Noninvasive Means (noninvasive + mean)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Development of swallowing and feeding: Prenatal through first year of life

Amy L. Delaney
Abstract The development of feeding and swallowing involves a highly complex set of interactions that begin in embryologic and fetal periods and continue through infancy and early childhood. This article will focus on swallowing and feeding development in infants who are developing normally with a review of some aspects of prenatal development that provide a basis for in utero sucking and swallowing. Non-nutritive sucking in healthy preterm infants, nipple feeding in preterm and term infants, and selected processes of continued development of oral skills for feeding throughout the first year of life will be discussed. Advances in research have provided new information in our understanding of the neurophysiology related to swallowing, premature infants' sucking and swallowing patterns, and changes in patterns from preterm to near term to term infants. Oral skill development as texture changes are made throughout the second half of the first year of life is an under studied phenomenon. Knowledge of normal developmental progression is essential for professionals to appreciate differences from normal in infants and children with feeding and swallowing disorders. Additional research of infants and children who demonstrate overall typical development in oral skills for feeding is encouraged and will provide helpful reference points in increasing understanding of children who exhibit differences from typical development. It is hoped that new technology will provide noninvasive means of delineating all phases of sucking and swallowing from prenatal through infancy. Further related topics in other articles of this issue provide a comprehensive review of factors influencing oral intake, growth, nutrition, and neurodevelopmental status of children. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Dev Disabil Res Rev 2008;14:105,117. [source]

EEG source localization in focal epilepsy: Where are we now?

EPILEPSIA, Issue 2 2008
Chris Plummer
Summary Electroencephalographic source localization (ESL) by noninvasive means is an area of renewed interest in clinical epileptology. This has been driven by innovations in the computer-assisted modeling of dipolar and distributed sources for the investigation of focal epilepsy; a process fueled by the ever-increasing computational power available to researchers for the analysis of scalp EEG recordings. However, demonstration of the validity and clinical utility of these mathematically derived source modeling techniques has struggled to keep pace. This review evaluates the current clinical "fitness' of ESL as applied to the focal epilepsies by examining some of the key studies performed in the field, with emphasis given to clinical work published in the last five years. In doing so, we discuss why ESL techniques have not made an impact on routine epilepsy practice, underlining some of the current problems and controversies in the field. We conclude by examining where ESL currently sits alongside magnetoencephalography and combined EEG-functional magnetic resonance imaging in the investigation of focal epilepsy. [source]

A systematic review of the effect of diet in prostate cancer prevention and treatment

R. W.-L.
Abstract Dietary therapy has been proposed as a cost effective and noninvasive means of reducing the risk of prostate cancer (PC) and its progression. There is a large volume of published studies describing the role of diet in the prevention and treatment of PC. This article systematically reviews the data for dietary-based therapy in the prevention of PC, as well as in the management of patients with PC, aiming to provide clarity surrounding the role of diet in preventing and treating PC. Although conclusive evidence is limited, the current data are indicative that a diet low in fat, high in vegetables and fruits, and avoiding high energy intake, excessive meat, excessive dairy products and calcium intake, is possibly effective in preventing PC. However, caution must be taken to ensure that members of the public do not take excessive amounts of dietary supplements because there may be adverse affects associated with their over consumption. The dietary recommendations for patients diagnosed with PC are similar to those aiming to reduce their risk of PC. [source]

An economic evaluation of NIOX MINO airway inflammation monitor in the United Kingdom

ALLERGY, Issue 3 2009
D. Price
Background:, Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), a marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation, is easily measured by noninvasive means. The objective of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of FENO measurement using a hand-held monitor (NIOX MINO), at a reimbursement price of 23, for asthma diagnosis and management in the UK. Methods:, We constructed two decision trees to compare FENO measurement with standard diagnostic testing and guideline recommendations for management. For asthma diagnosis, we compared FENO measurement with lung function and reversibility testing, bronchial provocation and sputum eosinophil count. For asthma management, we evaluated the impact on asthma control, including inhaled corticosteroid use, exacerbations and hospitalizations, of monitoring with FENO measurement vs symptoms and lung function as in standard care. Resource use and health outcomes were evaluated over a 1-year time frame. Direct costs were calculated from a UK health-care payer perspective (2005 ). Results:, An asthma diagnosis using FENO measurement cost 43 less per patient as compared with standard diagnostic tests. Asthma management using FENO measurement instead of lung function testing resulted in annual cost-savings of 341 and 0.06 quality-adjusted life-years gained for patients with mild to severe asthma and cost-savings of 554 and 0.004 quality-adjusted life-years gained for those with moderate to severe asthma. Conclusions:, Asthma diagnosis based on FENO measurement with NIOX MINO alone is less costly and more accurate than standard diagnostic methods. Asthma management based on FENO measurement is less costly than asthma management based on standard guidelines and provides similar health benefits. [source]

