Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Noninvasive

  • noninvasive alternative
  • noninvasive approach
  • noninvasive assessment
  • noninvasive biomarker
  • noninvasive detection
  • noninvasive device
  • noninvasive diagnosis
  • noninvasive diagnostic test
  • noninvasive diagnostic tool
  • noninvasive estimation
  • noninvasive evaluation
  • noninvasive imaging
  • noninvasive imaging modality
  • noninvasive imaging technique
  • noninvasive index
  • noninvasive marker
  • noninvasive mean
  • noninvasive measure
  • noninvasive measurement
  • noninvasive method
  • noninvasive methods
  • noninvasive modality
  • noninvasive monitoring
  • noninvasive procedure
  • noninvasive quantification
  • noninvasive sample
  • noninvasive study
  • noninvasive technique
  • noninvasive techniques
  • noninvasive test
  • noninvasive testing
  • noninvasive tool
  • noninvasive ventilation

  • Selected Abstracts

    Noninvasive in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance study to estimate pulmonary reducing ability in mice exposed to NiO or C60 nanoparticles

    Hidekatsu Yokoyama MD
    Abstract Purpose To develop new methods that can estimate the influences of manufactured nanomaterials on biological systems, the in vivo pulmonary reducing ability of mice that had received inhalation exposures to NiO or C60 nanoparticles was investigated using a 700 MHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer. Materials and Methods NiO or C60 suspensions were atomized and mice in exposure chambers inhaled the resulting aerosol particles for 3 hours. The exposure conditions, number-based geometric average diameters, and the average number concentration were precisely controlled at almost the same levels for both NiO and C60 nanoparticles. Two days or 2 weeks after exposure, an EPR study was conducted noninvasively. Temporal changes in EPR signal intensity at the target area (ie, lung field) were obtained by the region-selected intensity determination (RSID) method. Results NiO nanoparticles significantly suppressed pulmonary reducing ability 2 days and 2 weeks after exposure, but C60 nanoparticles had no such effect. Conclusion This is the first in vivo estimation of the reducing ability in experimental animals exposed to manufactured nanoparticles. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Utility of Noninvasive, Mobile, Continuous Outpatient Rhythm Monitoring to Diagnose Seizure-Related Arrhythmias

    The identification of patients with a diagnosis of seizure disorder who are also at risk for clinically significant bradycardia and/or tachycardia may require long-term cardiac rhythm monitoring. Noninvasive, continuous, outpatient cardiac rhythm monitoring may be useful for such clinical scenarios. The study group consisted of two male patients with a history of seizure disorder involving loss of consciousness. Clinical data and results of electrocardiography, echocardiography, electroencephelography, and continuous, mobile, outpatient cardiac rhythm monitoring are described. In the first patient, while cardiac bradyarrhythmias were secondary to seizures, sinus arrest most likely complicated the episodes by leading to more prolonged states of unconsciousness. In the second patient, permanent pacemaker implantation for AV block averted all clinical events previously attributed to seizures. Despite the different causal relationships between seizures and bradyarrhythmias in these two patients, mobile, cardiac outpatient telemetry was successful in diagnosing the contribution of cardiac dysrhythmia, leading to permanent pacemaker implantation. A diagnostic strategy that incorporates mobile, noninvasive, continuous, outpatient cardiac rhythm monitoring can effectively be utilized to diagnose significant seizure-related arrhythmias. [source]

    Nonischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Results of Noninvasive and Invasive Evaluation in 310 Patients and Clinical Significance of Bundle Branch Block

    Background:The survival of patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) at III and IV stages of New York Heart Association (NYHA) is decreased in those with a bundle branch block (BBB) compared to those without BBB. Less is known on the prognosis of patients at earlier stages of NYHA and who had a left BBB (LBBB) or right BBB (RBBB). We sought to evaluate the prevalence and the clinical significance of LBBB or RBBB in patients with IDCM and classes I and II of NYHA. Methods:Clinical data, noninvasive, and invasive studies were consecutively collected in 310 patients, with IDCM, followed up to 4.8±3.7 years. Results:Seventy-six patients (25%) had LBBB, 21 (7%) had RBBB, and 212 had no BBB. Patients with BBB were older than other patients (P < 0.009). Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was lower in LBBB than in RBBB and other patients (P < 0.05). Syncope was more frequent in BBB than in absence (P < 0.05). Incidence of spontaneous ventricular tachycardia (VT) and atrial fibrillation, VT induction, total cardiac events, and sudden death were similar in the presence or absence of BBB. Deaths by heart failure and heart transplantations tended to be more frequent in BBB than in absence. Conclusions:LBBB was present in 25% of patients with IDCM; RBBB was rare. Patients with BBB were older and had more frequent syncope than patients without BBB; LVEF was lower in LBBB than in RBBB or in absence of BBB. BBB did not increase the risk of spontaneous VT, VT induction, or sudden death, and tended to increase deaths by heart failure and the indications of heart transplantation. [source]

    Is Functional Capacity Related to Left Atrial Contractile Function in Nonobstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy?

