy?

Sandra R. Reynolds
Abstract Simple, noninvasive methods are needed to follow effectiveness of new treatments in patients with melanoma. In our study, we examined cytoplasmic melanoma-associated antigen (CYT-MAA) serum level in melanoma patients during immunotherapy. Sera of 117 patients were assayed for CYT-MAA by double-sandwich ELISA before and during treatment with a polyvalent, shed antigen, melanoma vaccine. Vaccine-treated patients included 30 with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage IIb or IIIa, 30 with stage IIc, IIIb or IIIc, 30 with resected stage IV and 27 with measurable stage IV disease. Prior to vaccine therapy, 63% of patients had elevated serum CYT-MAA with high levels of antigen in all disease stages. After initiation of therapy, the level declined in more than 90% of the positive patients and fell below the positive cut-off in 56% of these patients within 5 months. By contrast, there was no decline in CYT-MAA serum level in 11 patients who served as untreated controls with melanoma. Multivariate analysis of the treated patients using accelerated failure time Weibull models adjusted for stage and age showed that patients whose CYT-MAA serum level remained elevated during treatment were ,3 times more likely to recur or progress than patients who were consistently below the positive cut-off (hazard ratio = 3.42, 95% CI [1.38, 8.47], p = 0.0079). Measurement of CYT-MAA serum level appears to show potential as an early marker of prognosis in patients with stages IIb to IV melanoma. Measurement of CYT-MAA serum level during therapy could provide an intermediate marker of response in these patients. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Outcomes From a Comprehensive Magnetic Resonance Study of Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 10 2009
Susan J. Astley
Background:, Magnetic resonance (MR) technology offers noninvasive methods for in vivo assessment of neuroabnormalities. Methods:, A comprehensive neuropsychological/psychiatric battery, coupled with MR imaging, (MRI), MR spectroscopy (MRS), and functional MRI (fMRI) assessments, were administered to children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) to determine if global and/or focal abnormalities could be identified, and distinguish diagnostic subclassifications across the spectrum. The 4 study groups included: (i) fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)/partial FAS (PFAS); (ii) static encephalopathy/alcohol exposed (SE/AE); (iii) neurobehavioral disorder/alcohol exposed (ND/AE) as diagnosed with the FASD 4-Digit Code; and (iv) healthy peers with no prenatal alcohol exposure. Presented here are the MRI assessments that were used to compare the sizes of brain regions between the 4 groups. The neuropsychological/behavioral, MRS, and fMRI outcomes are reported separately. Results:, Progressing across the 4 study groups from Controls to ND/AE to SE/AE to FAS/PFAS, the mean absolute size of the total brain, frontal lobe, caudate, putamen, hippocampus, cerebellar vermis, and corpus callosum length decreased incrementally and significantly. The FAS/PFAS group (the only group with the 4-Digit FAS facial phenotype) had disproportionately smaller frontal lobes relative to all other groups. The FAS/PFAS and SE/AE groups [the 2 groups with the most severe central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction] had disproportionately smaller caudate regions relative to the ND/AE and Control groups. The prevalence of subjects in the FAS/PFAS, SE/AE, and ND/AE groups that had 1 or more brain regions, 2 or more SDs below the mean size observed in the Control group was 78, 58, and 43%, respectively. Significant correlations were observed between size of brain regions and level of prenatal alcohol exposure, magnitude of FAS facial phenotype, and level of CNS dysfunction. Conclusions:, Magnetic resonance imaging provided further validation that ND/AE, SE/AE, and FAS/PFAS as defined by the FASD 4-Digit Code are 3 clinically distinct and increasingly more affected diagnostic subclassifications under the umbrella of FASD. Neurostructural abnormalities are present across the spectrum. MRI could importantly augment diagnosis of conditions under the umbrella of FASD, once population-based norms for structural development of the human brain are established. [source]

Transient elastography and other noninvasive tests to assess hepatic fibrosis in patients with viral hepatitis

Laurent Castera
Summary., The limitations of liver biopsy (invasive procedure, sampling errors, inter-observer variability and nondynamic fibrosis evaluation) have stimulated the search for noninvasive approaches for the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with viral hepatitis. A variety of methods including the measurement of liver stiffness, using transient elastography, and serum markers, ranging from routine laboratory tests to more complex algorithms or indices combining the results of panels of markers, have been proposed. Among serum indices, Fibrotest has been the most extensively studied and validated. Transient elastography appears as a promising method but has been mostly validated in chronic hepatitis C with performance equivalent to that of serum markers for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis. The combination of both approaches as first-line assessment of liver fibrosis could avoid the performance of liver biopsy in the majority of patients with chronic hepatitis C, a strategy that deserves further evaluation in patients with hepatitis B or HIV-HCV coinfection. Transient elastography also appears to be an excellent tool for early detection of cirrhosis and may have prognostic value in this setting. Guidelines are now awaited for the use of noninvasive methods in clinical practice. [source]

