Noninvasive Measurement (noninvasive + measurement)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Noninvasive measurement of dissolved oxygen in shake flasks

Leah Tolosa
Abstract Shake flasks are ubiquitous in cell culture and fermentation. However, conventional devices for measuring oxygen concentrations are impractical in these systems. Thus, there is no definitive information on the oxygen supply of growing cells. Here we report the noninvasive, nonintrusive monitoring of dissolved oxygen (DO) in shake flasks using a low-cost optical sensor. The oxygen-sensitive element is a thin, luminescent patch affixed to the inside bottom of the flask. The sensitivity and accuracy of this device is maximal up to 60% DO, within the range that is critical to cell culture applications. By measuring actual oxygen levels every 1 or 5 min throughout the course of yeast and E. coli fermentations, we found that a modest increase in shaker speed and a decrease in culture volume slowed the onset of oxygen limitation and reduced its duration. This is the first time that in situ oxygen limitation is reported in shake flasks. The same data is unattainable with a Clark type electrode because the presence of the intrusive probe itself changes the actual conditions. Available fiber optic oxygen sensors require cumbersome external connections and recalibration when autoclaved. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 80: 594,597, 2002. [source]

The Use of Impedance Cardiography in Predicting Mortality in Emergency Department Patients With Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock

Anthony M. Napoli MD
Abstract Objectives:, Pulmonary artery catheterization poses significant risks and requires specialized training. Technological advances allow for more readily available, noninvasive clinical measurements of hemodynamics. Few studies exist that assess the efficacy of noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring in sepsis patients. The authors hypothesized that cardiac index, as measured noninvasively by impedance cardiography (ICG) in emergency department (ED) patients undergoing early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) for sepsis, would be associated with in-hospital mortality. Methods:, This was a prospective observational cohort study of patients age over 18 years meeting criteria for EGDT (lactate > 4 or systolic blood pressure < 90 after 2 L of normal saline). Initial measurements of cardiac index were obtained by ICG. Patients were followed throughout their hospital course until discharge or in-hospital death. Cardiac index measures in survivors and nonsurvivors are presented as means and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Diagnostic performance of ICG in predicting mortality was tested by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and areas under the ROC curves (AUC) were compared using Wilcoxon test. Results:, Fifty-six patients were enrolled; one was excluded due to an inability to complete data acquisition. The mean cardiac index in nonsurvivors (2.3 L/min·m2, 95% CI = 1.6 to 3.0) was less than that for survivors (3.2, 95% CI = 2.9 to 3.5) with mean difference of 0.9 (95% CI = 0.12 to 1.71). The AUC for ICG in predicting mortality was 0.71 (95% CI = 0.58 to 0.88; p = 0.004). A cardiac index of < 2 L/min·m2 had a sensitivity of 43% (95% CI = 18% to 71%), specificity of 93% (95% CI = 80% to 95%), positive likelihood ratio of 5.9, and negative likelihood ratio of 0.6 for predicting in-hospital mortality. Conclusions:, Early, noninvasive measurement of the cardiac index in critically ill severe sepsis and septic shock patients can be performed in the ED for those who meet criteria for EGDT. There appears to be an association between an initial lower cardiac index as measured noninvasively and in-hospital mortality. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:452,455 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]

Calorimetric investigations into the starvation response of Pseudomonas putida growing on phenol and glucose

Andreas Lißner
Abstract Aims:, To investigate the stress response during nutrient deprivation, particularly with regard to the application of phenol as growth substrate of Pseudomonas putida with calorimetric measurements as a new method. Methods and Results:, The online and noninvasive measurement of the thermal power P0 permits the detection of microbial activity during the starvation period. While the results of the investigations with phenol reveal a significant loss of activity as a function of the temporal nutrient dosage, only a small loss of activity was detected by using glucose. Microbiological methods (colony forming units (CFU) and activity of catechol-2,3-dioxygenase) showed a loss of the enzyme activity at a constant CFU. The introduction of a simple decay parameter kD in the kinetic description of the growth process on phenol was sufficient for the successful kinetic modelling. Conclusions:, The combination of calorimetric measurements and the determination of the enzymatic activity proved the loss of activity of Ps. putida during the deprivation of the substrate phenol. Significance and Impact of the study:, The initial heat power (P0) proves to be a suitable parameter for the characterization of the physiological state of the culture and can be used for the regulation of nutrient supply in biotechnological process development. [source]