    Yukitaka Shizukuda MD
    The mechanisms underlying reduced exercise capacity in patients with nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (NHCM) could include perturbations of ventricular relaxation, diastolic compliance, or compensatory atrial systolic function. We hypothesized that a loss of atrial contractility in NHCM patients leads to reduced functional capacity. To test this hypothesis, we compared resting noninvasive left atrial ejection phase indices in 49 consecutive patients with NHCM (ages 36±10 years; 41% female) and normal left ventricular ejection fraction (mean, 68%±8%) with objective metabolic exercise parameters. Left atrial active emptying fraction, ejection force, and kinetic energy failed to predict exercise capacity. Only left atrial total and active emptying volumes correlated weakly with minute volume/CO2 production slope (r=0.31 and r=0.33; p<0.05 for both). Furthermore, when subjects were stratified by New York Heart Association symptomatology, exercise parameters,but not atrial contractility,differed between groups. These data, obtained at rest, fail to suggest that NHCM-related heart failure symptoms are due to an atrial myopathy. [source]

    Cryolipolysis for Noninvasive Fat Cell Destruction: Initial Results from a Pig Model

    BACKGROUND Liposuction is one of the most frequently performed cosmetic procedures in the United States, but its cost and downtime has led to the development of noninvasive approaches for adipose tissue reduction. OBJECTIVE To determine whether noninvasive controlled and selective destruction of fat cells (Cryolipolysis) can selectively damage subcutaneous fat without causing damage to the overlying skin or rise in lipid levels. METHODS Three Yucatan pigs underwent Cryolipolysis at 22 sites: 20 at cooling intensity factor (CIF) index 24.5 (,43.8 mW/cm2), one at CIF 24.9 (,44.7 mW/cm2), and one at CIF 25.4 (,45.6 mW/cm2). Treated areas were evaluated using photography, ultrasound, and gross and microscopic pathology. Lipids were at various times points. One additional pig underwent Cryolipolysis at various days before euthanasia. RESULTS The treatments resulted in a significant reduction in the superficial fat layer without damage to the overlying skin. An inflammatory response triggered by cold-induced apoptosis of adipocytes preceded the reduction in the fat layer. Evaluation of lipids over a 3-month period following treatment demonstrated that cholesterol and triglyceride values remained normal. CONCLUSIONS Cryolipolysis is worthy of further study because it has been shown to significantly decrease subcutaneous fat and change body contour without causing damage to the overlying skin and surrounding structures or deleterious changes in blood lipids. [source]

    Noninvasive Lower Eyelid Blepharoplasty: A New Technique Using Nonablative Radiofrequency on Periorbital Skin

    Javier Ruiz-esparza MDArticle first published online: 3 FEB 200
    Background. Laxity and rhytids of the lower eyelids are common cosmetic concerns. Historically, correction has either been surgical through either transcutaneous or transconjunctival blepharoplasty or ablative through laser resurfacing or chemical peeling. Therapeutic options usually require significant postoperative healing and have the potential risk of scarring ectropion or pigmentary loss. Objective. To report the use of a new technique that uses nonablative radiofrequency (NARF) to tighten noninvasively and nonsurgically the flaccid skin of the lower eyelids by treating the periorbital area to produce cosmetic improvement. Methods. Nine patients with skin flaccidity of the lower eyelids had a single treatment session with NARF in a small area of skin in the periorbital region, specifically the zygomatic and/or temporal areas. All patients were treated with topical anesthesia only. The treatment lasted approximately 10 minutes. No postoperative care was required. Results. All of the nine patients in the study achieved cosmetic improvement of the eyelids ostensibly through skin contraction. All patients were able to return to their normal routines immediately. Although the results were gradual, patient satisfaction was remarkable. No complications were seen in this study. Conclusion. This new procedure using NARF was successful in providing a safe, noninvasive, cosmetic improvement in these patients with excessive skin laxity of the lower eyelids. Postoperative morbidity, including down time and complications, was not seen. [source]

    3D In-Vivo Optical Skin Imaging for Topographical Quantitative Assessment of Non-Ablative Laser Technology

