Noninvasive Imaging Technique (noninvasive + imaging_technique)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Noninvasive Imaging, Treatment, and Microscopic Confirmation of Clearance of Basal Cell Carcinoma

Mark Goldgeier MD
BACKGROUND. The diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is generally established by skin biopsy followed by tissue preparation and microscopic analysis. Treatment of BCC is often accomplished by surgical excision. Objective. To confirm the presence of BCC with a noninvasive imaging technique, to treat the patient with a topical immune response modifier, and to confirm the clearance of BCC noninvasively. METHODS. Confocal microscopy (CM) is a noninvasive technique for real-time imaging of skin in vivo. Imiquimod, an immune response modifier, is applied topically by the patient to the skin lesion. RESULTS. The presence of BCC was confirmed with CM. Posttreatment CM imaging confirmed the clearance of BCC from the entire treatment field. Both the pretreatment and the posttreatment CM findings were confirmed by invasive biopsy. CONCLUSION. The ability to use CM to image in real time without discomfort to the patient makes it a powerful tool to assist in the diagnosis of skin disease. [source]

Unusual hepatic-portal-systemic shunting demonstrated by Doppler sonography in children with congenital hepatic vein ostial occlusion

Maha Barakat MD
Abstract Purpose This report describes unusual changes in the hepatic vasculature in 3 children presenting with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Methods The study included 3 children (ages 5,8 years) who presented with hematemesis. All had mild hepatosplenomegaly and normal liver function. Esophageal varices were demonstrated in all on upper endoscopy. Color and spectral Doppler sonography was performed to assess the hepatic vasculature, including the hepatic veins (HVs), portal vein (PV), hepatic artery (HA), and inferior vena cava (IVC). Results The HVs were all patent but with ostial occlusion at the point of their communication with the IVC. Complete flow reversal was shown inside the HVs, with blood draining into collateral vessels at the liver surface and paraumbilical vein. In one patient, the paraumbilical vein could be traced to its communication with the right external iliac vein. In all children, the direction of flow in the PV, HA, and IVC was normal. After endoscopic sclerotherapy, all children were shown to be in good general condition and to have normal liver function for a follow-up period of 15,36 months. Conclusions Ostial occlusion of the HV is a rare cause of hepatic outflow obstruction in children. Doppler sonography is a valuable, noninvasive imaging technique for evaluation of the hepatic vasculature and the accompaning shunting pathways in such cases. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 32:172,178, 2004; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www. DOI: 10.1002/jcu.20019 [source]

Evaluation of the atrophogenic potential of different glucocorticoids using optical coherence tomography, 20-MHz ultrasound and profilometry; a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

M. Coßmann
Summary Background, Skin atrophy is one of the main side-effects of topical corticosteroid therapy. Although the use of high-frequency ultrasound is an established method that has been studied previously, it allows measurements of the slow-reacting dermal thickness only. Objectives, To investigate the decreasing epidermal thickness, which occurs earlier, we used optical coherence tomography (OCT), a high-resolution noninvasive imaging technique, and compared it with 20-MHz ultrasound and profilometry. Patients/methods, In this double-blind placebo-controlled trial 20 healthy volunteers applied four different corticosteroids and the cream base formulation as placebo to the volar part of both arms once a day over a 4-week period. The epidermal thickness, the dermal thickness and the skin surface roughness were assessed using OCT, high-frequency ultrasound and profilometry. Results, Each of the three methods allowed the detection and monitoring of significant corticosteroid-induced skin atrophy and its reversibility. The changes correlated with the potency of the steroids. The epidermal thickness decreased significantly in all test areas, even in the placebo and the untreated fields. As expected, the reduction in epidermal thickness was more pronounced and could be detected earlier by OCT than the reduction of dermal thickness using ultrasound. The epidermal surface roughness investigated using profilometry showed a slight smoothing. Conclusions, OCT allows a simple, fast and noninvasive in vivo measurement of the epidermal thickness. To evaluate the atrophogenic potential of corticosteroids it is more suitable than high-frequency ultrasound as epidermal thickness decreases earlier. In addition, epidermal thickness is a more sensitive indicator of steroid atrophy as the degree of thinning is much higher compared with the dermal atrophy. Profilometry might give further information; however, it would not be suitable for clinical use as the results were generally less pronounced. In the future, OCT might be useful to detect corticosteroid-induced side-effects at the beginning for monitoring the therapy. [source]

Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo

V.P. Wallace
Summary Background, Terahertz radiation lies between the infrared and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and can be used to excite large amplitude vibrational modes of molecules and probe the weak interactions between them. Terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) is a noninvasive imaging technique that utilises this radiaton. Objectives, To determine whether TPI could differentiate between basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and normal tissue and to test whether it can help facilitate delineation of tumour margins prior to surgery. Methods, A portable TPI system was used in the clinic to image 18 BCCs ex vivo and five in vivo. Results, The diseased tissue showed a change in terahertz properties compared with normal tissue, manifested through a broadening of the reflected terahertz pulse. Regions of disease identified in the terahertz image correlated well with histology. Conclusions, This study has confirmed the potential of TPI to identify the extent of BCC in vivo and to delineate tumour margins. Further clinical study of TPI as a surgical tool is now required. [source]

Three-dimensional visualization of renal artery stenosis by 64-channel multiple detector-row computed tomographical angiography: review of two paediatric cases

N Ueda
Abstract Three-dimensional visualization of renal arteries has recently been established by helical contrast-enhanced multiple detector-row computed tomographical angiography (MDCTA) in adults. So far, no information is available on its use in children. We reported two children with renal artery stenosis detected by 64-channel MDCTA. The first patient probably had fibromuscular dysplasia and the other neurofibromatosis type1. The technique showed a left renal artery stenosis with a small left kidney in the first patient and a right renal artery stenosis in the second. Conclusion:, MDCTA is an accurate and noninvasive imaging technique, easily performed in children, and can be used as an alternative diagnostic modality in children with suspected renovascular hypertension. [source]