Validation of noninvasive methods for the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with recurrent hepatitis C after transplantation

Fabio Piscaglia M.D., Ph.D.
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Noninvasive methods for assessment of airway inflammation in occupational settings

ALLERGY, Issue 4 2010
S. Quirce
To cite this article: Quirce S, Lemière C, de Blay F, del Pozo V, Gerth Van Wijk R, Maestrelli P, Pauli G, Pignatti P, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Sastre J, Storaas T, Moscato G. Noninvasive methods for assessment of airway inflammation in occupational settings. Allergy 2010; 65: 445,458. Abstract The present document is a consensus statement reached by a panel of experts on noninvasive methods for assessment of airway inflammation in the investigation of occupational respiratory diseases, such as occupational rhinitis, occupational asthma, and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. Both the upper and the lower airway inflammation have been reviewed and appraised reinforcing the concept of ,united airway disease' in the occupational settings. The most widely used noninvasive methods to assess bronchial inflammation are covered: induced sputum, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) concentration, and exhaled breath condensate. Nasal inflammation may be assessed by noninvasive approaches such as nasal cytology and nasal lavage, which provide information on different aspects of inflammatory processes (cellular vs mediators). Key messages and suggestions on the use of noninvasive methods for assessment of airway inflammation in the investigation and diagnosis of occupational airway diseases are issued. [source]

Infant Skin Microstructure Assessed In Vivo Differs from Adult Skin in Organization and at the Cellular Level

Georgios N. Stamatas Ph.D.
The purpose of this study was to examine infant skin microstructure in vivo and to compare it with that of adult skin. The lower thigh area of 20 healthy mothers (ages 25,43) and their biological children (ages 3,24 months) was examined using in vivo noninvasive methods including fluorescence spectroscopy, video microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Stratum corneum and supra-papillary epidermal thickness as well as cell size in the granular layer were assessed from the confocal images. Adhesive tapes were used to remove corneocytes from the outer-most layer of stratum corneum and their size was computed using image analysis. Surface features showed differences in glyph density and surface area. Infant stratum corneum was found to be 30% and infant epidermis 20% thinner than in adults. Infant corneocytes were found to be 20% and granular cells 10% smaller than adult corneocytes indicating a more rapid cell turnover in infants. This observation was confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy. Dermal papillae density and size distribution also differed. Surprisingly, a distinct direct structural relationship between the stratum corneum morphology and the dermal papillae was observed exclusively in infant skin. A change in reflected signal intensity at ,100 ,m indicating the transition between papillary and reticular dermis was evident only in adult skin. We demonstrate in vivo qualitative and quantitative differences in morphology between infant and adult skin. These differences in skin microstructure may help explain some of the reported functional differences. [source]

New saliva DNA collection method compared to buccal cell collection techniques for epidemiological studies

Nikki L. Rogers
Epidemiological studies may require noninvasive methods for off-site DNA collection. We compared the DNA yield and quality obtained using a whole-saliva collection device (OrageneÔ DNA collection kit) to those from three established noninvasive methods (cytobrush, foam swab, and oral rinse). Each method was tested on 17 adult volunteers from our center, using a random crossover collection design and analyzed using repeated-measures statistics. DNA yield and quality were assessed via gel electrophoresis, spectophotometry, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification rate. The whole-saliva method provided a significantly greater DNA yield (mean ± SD = 154.9 ± 103.05 ,g, median = 181.88) than the other methods (oral rinse = 54.74 ± 41.72 ,g, 36.56; swab = 11.44 ± 7.39 ,g, 10.72; cytobrush = 12.66 ± 6.19, 13.22 ,g) (all pairwise P < 0.05). Oral-rinse and whole-saliva samples provided the best DNA quality, whereas cytobrush and swab samples provided poorer quality DNA, as shown by lower OD260/OD280 and OD260/OD230 ratios. We conclude that both a 10-ml oral-rinse sample and 2-ml whole-saliva sample provide sufficient DNA quantity and better quality DNA for genetic epidemiological studies than do the commonly used buccal swab and brush techniques.Am. J. Hum. Biol. 19:319,326, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Skin Cancer in Organ Transplant Recipients,Where Do We Stand Today?