    Paul M. Friedman MD
    background. A new method for treating facial rhytides and acne scars with nonablative laser and light source techniques has recently been introduced. Given the inherent limitations of photographic and clinical evaluation to assess subtle changes in rhytides and surface topography, a new noninvasive objective assessment is required to accurately assess the outcomes of these procedures. objective. The purpose of this study was to measure and objectively quantify facial skin using a novel, noninvasive, In-vivo method for assessing three-dimensional topography. This device was used to quantify the efficacy of five treatment sessions with the 1064 nm QS Nd:YAG laser for rhytides and acne scarring, for up to six months following laser treatment. methods. Two subjects undergoing facial rejuvenation procedures were analyzed before and after therapy using a 30-mm, three-dimensional microtopography imaging system (PRIMOS, GFM, Teltow, Germany). The imaging system projects light on to a specific surface of the skin using a Digital Micromirror Device (DMDŌ Texas Instruments, Irving, TX) and records the image with a CCD camera. Skin Surface microtopography is reconstructed using temporal phase shift algorithms to generate three-dimensional images. Measurements were taken at baseline, at various times during the treatment protocol, and then at three and six-month follow-up visits. Silicone skin replicas (FLEXICO, Herts, England) were also made before and after the laser treatment protocol for comparison to In-vivo acquisition. results. Skin roughness decreased by 11% from baseline after three treatment sessions in the wrinkles subject, while a 26% improvement of skin roughness was recorded by 3D In-vivo assessment six months following the fifth treatment session. The subject with acne scarring demonstrated a 33% decrease in roughness analysis after three treatment sessions by 3D In-vivo assessment. A 61% improvement in surface topography was recorded 3-months following the fifth treatment session, which was maintained at the 6-month follow-up. conclusion. Three-dimensional In-vivo optical skin imaging provided a rapid and quantitative assessment of surface topography and facial fine lines following multiple treatment sessions with a 1064-nm QS Nd:YAG laser, correlating with clinical and subjective responses. This imaging technique provided objective verification and technical understanding of nonablative laser technology. Wrinkle depth and skin roughness decreased at the three and six-month follow-up evaluations by 3D In-vivo assessment, indicating ongoing dermal collagen remodeling after the laser treatment protocol. Future applications may include comparison of nonablative laser technology, optimization of treatment regimens, and objective evaluation of other aesthetic procedures performed by dermatologists. [source]

    Perfusional evaluation of postesophagectomy gastroplasty with a radioisotopic study

    G. Gabiatti
    SUMMARY., Anastomotic fistula represents one of the frequent causes of postoperative morbidity and mortality following transhiatal esophageal resections. The main etiological factor is the ischemia of the gastric tube created for digestive transit reconstruction. Evidence suggests that per operative hypoperfusion can be maintained or even impaired after the surgery. Several methods have been employed in an attempt to assess the blood perfusion of the gastric flap, but they all pose limitations. However, there is a chronological relationship between perfusion assessments, which are almost exclusively performed per operatively, and the occurrence of a leak, which commonly appears several days after the surgery. The authors have developed a method of gastric perfusion evaluation by single photon emission computed tomography scintigraphy, which corrects that temporal matter, allowing the estimation of postoperative gastric perfusion. It is noninvasive, low cost, and may be applied by the time frame when most fistulas occur. High correlation between the event fistula and the low radiotracer uptake in the group of studied patients could be demonstrated. A role in the research of perfusion evaluation of different types of esophageal reconstruction is suggested. [source]

    Role of neurophysiology in the clinical practice of primary pediatric headaches

    V. Raieli
    Abstract The role of electrophysiological studies in pediatric headaches is controversial. In childhood headaches, neurophysiological examinations are of interest for potential clinical use because they are noninvasive and are scarcely influenced by environmental factors or drug use. Electrophysiological studies in childhood headache principally explored the role of electroencephalographic (EEG) evaluations in migraine, while less evidence has been reported about other neurophysiological techniques, such as evoked potentials, event-related potentials, and, less often, transcranial magnetic stimulation. In this brief review, we point out our attention to the aid of neurophysiological methods in the clinical diagnosis of pediatric headaches. Although many examinations are actually of little value in the clinical setting, they may have a potential role in some clinical subgroups or in monitoring and evaluating the effects of pharmacological treatment. Drug Dev Res 68:389,396, 2007. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Patent Foramen Ovale: Comparison among Diagnostic Strategies in Cryptogenic Stroke and Migraine

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2009
    Concetta Zito M.D.
    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in order to define the best clinical approach to patent foramen ovale (PFO) detection. Methods: In total, 72 consecutive patients (33 men) with a mean age of 49 ± 13 years were prospectively enrolled. The TEE indication was cryptogenic stroke (36 patients) or migraine (36 patients, 22 with aura). All patients underwent standard TTE, TCD, and TEE examination. For any study, a contrast test was carried on using an agitated saline solution mixed with urea-linked gelatine (Haemaccel), injected as a rapid bolus via a right antecubital vein. A prolonged Valsalva maneuver was performed to improve test sensitivity. Results: TEE identified a PFO in 65% of the whole population: 56.5% in the migraine cohort and 43.5% in the cryptogenic stroke cohort. TTE was able to detect a PFO in 55% of patients positive at TEE (54% negative predictive value, 100% positive predictive value, 55% sensitivity, and 100% specificity). TCD was able to identify a PFO in 97% of patients positive at TEE (89% negative predictive value, 98% positive predictive value, 94% sensitivity, and 96% specificity). Conclusions: In patients with cryptogenic stroke and migraine, there is a fair concordance (k = 0.89) between TCD and TEE in PFO recognition. Accordingly, TCD should be recommended as a simple, noninvasive, and reliable technique, whereas TEE indication should be restricted to selected patients. TTE is a very specific technique, whose major advantage is the ability to detect a large right-to-left shunt, particularly if associated with an atrial septal aneurysm. [source]

