Noninvasive Measure (noninvasive + measure)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Acute changes in carbon dioxide levels alter the electroencephalogram without affecting cognitive function

Elisabeth Bloch-Salisbury
The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the arterial blood (PaCO2) is usually tightly regulated, yet it varies among healthy people at rest (range ,32,44 mmHg) as well as within an individual during many natural life situations. The present study examined whether modest changes in end-tidal PCO2 (PetCO2; a noninvasive measure of PaCO2) affect electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, cognitive function, and vigilance. Nine adults were ventilated mechanically using a mouthpiece; respiratory rate and breath size were held constant while PetCO2 was set to levels that produced minimal discomfort. Despite discrete changes in EEG, neither acute PetCO2 increases (mean = 47 mmHg) nor decreases (mean = 30 mmHg) from resting levels (mean = 38 mmHg) affected performance on cognitive tasks, latency or amplitude of the N1, P2, or P3 event-related potential, or alertness. Modest changes in PetCO2 may cause significant alterations in the EEG without disturbing cognitive function. [source]

Brain metabolism in rett syndrome: Age, clinical, and genotype correlations,

Alena Horská PhD
Objective Brain metabolism, as studied by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), has been previously shown to be abnormal in Rett syndrome (RTT). This study reports the relation of MRS findings to age, disease severity, and genotype. Methods Forty RTT girls (1,14 years old) and 12 age-matched control subjects were examined. Single-voxel proton MRS of left frontal white matter was performed. Results NAA/Cr ratios decreased and myoinositol/Cr ratios increased with age in RTT patients (both p < 0.03), whereas these ratios were stable in control. The mean glutamate and glutamine/Cr ratio was 36% greater in RTT patients than in control (p = 0.043). The mean NAA/Cr ratio was 12.6% lower in RTT patients with seizures compared with those without seizures (p = 0.017). NAA/Cr ratios decreased with increasing clinical severity score (p = 0.031). Compared with patients with T158X, R255X, and R294X mutations, and C-terminal deletions, patients with the R168X mutation tended to have the greatest severity score (0.01 , p , 0.11) and the lowest NAA/Cr ratio (0.029 , p < 0.14). Interpretation Decreasing NAA/Cr and increasing myoinositol/Cr with age are suggestive of progressive axonal damage and astrocytosis in RTT, respectively, whereas increased glutamate and glutamine/Cr ratio may be secondary to increasing glutamate/glutamine cycling at the synaptic level. The relations between NAA/Cr, presence or absence of seizures, and disease severity suggest that MRS provides a noninvasive measure of cerebral involvement in RTT. Ann Neurol 2009;65:90,97 [source]

,Lipoproteins, glycoxidation and diabetic angiopathy'

Alicia J. Jenkins
Abstract The chronic vascular complications of diabetes (nephropathy, retinopathy and accelerated atherosclerosis) are a major cause of morbidity and premature mortality. In spite of the more widespread availability of intensive diabetes management, approximately one in three people with diabetes develop aggressive complications and over 70% die of atherosclerosis-related diseases. Genetic and acquired factors are likely to be contributory. Potential mediators of vascular damage may include the interrelated processes of lipoprotein abnormalities, glycation, oxidation and endothelial dysfunction. Lipoprotein abnormalities encompass alterations in lipid concentrations, lipoprotein composition and subclass distribution and lipoprotein-related enzymes. Nonenzymatic glycation and oxidative damage to lipoproteins, other proteins and to vascular structures may also be deleterious. As atherosclerosis is a chronic condition commencing in youth, and because clinical events may be silent in diabetes, surrogate measures of vascular disease are important for early identification of diabetic patients with or at high risk of vascular damage, and for monitoring efficacy of interventions. The increasing array of biochemical assays for markers and mediators of vascular damage, noninvasive measures of vascular health, and therapeutic options should enable a reduction in the excessive personal and economic burden of vascular disease in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Comparison of neuronal and hemodynamic measures of the brain response to visual stimulation: An optical imaging study

Gabriele Gratton
Abstract The noninvasive mapping of hemodynamic brain activity has led to significant advances in neuroimaging. This approach is based in part on the assumption that hemodynamic changes are proportional to (and therefore constitute a linear measure of) neuronal activity. We report a study investigating the quantitative relationship between neuronal and hemodynamic measures. This study exploited the fact that optical imaging methods can simultaneously provide noninvasive measures of neuronal and hemodynamic activity from the same region of the brain. We manipulated visual stimulation frequency and measured responses from the medial occipital area of 8 young adults. The results were consistent with a model postulating a linear relationship between the neuronal activity integrated over time and the amplitude of the hemodynamic response. The hemodynamic response colocalized with the neuronal response. These data support the use of quantitative neuroimaging methods to infer the intensity and localization of neuronal activity in occipital areas. Hum. Brain Mapping 13:13,25, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]