Noninvasive Evaluation (noninvasive + evaluation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Hematologic iron analyte values as an indicator of hepatic hemosiderosis in callitrichidae

Kristine M. Smith
Abstract Hepatic hemosiderosis is one of the most common postmortem findings in captive callitrichid species. Noninvasive evaluation of hematologic iron analytes has been used to diagnose hepatic iron storage disease in humans, lemurs, and bats. This study evaluated the relationship between hematologic iron analyte values (iron, ferritin, total iron binding capacity, and percent transferrin saturation) and hepatic hemosiderosis in callitrichids at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Central Park and Bronx Zoos. Results revealed that both ferritin and percent transferrin saturation levels had strong positive correlations with hepatic iron concentration (P<0.001, r=0.77, n=20; P<0.001, r=0.85, n=10, respectively). Serum iron levels positively correlated with hepatic iron concentration (P=0.06, r=0.56, n=11), but this finding was not significant. Serum total iron binding capacity did not significantly correlate with hepatic iron concentration (P=0.47, r=0.25, n=10). Both ferritin and hepatic iron concentration positively correlated with severity of hepatic iron deposition on histology (P<0.05, r=0.49, n=21; P<0.001, r=0.67, n=21, respectively). This study suggests that ferritin, serum iron concentration, and percent transferrin saturation are convenient, noninvasive, antemortem methods for assessing severity of hemosiderosis in callitrichids. Am. J. Primatol. 70:629,633, 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Evaluation of Peripheral Vascular Endothelial Function with a Portable Ultrasound Device

Alawi A. Alsheikh-Ali M.D.
Endothelial function can be assessed noninvasively by imaging the brachial artery with ultrasound before and during reactive hyperemia. However, the standard ultrasound equipment typically used for this purpose is limited by size and expense of the machinery. In this study, we compared the ability of a portable ultrasound device to standard ultrasound equipment to visualize the brachial artery for purposes of assessing peripheral vascular endothelial function. The portable device provided comparable imaging of the brachial artery at rest and during hyperemia to that of standard ultrasound technology. These findings support the feasibility of noninvasive evaluation of peripheral endothelial function in the ambulatory setting. [source]

Role of Transthoracic Echocardiography in Atrial Fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation is a major clinical problem that is predicted to be encountered more frequently as the population ages. The clinical management of atrial fibrillation has become increasingly complex as new therapies and strategies have become available for ventricular rate control, conversion to sinus rhythm, maintenance of sinus rhythm, and prevention of thromboembolism. Clinical and transthoracic echocardiographic features are important in determining etiology and directing therapy for atrial fibrillation. Left atrial size, left ventricular wall thickness, and left ventricular function have independent predictive value for determining the risk of developing atrial fibrillation. Left atrial size may have predictive value in determining the success of cardioversion and maintaining sinus rhythm in selected clinical settings but has less value in the most frequently encountered group, patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, in whom the duration of atrial fibrillation is the most important feature. When selecting pharmacological agents to control ventricular rate, convert to sinus rhythm, and maintain normal sinus rhythm, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) allows noninvasive evaluation of left ventricular function and hence guides management. The combination of clinical and transthoracic echocardiographic features also allows risk stratification for thromboembolism and hemorrhagic complications in atrial fibrillation. High-risk clinical features for thromboembolism supported by epidemiological observations, results of randomized clinical trials, and meta-analyses include rheumatic valvular heart disease, prior thromboembolism, congestive heart failure, hypertension, older (> 75 years old) women, and diabetes. Small series of cases also suggest those with hyperthyroidism and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are at high risk. TTE plays a unique role in confirming or discovering high-risk features such as rheumatic valvular disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and decreased left ventricular function. Validation of the risk stratification scheme used in the Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation-III trial is welcomed by clinicians who are faced daily with balancing the benefit and risks of anticoagulation to prevent thromboembolism inpatients with atrial fibrillation. [source]

Long-Term Survivors After Valve Replacement With a Starr-Edwards Mitral Disk Valve Prosthesis

Shigeaki Aoyagi
Abstract:, We report four long-term survivors after valve replacement with a Starr-Edwards (S-E) mitral caged-disk valve. A model 6520 disk valve, size 3M, had been used in all of the four patients. Of the four patients, three underwent replacement of the disk valves 23, 24, and 26 years after mitral valve replacement (MVR), respectively. A pacemaker was implanted in the remaining patient 33 years after MVR. The S-E disk valves were considered hemodynamically slightly stenotic compared with modern bileaflet valves. No disk wear was detected in any of the three explanted valves, and in the remaining patient, a noninvasive evaluation of the disk showed that it was functioning normally. These results suggest the favorable long-term durability of the S-E disk valve. [source]

Anomalous Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery, Unroofed Coronary Sinus, Patent Foramen Ovale, and a Persistent Left-sided SVC in a Single Patient: A Harmonious Quartet of Defects

Andrew J. Klein MD
ABSTRACT Unroofing of the coronary sinus without complex structural heart defects is a rare congenital defect often seen in conjunction with a persistent left-sided superior vena cava. Anomalous origin of the left anterior descending artery from the pulmonary artery with normal origin of the left circumflex coronary artery is an even rarer congenital cardiac defect. We report a case of a 54-year-old woman presenting with mild dyspnea on exertion who was found on invasive and noninvasive evaluations to have a unique combination of defects,unroofed coronary sinus, persistent left-sided superior vena cava, patent foramen ovale, and anomalous origin of the left anterior descending artery from the pulmonary artery without evidence of previous coronary ischemia. [source]