    Positional Localization: Three-Dimensional Transthoracic Echocardiography Techniques for the Measurement of Cardiac Mass, Volume, and Function

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 8 2000
    Andrew M. Keller M.D.
    An accurate and reproducible determination of cardiac volume and mass is important for the selection and timing of therapeutic interventions. Quantitative three-dimensional echocardiography has evolved to provide these measurements with the use of a noninvasive, readily available, and inexpensive technique. We introduce and review the principle of positional localization as well as the clinical application of this technique for the measurement of cardiac volume and mass. [source]

    1H and 19F nuclear magnetic resonance microimaging of water and chemical distribution in soil columns

    Myrna J. Simpson
    Abstract Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) microimaging is a noninvasive and nondestructive technique that has great potential for the study of soil processes. Hydrogen-1 NMR microimaging techniques were used to examine the distribution of water in four different soil cores. Fluorine-19 NMR microimaging is also used to study the transport of three model contaminants (hexafluorobenzene, sodium fluoride, and trifluralin) in soil columns. The 1H water distribution studies demonstrate that NMR microimaging can provide unique detail regarding the nature and location of water in soils. Image distortion (magnetic susceptibility) was observed for soil samples low in water (20,28% by weight) and that contained an iron content of 0.73 to 0.99%. Highly resolved images were obtained for the organic-rich soil (Croatan sample) and also facilitated the analysis of bound and unbound soil water through varying spin echo times. The contaminant studies with 19F NMR demonstrated that preferential flow processes can be observed in soil cores in as little as 16 h. Studies with hexafluorobenzene produced the highest quality images whereas the definition decreased over time with both trifluralin and sodium fluoride as the compounds penetrated the soil. Nonetheless, both 1H and 19F NMR microimaging techniques demonstrate great promise for studying soil processes. [source]

    Heart Rate Variability in Emergency Department Patients with Sepsis

    Douglas Barnaby MD
    Abstract Objective: To test the hypothesis that heart rate variability (HRV) can provide an early indication of illness severity among patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with sepsis. Methods: The authors enrolled a convenience sample of 15 ED patients meeting the American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine criteria for sepsis. Each patient had continuous Holter monitoring performed in the ED. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health II (APACHE II) and Sequential Organ Failure (SOFA) scores were calculated for the day of presentation. Holter tapes obtained in the ED were analyzed off-line to calculate HRV variables for the 5-minute segment with the least artifact and non-sinus beats. These variables were correlated with APACHE II and SOFA scores. Results: LFnu (normalized low-frequency power), an assessment of the relative sympathetic contribution to overall HRV, was correlated with increased illness severity as calculated using APACHE II (r = -0.67, r2= 0.43) and SOFA (r = -0.80, r2= 0.64) scores. LF/HF ratio (low-frequency/high-frequency ratio), a measure of sympathovagal balance, was correlated with the SOFA score [r = -0.54 (95% CI = -0.83 to -0.01), r2= 0.29]. All five patients who required critical care monitoring or ventilatory support or who died during the first 5 days of their hospitalization had LFnu values below 0.5 and LF/HF ratios less than 1.0. None of the patients with measurements greater than these threshold values died or required these interventions during the five days following admission. Conclusions: A single variable, LFnu, which reflects sympathetic modulation of heart rate, accounted for 40-60% of the variance in illness severity scores among patients presenting to the ED with sepsis. HRV, as reflected in LFnu and the LF/HF ratio and measured with a single brief (5-minute) period of monitoring while in the ED, may provide the emergency physician with a readily available, noninvasive, early marker of illness severity. The threshold effect of LFnu and LF/HF in the prediction of early clinical deterioration was an unexpected finding and should be regarded as hypothesis-generating, pending further study. [source]

    Inducible gene expression with the Tet-on system in CD4+ T cells and thymocytes of mice

    Jisen Huai
    Abstract CD4+ T cells with their growing list of effector and regulatory subpopulations have vital functions within the immunohematopoietic system. We report here on the first mouse lines that allow temporally and quantitatively controlled expression of transgenes specifically in CD4+ thymocytes and T cells. These were constructed using the Tet-on system. The rtTA2S -M2 version of the reverse tetracycline-dependent transactivator was placed under control of all known CD4 regulatory elements. Reporter transgene expression in mice expressing these constructs is highly specific for CD4+ cells, is strictly dependent on the tetracycline derivative doxycycline, and can be regulated by up to five logs depending on the doxycycline concentration. Moreover, we demonstrate that these mice can be used for noninvasive in vivo imaging of a coexpressed luciferase reporter. These new mouse lines should be highly valuable for studying and manipulating numerous aspects of CD4+ T cell development, biology, and function. genesis 45:427,431, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    In vivo observation of the locomotion of microglial cells in the retina