Three-dimensional surface maps link local atrophy and fast ripples in human epileptic hippocampus,

Jennifer A. Ogren PhD
Objectives There is compelling evidence that pathological high-frequency oscillations (HFOs), called fast ripples (FR, 150,500Hz), reflect abnormal synchronous neuronal discharges in areas responsible for seizure genesis in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). It is hypothesized that morphological changes associated with hippocampal atrophy (HA) contribute to the generation of FR, yet there is limited evidence that hippocampal FR-generating sites correspond with local areas of atrophy. Methods Interictal HFOs were recorded from hippocampal microelectrodes in 10 patients with MTLE. Rates of FR and ripple discharge from each microelectrode were evaluated in relation to local measures of HA obtained using 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) hippocampal modeling. Results Rates of FR discharge were 3 times higher in areas of significant local HA compared with rates in nonatrophic areas. Furthermore, FR occurrence correlated directly with the severity of damage in these local atrophic regions. In contrast, we found no difference in rates of ripple discharge between local atrophic and nonatrophic areas. Interpretation The proximity between local HA and microelectrode-recorded FR suggests that morphological changes such as neuron loss and synaptic reorganization may contribute to the generation of FR. Pathological HFOs, such as FR, may provide a reliable surrogate marker of abnormal neuronal excitability in hippocampal areas responsible for the generation of spontaneous seizures in patients with MTLE. Based on these data, it is possible that MRI-based measures of local HA could identify FR-generating regions, and thus provide a noninvasive means to localize epileptogenic regions in hippocampus. Ann Neurol 2009;66:783,791 [source]

Takayasu arteritis: Utility and limitations of magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis and treatment

Elisa Tso
Objective Previous studies have confirmed the poor correlation of symptoms, signs, and levels of acute-phase reactants with disease activity in ,50% of all patients with Takayasu arteritis (TA). Invasive angiographic studies demonstrate vessel lumen anatomy, but do not provide qualitative information about the vessel wall. Moreover, sequential invasive angiographic studies expose patients to high-dose ionizing radiation and catheter/procedure-related morbidity. The aim of the present study was to determine the utility of new developments in vascular magnetic resonance (MR) technology in patients with TA. Methods Electrocardiogram-gated "edema-weighted" MR was used to evaluate the aorta and its primary branches with regard to the vascular lumen, vessel wall anatomy, and vessel wall edema in 24 TA patients (77 studies). Inclusion criteria were age <50 years and features of TA on both clinical examination and invasive angiographic studies. Patients were stratified based on clinical and laboratory indications of having either unequivocally active disease, inactive disease, or uncertain disease status. Results MR revealed vessel wall edema in 94% (17 of 18), 81% (13 of 16), and 56% (24 of 43) of studies obtained during periods of unequivocally active disease, uncertain disease activity, and apparent clinical remission, respectively. Westergren erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein values did not correlate with either the clinical assessment of disease activity or MR evidence of vascular edema. The frequency of presumed vascular inflammation (edema), as assessed by MR, in patients who appeared to be in remission was similar to the reported frequency of new angiographic lesions and histopathologic evidence of active disease in surgical specimens from patients thought to be in remission. However, the presence of edema within vessel walls did not consistently correlate with the occurrence of new anatomic changes found on subsequent studies. Conclusion Inconsistencies in the presence or absence of vessel edema and subsequent anatomic changes have cast doubt on the utility of edema-weighted MR imaging as a sole guide to disease activity and treatment in TA. In this study, the greatest utility of MR was in providing a safe, noninvasive means of assessing changes in vascular anatomy. [source]

Left main coronary artery compression from pulmonary artery enlargement due to pulmonary hypertension: A contemporary review and argument for percutaneous revascularization,

Michael S. Lee MD
Abstract Extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery by an enlarged pulmonary artery is an increasingly recognized and potentially reversible cause of angina and left ventricular dysfunction in patients with pulmonary hypertension. The diagnosis of extrinsic left main coronary artery compression requires a high index of suspicion and should be considered in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension who experience angina. Coronary angiography with intravascular ultrasound is the gold standard for diagnosis of this condition, though cardiac computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography allow for noninvasive means of screening. The optimal treatment is debatable, but percutaneous coronary intervention appears to be a feasible, safe, and effective treatment option for patients with extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery from pulmonary artery enlargement. Given the high risk of postoperative right ventricular failure and mortality observed with surgical revascularization in these patients, we recommend that physicians recognize percutaneous coronary intervention as the preferred revascularization strategy for selected patients with extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery due to pulmonary hypertension. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]