A free-space microwave transmission technique has been developed and tested for rapid inline noninvasive measurement of the moisture content of various types of food powders. the basis of this technique is the relation between the attenuation of X-band microwave radiation through a sample of the food powder to its moisture content by weight. Since food powders generally lose their utility and desirable properties, such as flowability and resistance to spoilage, at lower levels of moisture content, typically 3,7%, special techniques must be developed in order to accurately characterize the moisture content at these low levels. One such technique is to use frequency averaging to enhance the accuracy of the measurements to avoid multiple reflection effects prevalent in low-loss low-moisture attenuation measurements. This technique was implemented in the moisture content estimation. Overall accuracies in moisture content estimation are generally less than 1%, although in some cases, accuracies are in the vicinity of 5%. [source]

Measurement of deep gray matter perfusion using a segmented true,fast imaging with steady-state precession (True-FISP) arterial spin-labeling (ASL) method at 3T

Elan J. Grossman MS
Abstract Purpose To study the feasibility of using the MRI technique of segmented true,fast imaging with steady-state precession arterial spin-labeling (True-FISP ASL) for the noninvasive measurement and quantification of local perfusion in cerebral deep gray matter at 3T. Materials and Methods A flow-sensitive alternating inversion-recovery (FAIR) ASL perfusion preparation was used in which the echo-planar imaging (EPI) readout was replaced with a segmented True-FISP data acquisition strategy. The absolute perfusion for six selected regions of deep gray matter (left and right thalamus, putamen, and caudate) were calculated in 11 healthy human subjects (six male, five female; mean age = 35.5 years ± 9.9). Results Preliminary measurements of the average absolute perfusion values at the six selected regions of deep gray matter are in agreement with published values for mean absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) baselines acquired from healthy volunteers using positron emission tomography (PET). Conclusion Segmented True-FISP ASL is a practical and quantitative technique suitable to measure local tissue perfusion in cerebral deep gray matter at a high spatial resolution without the susceptibility artifacts commonly associated with EPI-based methods of ASL. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2009;29:1425,1431. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A noninvasive estimation of mixed venous oxygen saturation using near-infrared spectroscopy by cerebral oximetry in pediatric cardiac surgery patients

Summary Background :,Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive optical monitor of regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2). The aim of this study was to validate the use of NIRS by cerebral oximetry in estimating invasively measured mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) in pediatric postoperative cardiac surgery patients. Methods :,Twenty patients were enrolled following cardiac surgery with intraoperative placement of a pulmonary artery (PA) or superior vena cava (SVC) catheter. Five patients underwent complete biventricular repair , complete atrioventricular canal (n = 3) and other (n = 2). Fifteen patients with functional single ventricle underwent palliative procedures , bidirectional Glenn (n = 11) and Fontan (n = 4). Cerebral rSO2 was monitored via NIRS (INVOS 5100) during cardiac surgery and 6 h postoperatively. SvO2 was measured from blood samples obtained via an indwelling PA or SVC catheter and simultaneously correlated with rSO2 by NIRS at five time periods: in the operating room after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass, after sternal closure, and in the CICU at 2, 4, and 6 h after admission. Results :,Each patient had five measurements (total = 100 comparisons). SvO2 obtained via an indwelling PA or SVC catheter for all patients correlated with rSO2 obtained via NIRS: Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.67 (P < 0.0001) and linear regression of r2 = 0.45 (P < 0.0001). Separate linear regression of the complete biventricular repairs demonstrated an r = 0.71, r2 = 0.50 (P < 0.0001). Bland,Altman analysis showed a bias of +3.3% with a precision of 16.6% for rSO2 as a predictor of SvO2 for all patients. Cerebral rSO2 was a more accurate predictor of SvO2 in the biventricular repair patients (bias ,0.3, precision 11.8%), compared with the bidirectional Glenn and Fontan patients. Conclusions :,Regional cerebral oximetry via NIRS correlates with SvO2 obtained via invasive monitoring. However, the wide limits of agreement suggest that it may not be possible to predict absolute values of SvO2 for any given patient based solely on the noninvasive measurement of rSO2. Near-infrared spectroscopy, using the INVOS 5100 cerebral oximeter, could potentially be used to indicate trends in SVO2, but more studies needs to be performed under varying clinical conditions. [source]