    GLIA, Issue 14 2010
    Michel Paques
    Abstract Microglial cells (MCs) are active sensors and reactive phagocytes of neural tissues. They are known to migrate and accumulate in areas of neuronal damage. Thus, microglial locomotion is an essential feature of the inflammatory reaction in neural tissue. Yet, to our knowledge there has been no report of direct in vivo observation of the migration of MCs. Here, we show that intravitreally injected cyanine dyes (DiO, DiI, and indocyanine green) are sequestrated in MCs during several months, and subsequently in vivo images of these fluorescent MCs can be obtained by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. This enabled noninvasive, time-lapse observation of the migrating behavior of MCs, both in the basal state and following laser damage. In the basal state, a slow, intermittent, random-like locomotion was observed. Following focal laser damage, MCs promptly (i.e., within 1 h) initiated centripetal, convergent migration. MCs up to 400 ,m away migrated into the scar at velocities up to 7 ,m/min. This early phase of centripetal migration was followed by a more prolonged phase of nontargeted locomotion around and within injured sites during at least 24 h. Cyanine-positive cells persisted within the scar during several weeks. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo observation of the locomotion of individual MCs. Our results show that the locomotion of MCs is not limited to translocation to acutely damaged area, but may also be observed in the basal state and after completion of the recruitment of MCs into scars. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Bioreactance: A new tool for cardiac output and thoracic fluid content monitoring during hemodialysis

    Niloufar KOSSARI
    Abstract Outpatient hemodialysis therapy (HD) can be associated with hemodynamic compromise. Bioreactance® has recently been shown to provide accurate, noninvasive, continuous, measurements of cardiac output (CO) and thoracic impedance (Zo) from which thoracic fluid content (TFC) can be derived assuming TFC=1000/Zo. This study was designed to evaluate the changes in TFC in comparison with the traditional indices of fluid removal (FR) and to understand the trends in CO changes in HD patients. Minute-by-minute changes in TFC and CO were prospectively collected using the bioreactance system (NICOM®) in HD patients of a single unit. Changes in body weight (,W), hematocrit (,Hct), and amount of FR were also measured. Twenty-five patients (age 77 ± 11 years) were included. The TFC decreased in all patients by an average of 5.4 ± 7.9 k,,1, weight decreased by 1.48 ± 0.98 kg, and FR averaged 2.07 ± 1.93 L over a 3- to 4-hour HD session. There were good correlations between ,TFC and ,W (R=0.80, P<0.0001) and FR (R=0.85, P<0.0001). ,Hct (4.13 ± 3.42%) was poorly correlated with ,TFC (R=0.35, P=0.12) and FR (R=0.40, P=0.07). The regression line between FR and TFC yielded FR=1.0024,0.1985TFC; thus, a 1 k,,1 change of Zo correlates with an ,200 mL change in total body water. The change in CO (,0.52 ± 0.49 L/min m2) during HD did not correlate with FR (R=0.15, P=NS). Changes in TFC represented the monitored variable most closely related to FR. CO remained fairly constant in this stable patient cohort. Further studies in high-risk patients are warranted to understand whether TFC and CO monitoring can improve HD session management. [source]

    Noninvasive diagnosis and monitoring of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: Present and future,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
    Anna Wieckowska
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the United States, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. It currently affects approximately 30% of adults and 10% of children in the United States. NAFLD represents a wide spectrum of conditions ranging from simple fatty liver which in general follows a benign nonprogressive clinical course, to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is a more serious form of NAFLD that may progress to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. At present, a liver biopsy remains the only reliable way to diagnose NASH and establish the presence of fibrosis. Current noninvasive clinically available tests lack accuracy and reliability. In light of the dramatic increase in the prevalence of NAFLD in conjunction with the significant research effort in developing novel therapies for patients with NASH, noninvasive, simple, reproducible, and reliable biomarkers are greatly needed. They will not only help in the diagnosis of NASH, but also be useful for assessment of treatment response and prognosis and remain a research priority in the NAFLD field. (HEPATOLOGY 2007;46:582,589.) [source]

    Laser Doppler flowmetry in endodontics: a review

    H. Jafarzadeh
    Abstract Vascular supply is the most accurate marker of pulp vitality. Tests for assessing vascular supply that rely on the passage of light through a tooth have been considered as possible methods for detecting pulp vitality. Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), which is a noninvasive, objective, painless, semi-quantitative method, has been shown to be reliable for measuring pulpal blood flow. The relevant literature on LDF in the context of endodontics up to March 2008 was reviewed using PubMed and MEDLINE database searches. This search identified papers published between June 1983 and March 2008. Laser light is transmitted to the pulp by means of a fibre optic probe. Scattered light from moving red blood cells will be frequency-shifted whilst that from the static tissue remains unshifted. The reflected light, composed of Doppler-shifted and unshifted light, is returned by afferent fibres and a signal is produced. This technique has been successfully employed for estimating pulpal vitality in adults and children, differential diagnosis of apical radiolucencies (on the basis of pulp vitality), examining the reactions to pharmacological agents or electrical and thermal stimulation, and monitoring of pulpal responses to orthodontic procedures and traumatic injuries. Assessments may be highly susceptible to environmental and technique-related factors. Nonpulpal signals, principally from periodontal blood flow, may contaminate the signal. Because this test produces no noxious stimuli, apprehensive or distressed patients accept it more readily than current methods of pulp vitality assessment. A review of the literature and a discussion of the application of this system in endodontics are presented. [source]