C. Ulrich
Skin cancers are the most frequent malignancies in organ transplant recipients (OTR), with 95% being nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC), especially squamous (SCC) and basal cell carcinomas. Most OTR with a first SCC subsequently develop multiple NMSC within 5 years, highlighting the concept of ,field cancerization', and are also at high risk for noncutaneous cancers. In order to reduce the tumor burden in these patients, their management requires an interdisciplinary approach including revision of immunosuppression, new dermatological treatments and adequate education about photoprotection in specialized dermatology clinics for OTR. Whereas surgery remains the gold-standard therapy for NMSC, noninvasive methods have shown promising results to treat superficial keratoses and subclinical lesions on large body areas. Although the threshold of skin cancer necessitating revision of immunosuppression is debated, this measure should be envisaged at the occurrence of the first SCC, or in case of multiple non-SCC NMSC. While the role of immunosuppressants in the occurrence of NMSC is widely recognized, the best immunosuppressive strategies remain to be defined. Presently, randomized prospective studies assess the burden of new skin tumors, as well as graft and patient survival, in patients with one or several NMSC after the introduction of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitors. [source]

A study comparing various noninvasive methods of detecting bladder cancer in urine

A. Saad
Objectives To compare the nuclear matrix protein (NMP)-22 assay, bladder tumour specific antigen (BTAstat) test, telomerase activity (using the telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay, TRAP) and a haemoglobin dipstick test for their ability to replace voided urine cytology (VUC) for detecting bladder cancer. Patients and methods The study included 120 urological patients prospectively recruited and assessed before surgery. A single freshly voided urine sample (,100 mL) was collected from each patient and aliquoted for each test. All assays were conducted according to the manufactures' guidelines; 79 patients were tested for telomerase activity. The results were then compared with VUC and the diagnosis confirmed by cystoscopy and histology. Results Fifty-two patients had histologically confirmed transitional cell carcinoma. The overall sensitivity for BTAstat, NMP22, telomerase, VUC and dipstick testing was 63%, 81%, 84%, 48% and 50%, respectively. Combining the results for telomerase and NMP22 gave a sensitivity of 100%. For G1 tumours the respective sensitivities were 23%, 62%, 56%, 23% and 15%, for G2 tumours, 68%, 86%, 92%, 50% and 41% and for G3 tumours 88%, 88%, 100%, 71% and 82%. For pTa tumours the respective detection rates were 48%, 70%, 84%, 39% and 30%, for pT1 tumours 80%, 90%, 90%, 50% and 50%, for pT2/pTis tumours, 100/100%, 100/100%, 100/100%, 88/100% and 88/83%. The overall specificity for the respective tests was 82%, 87%, 93%, 87% and 54%; combining the results of NMP22 and telomerase activity increased the specificity to 96%. Conclusions There was significantly better detection than VUC when using the NMP22 and TRAP assay, especially for well-differentiated (P < 0.001 and 0.0027, respectively) and superficial tumours (P < 0.001 and 0.034, respectively). Combining the results of NMP22 and telomerase activity yielded values comparable with cystoscopy. [source]

Assessment of atopic eczema: clinical scoring and noninvasive measurements

E.A. Holm
Summary Background, Clinical scoring systems are widely used in clinical trials of atopic eczema (AE), while noninvasive methods are more often used for research purposes. Positive correlations between the two types of methods may be used in support of the validity of both in a clinical context. Few studies are available of the association between clinical scores and instrumental assessment of disease severity obtained with noninvasive instruments. Objectives, To compare clinical scores in AE with biometric data in AE. Methods, Transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum hydration, erythema, scaling and subepidermal oedema were measured. ,Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD)', ,Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI)' and ,Atopic Dermatitis Severity Index (ADSI)' were used for clinical scores. Two assessments at 6-month intervals at the antecubital fossa, dorsal forearm and popliteal fossa in 101 patients with AE and 30 controls were carried out. Results, Significant correlations were found within the clinical scores (P < 0·0001 and r = 0·85,0·91) and between instruments and clinical scores (P < 0·0001 and r = 0·61,0·79). Conclusions, The various instruments and clinical scores showed internal agreement and noninvasive methods correlated significantly with the three different clinical scorings systems. This observation suggests that both methods provide data of clinical (scores) and biological (instrumental measures) relevance, and may be useful in future studies of AE. It is speculated that combined measures including scores and selected instruments may be particularly useful. [source]

Usefulness of multidetector CT imaging to assess vascular stents in children with congenital heart disease: An in vivo and in vitro study,