Validation of a tonometric noninvasive arterial blood pressure monitor in the intensive care setting

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 5 2003
L. A. Steiner
Summary Intra-arterial measurement is considered the gold standard for continuous, beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure monitoring. However, arterial cannulation can be difficult and may cause complications such as thrombosis and ischaemia. Recently, a tonometric system, the Colin CBM-7000 has been developed for noninvasive beat-to-beat measurement of arterial blood pressure from the radial artery. We assessed the level of agreement between the CBM-7000 and invasive radial artery measurements in 15 patients on a neuro-intensive care unit. Agreement of systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure values was limited, with ,,34% of mean arterial pressures differing by over 10 mmHg. In many cases, this was due to a downward drift of the noninvasive measurements over time. Furthermore, there was a tendency to underestimate low pressures and overestimate high pressures. In our opinion, the Colin CBM-7000 cannot be recommended for continuous blood pressure monitoring in the intensive care setting. [source]

Physical Model-Based Indirect Measurements of Blood Pressure and Flow Using a Centrifugal Pump

Tadashi Kitamura
Abstract: This article describes a technique offering indirect measurements of pump pressure differential and flow with certain accuracy independent of changes in blood viscosity. This technique is based on noninvasive measurements of the motor current and rotation speed using the physical model equations of the centrifugal pump system. Blood viscosity included in the coefficients of the dynamic equations is first estimated, and then substitution of the estimated viscosity into the steady equations of the model provides pump flow and pressure differential. In vitro tests using a Capiox pump showed a sufficient linear correlation between actual values and their estimates for pressure differential and pump flow. An in vivo test using a 45 kg sheep showed that the proposed algorithm needs robustness for the convergence of estimates of viscosity. An overall evaluation, however, of the developed algorithm/model showed indications of success in terms of efficient computation and modeling. [source]

Assessment of atopic eczema: clinical scoring and noninvasive measurements

E.A. Holm
Summary Background, Clinical scoring systems are widely used in clinical trials of atopic eczema (AE), while noninvasive methods are more often used for research purposes. Positive correlations between the two types of methods may be used in support of the validity of both in a clinical context. Few studies are available of the association between clinical scores and instrumental assessment of disease severity obtained with noninvasive instruments. Objectives, To compare clinical scores in AE with biometric data in AE. Methods, Transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum hydration, erythema, scaling and subepidermal oedema were measured. ,Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD)', ,Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI)' and ,Atopic Dermatitis Severity Index (ADSI)' were used for clinical scores. Two assessments at 6-month intervals at the antecubital fossa, dorsal forearm and popliteal fossa in 101 patients with AE and 30 controls were carried out. Results, Significant correlations were found within the clinical scores (P < 0·0001 and r = 0·85,0·91) and between instruments and clinical scores (P < 0·0001 and r = 0·61,0·79). Conclusions, The various instruments and clinical scores showed internal agreement and noninvasive methods correlated significantly with the three different clinical scorings systems. This observation suggests that both methods provide data of clinical (scores) and biological (instrumental measures) relevance, and may be useful in future studies of AE. It is speculated that combined measures including scores and selected instruments may be particularly useful. [source]