    New method of dynamic color doppler signal quantification in metastatic lymph nodes compared to direct polarographic measurements of tissue oxygenation

    Thomas Scholbach
    Abstract Tumor growth depends on sufficient blood and oxygen supply. Hypoxia stimulates neovascularization and is a known cause for radio- and chemoresistance. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of a novel ultrasound technique for the dynamic assessment of vascularization and oxygenation in metastatic lymph nodes. Twenty-four patients (age 44,78 years) with cervical lymph node metastases of squamous cell head and neck cancer were investigated by color duplex sonography and 17 (age 46,78 years) were investigated additionally with polarography. Sonography was performed after contrast enhancer infusion under defined conditions. Intranodal perfusion data (color hue, colored area) were measured automatically by a novel software technique. This allows an evaluation of blood flow dynamics by calculating perfusion intensity,velocity, perfused area, as well as the novel parameters tissue resistance index (TRI) and tissue pulsatility index (TPI),for each point of a complete heart cycle. Tumor tissue pO2 was measured by means of polarographic needle electrodes placed intranodally. The sonographic and polarographic data were correlated using Pearson's test. Sonography demonstrated a statistically significant inverse correlation between hypoxia and perfusion and significant TPI and TRI changes with different N-stages. The percentage of nodal fraction with less than 10 mmHg oxygen saturation was significantly inversely correlated with lymph node perfusion (r = ,0.551; p = 0.021). Nodes with a perfusion of less than 0.05 cm/sec flow velocity showed significantly larger hypoxic areas (p = 0.006). Significant differences of TPI and TRI existed between nodes in stage N1 and N2/N3 (p = 0.028 and 0.048, respectively). This new method of dynamic signal quantification allows a noninvasive and quantitative assessment of tumor and metastatic lymph node perfusion by means of commonly available ultrasound equipment. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Surgical pearl: tissue forceps as a simple and effective instrument for treating skin tags

    Consultant Dermatologist, Muhammed Mukhtar MD
    Skin tags are one of the most common, benign, disfiguring tumors on the flexural aspects of the body of advanced aged and obese people, with higher incidences in females. Various treatment modalities have been advocated for the tags. Even a simple, noninvasive and fast cryotechnique requires approximately 1,3 min for a single skin tag. To hasten the treatment of the tags, tissue forceps have been used as an effective, fast, simple instrument. By utilizing the tissue forceps, 37 skin tags at different parts of body have been treated successfully without cosmetic defects or recurrences at the sites. [source]

    The Effect of Dementia on Outcomes and Process of Care for Medicare Beneficiaries Admitted with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Frank A. Sloan PhD
    Objectives: To determine differences in mortality after admission for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and in use of noninvasive and invasive treatments for AMI between patients with and without dementia. Design: Retrospective chart review. Setting: Cooperative Cardiovascular Project. Patients: Medicare patients admitted for AMI (N=129,092) in 1994 and 1995. Measurements: Dementia noted on medical chart as history of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, chronic confusion, or senility. Outcome measures included mortality at 30 days and 1-year postadmission; use of aspirin, beta-blocker, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, thrombolytic therapy, cardiac catheterization, coronary angioplasty, and cardiac bypass surgery compared by dementia status. Results: Dementia was associated with higher mortality at 30 days (relative risk (RR)=1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.09,1.22) and at 1-year postadmission (RR=1.18, 95% CI=1.13,1.23). There were few to no differences in the use of aspirin and beta-blockers between patients with and without a history of dementia. Patients with a history of dementia were less likely to receive ACE inhibitors during the stay (RR=0.89, 95% CI=0.86,0.93) or at discharge (RR=0.90, 95% CI=0.86,0.95), thrombolytic therapy (RR=0.82, 95% CI=0.74,0.90), catheterization (RR=0.51, 95% CI=0.47,0.55), coronary angioplasty (RR=0.58, 95% CI=0.51,0.66), and cardiac bypass surgery (RR=0.41, 95% CI=0.33,0.50) than patients without a history of dementia. Conclusion: The results imply that the presence of dementia had a major effect on mortality and care patterns for this condition. [source]

    Prevention of Postmenopausal Bone Loss by a Low-Magnitude, High-Frequency Mechanical Stimuli: A Clinical Trial Assessing Compliance, Efficacy, and Safety,