Joachim G. Eichhorn MD
Abstract Objective: To evaluate varying CT settings to visualize pediatric vascular stents in comparison to digital angiography (DA). Background: There is a great clinical interest in substituting noninvasive methods to follow up children with congenital heart disease after interventional treatment. Materials and Methods: CT studies in small children with transcatheter placed stents were reviewed, retrospectively. Furthermore, eight stents were implanted in tubes and partially obstructed. CT exams were performed on varying scanners (4 up to 64 slices) with corresponding tube settings. The effects of dose on image quality were evaluated regarding stent size, strut thickness, and in-stent stenoses in comparison to DA. Results: Fourteen children with 28 implanted stents were identified. Significant differences between higher and lower radiation settings were not found, corresponding with the phantom, where moderate tube setting showed the best results. In vitro, there was an improvement with increasing number of detector rows, which resulted in a decrease of stent strut overestimation (295% down to 201%; P < 0.0001) and a better agreement with DA measurements for mild (78% up to 91%; P = 0.003) and moderate in-stent stenoses (80% up to 99%; P = 0.0001). Conclusion: Higher radiation exposure settings did not improve image quality, suggesting that the exams could be performed at a lower radiation dose. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Uveitis caused by fastidious bacteria

Purpose The etiologic evaluation of uveitis is frequently unsuccessful if only noninvasive methods are used. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate systematic screening for pathogens of uveitis. Methods All patients with uveitis referred to the participating tertiary ophthalmology departments from January 2001 to September 2007 underwent intraocular and serum specimen collection. The standardized protocol for laboratory investigations included universal polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection of any bacteria and mycoses, specific PCR-based detection of fastidious (difficult-to-grow) bacteria and herpes viruses, and culture of vitreous fluid. Sera were tested for fastidious bacteria. Results Among the 1321 included patients, infection was diagnosed in 147 (11.1%) patients: 78 (53%) were caused by fastidious bacteria that included spirochetes, Bartonella species, intracellular bacteria (Chlamydia species, Rickettsia species, Coxiella burnetii), and Tropheryma whipplei; 18 by herpes viruses; and 9 by fungi. Bartonella quintana, Coxiella burnetii, Paracoccus yeei, Aspergillus oryzae, and Cryptococcus albidus were found to be associated with uveitis for the first time, to our knowledge. Conclusion We recommend applying a 1-step diagnostic procedure that incorporates intraocular, specific microbial PCR with serum analyses in tertiary centers to determine the etiology of uveitis. [source]

Biophysical assessment of atopic dermatitis skin and effects of a moisturizer

L. Hagströmer
Summary Background., The mechanisms of the skin barrier impairment in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are still unknown and need further studying. Objective., We evaluated the skin of healthy subjects and of patients having atopic dermatitis with an instrument measuring electrical impedance and other noninvasive methods (transepidermal water loss, capacitance) and studied the effects of a new emollient [ProdermÔ (Pro-QÔ in the USA)]. Methods., After a 2-week washout period, we treated clinically noneczematous skin on the forearm of 24 patients with AD and assessed the effects with the noninvasive methods. 22 healthy subjects were used as controls. Results., The findings indicate that barrier function and hydration, and certain patterns of electrical impedance of AD skin are abnormal compared with normal skin. Moreover, there was an increase in hydration in patients' skin after treatment and a reversal of certain impedance indices towards normal. Conclusions., Our findings demonstrate that the moisturizer we used changes some biophysical parameters when applied to atopic skin. In addition, a technique based on electrical impedance seems to give valuable information in atopic skin studies, especially the effects of moisturizers. [source]

Relationship of carotid intima-media thickness, pulse wave velocity, and ankle brachial index to the severity of coronary artery atherosclerosis

Yoshihiro Matsushima M.D.
Abstract Background: Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and the ankle brachial index (ABI) are widely used noninvasive modalities for evaluating atherosclerosis. Hypothesis: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of carotid IMT, PWV, and ABI with the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), expressed as the Gensini score, and the presence of coronary risk factors. Methods: We examined 205 consecutive patients (mean age 65 ± 12 years) who were clinically suspected of having CAD and were scheduled to undergo coronary angiography. Carotid intima-media thickness, brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV), and ABI were measured in all subjects before they underwent coronary angiography. Results: Of the 205 patients, 124 patients were diagnosed as having CAD based on the presence of > 50% stenosis in a major coronary artery; the remaining 81 patients did not have CAD. A relatively good correlation was obtained between carotid IMT and the Gensini score (R = 0.411, p < 0.0001), whereas baPWV correlated only weakly with the Gensini score (R = 0.203, p = 0.0035), and ABI did not correlate with it. A multiple regression analysis revealed that the Gensini score correlated significantly and independently with age, male gender, and carotid IMT. Conclusions: Of the three noninvasive methods, carotid IMT may be more useful for determining coronary artery atherosclerosis than baPWV or ABI. [source]