    Clinton Rubin
    Abstract A 1-year prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial of 70 postmenopausal women demonstrated that brief periods (<20 minutes) of a low-level (0.2g, 30 Hz) vibration applied during quiet standing can effectively inhibit bone loss in the spine and femur, with efficacy increasing significantly with greater compliance, particularly in those subjects with lower body mass. Introduction: Indicative of the anabolic potential of mechanical stimuli, animal models have demonstrated that short periods (<30 minutes) of low-magnitude vibration (<0.3g), applied at a relatively high frequency (20,90 Hz), will increase the number and width of trabeculae, as well as enhance stiffness and strength of cancellous bone. Here, a 1-year prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial in 70 women, 3,8 years past the menopause, examined the ability of such high-frequency, low-magnitude mechanical signals to inhibit bone loss in the human. Materials and Methods: Each day, one-half of the subjects were exposed to short-duration (two 10-minute treatments/day), low-magnitude (2.0 m/s2 peak to peak), 30-Hz vertical accelerations (vibration), whereas the other half stood for the same duration on placebo devices. DXA was used to measure BMD at the spine, hip, and distal radius at baseline, and 3, 6, and 12 months. Fifty-six women completed the 1-year treatment. Results and Conclusions: The detection threshold of the study design failed to show any changes in bone density using an intention-to-treat analysis for either the placebo or treatment group. Regression analysis on the a priori study group demonstrated a significant effect of compliance on efficacy of the intervention, particularly at the lumbar spine (p = 0.004). Posthoc testing was used to assist in identifying various subgroups that may have benefited from this treatment modality. Evaluating those in the highest quartile of compliance (86% compliant), placebo subjects lost 2.13% in the femoral neck over 1 year, whereas treatment was associated with a gain of 0.04%, reflecting a 2.17% relative benefit of treatment (p = 0.06). In the spine, the 1.6% decrease observed over 1 year in the placebo group was reduced to a 0.10% loss in the active group, indicating a 1.5% relative benefit of treatment (p = 0.09). Considering the interdependence of weight, the spine of lighter women (<65 kg), who were in the highest quartile of compliance, exhibited a relative benefit of active treatment of 3.35% greater BMD over 1 year (p = 0.009); for the mean compliance group, a 2.73% relative benefit in BMD was found (p = 0.02). These preliminary results indicate the potential for a noninvasive, mechanically mediated intervention for osteoporosis. This non-pharmacologic approach represents a physiologically based means of inhibiting the decline in BMD that follows menopause, perhaps most effectively in the spine of lighter women who are in the greatest need of intervention. [source]

    Quantity and Quality of Trabecular Bone in the Femur Are Enhanced by a Strongly Anabolic, Noninvasive Mechanical Intervention

    Clinton Rubin Ph.D.
    Abstract The skeleton's sensitivity to mechanical stimuli represents a critical determinant of bone mass and morphology. We have proposed that the extremely low level (<10 microstrain), high frequency (20-50 Hz) mechanical strains, continually present during even subtle activities such as standing are as important to defining the skeleton as the larger strains typically associated with vigorous activity (>2000 microstrain). If these low-level strains are indeed anabolic, then this sensitivity could serve as the basis for a biomechanically based intervention for osteoporosis. To evaluate this hypothesis, the hindlimbs of adult female sheep were stimulated for 20 minutes/day using a noninvasive 0.3g vertical oscillation sufficient to induce approximately 5 microstrain on the cortex of the tibia. After 1 year of stimulation, the physical properties of 10-mm cubes of trabecular bone from the distal femoral condyle of experimental animals (n = 8) were compared with controls (n = 9), as evaluated using microcomputed tomography (,CT) scanning and materials testing. Bone mineral content (BMC) was 10.6% greater (p < 0.05), and the trabecular number (Tb.N) was 8.3% higher in the experimental animals (p < 0.01), and trabecular spacing decreased by 11.3% (p < 0.01), indicating that bone quantity was increased both by the creation of new trabeculae and the thickening of existing trabeculae. The trabecular bone pattern factor (TBPf) decreased 24.2% (p < 0.03), indicating trabecular morphology adapting from rod shape to plate shape. Significant increases in stiffness and strength were observed in the longitudinal direction (12.1% and 26.7%, respectively; both, p < 0.05), indicating that the adaptation occurred primarily in the plane of weightbearing. These results show that extremely low level mechanical stimuli improve both the quantity and the quality of trabecular bone. That these deformations are several orders of magnitude below those peak strains which arise during vigorous activity indicates that this biomechanically based signal may serve as an effective intervention for osteoporosis. [source]

    Perspective: Reconsidering the Effects of Antiresorptive Therapies in Reducing Osteoporotic Fracture

    C. H. Chesnut III
    Abstract Concepts of what constitutes osteoporosis have evolved from the single criterion of low bone mass to a more inclusive consideration of bone strength, based on both quantity and quality. The evidence driving this shift is drawn from many sources. For example, recent studies of bone geometry have shown what engineers have always known: material properties and structural strength are inseparable. Genetic factors also argue against a one-dimensional (1D) view of osteoporosis. Large-scale family studies present a strong case for genetic influences on bone mass and predisposition to fracture. The contribution of aging to fracture risk has long been known, but we are only now beginning to understand what happens to bone remodeling and microstructure in an aging skeleton. The recognition that osteoporosis is far more complex than previously thought suggests that factors in addition to bone mineral density (BMD) may be useful for evaluating bone fragility and therapeutic effectiveness. Although assessment of BMD is noninvasive and widely available, the degree of increase in BMD alone fails to account for the broader effectiveness of antiresorptive agents in reducing the risk of fractures related to osteoporosis. Indeed, the very multiplicity of factors that determine fracture risk implies that response to therapy may be equally complex. Studies of response to antiresorptive agents and the cellular processes they induce are at best preliminary at this time. Although new technologies have been applied to studying bone microarchitecture, their invasive nature limits wide use. New methods are needed to provide insight into the causes and effects of bone fragility. The definition of osteoporosis, meanwhile, must still be considered a work in progress. [source]

    Intraoperative Comparison of a Subthreshold Test Pulse with the Standard High-Energy Shock Approach for the Measurement of Defibrillation Lead Impedance

    There are two methods to measure shocking lead impedance: delivery of high-energy shocks that require patient sedation, and the painless measurement of impedance from subthreshold test pulses. The aim of this study was to compare the two methods. Methods: The study included 131 patients implanted with a standard DR (n = 71) or VR (n = 60) ICD connected to either single-coil (n = 39) or dual-coil (n = 92) defibrillation leads. The noninvasive high-energy impedance test was done using a 17 J shock after induction of ventricular tachyarrhythmias and compared to a 0.4 ,J test pulse used by the ICD for the subthreshold measurements. Results: Defibrillation lead impedance measurements were not significantly different between patients with the same shocking vector configuration. In patients with a single-coil defibrillation lead the impedance was 62 ± 9 , with the high-energy shock and 62 ± 8 , with the subthreshold test pulses (P = 0.13). Patients with a dual-coil configuration recorded average impedances of 40 ± 5 , from both tests (P = 0.44). While there was no difference in values recorded within each lead configuration, there was a significant difference in impedance between the single-coil and the dual-coil patient groups (P = 0.001). Conclusions: There was no significant difference between shocking lead impedances measured with the high-energy shock or the subthreshold test pulses. This offers the possibility of noninvasive, low-energy serial measurements of shocking lead impedance at follow-up visits and removing the need for sedation. [source]

    Preoperative cardiac risk stratification 2007: Evolving evidence, evolving strategies

    FACP, Steven L. Cohn MD
    Abstract Various guidelines and risk indices have optimized cardiac risk stratification, and the emphasis has shifted to reducing perioperative risk. This review is an update on invasive (CABG/PCI) and noninvasive (medical therapy with beta-blockers, alpha-agonists, and statins) strategies to reduce cardiac risk for noncardiac surgery and the controversies surrounding their use. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2007;2:174,180. © 2007 Society of Hospital Medicine. [source]

    MRI in fetal necropsy

    FRCR, Jocelyn S. Brookes MB
    Abstract The fetal autopsy involves a series of investigations of the corpse, most of which are noninvasive and acceptable to the majority of parents and their physicians. The value of the perinatal autopsy is manyfold and well established, and the results can provide a basis for parental and family counseling, inform future obstetric management, and provide audit for prenatal care. Many techniques originally developed for diagnosis, such as histology, biochemical tests, photography, x-rays, and cytogenetic karyotyping, have become standard tools in perinatal autopsies. However, there has been an inexorable decline in the autopsy consent rate over the last 30 years due to social and cultural factors, and perhaps ignorance of the benefits to be derived from the examination. Growing evidence suggests that postmortem fetal MRI can assist the pathologist at autopsy, and in many cases can obviate the need for dissection or at least minimize and focus it. For the majority of cases in which no consent for surgical autopsy is given, MRI together with other noninvasive postmortem tests can provide a great deal of the information that was previously available only from autopsy. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging as a surrogate marker of tumor response to anti-angiogenic therapy in a xenograft model of glioblastoma multiforme

    Axel Gossmann MD
    Abstract Purpose To evaluate the effects of a neutralizing anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) antibody on tumor microvascular permeability, a proposed indicator of angiogenesis, and tumor growth in a rodent malignant glioma model. Materials and Methods A dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, permitting noninvasive in vivo and in situ assessment of potential therapeutic effects, was used to measure tumor microvascular characteristics and volumes. U-87, a cell line derived from a human glioblastoma multiforme, was implanted orthotopically into brains of athymic homozygous nude rats. Results Treatment with the monoclonal antibody A4.6.1, specific for VEGF, significantly inhibited tumor microvascular permeability (6.1 ± 3.6 mL min,1100 cc,1), compared to the control, saline-treated tumors (28.6 ± 8.6 mL min,1100 cc,1), and significantly suppressed tumor growth (P < .05). Conclusion Findings demonstrate that tumor vascular permeability and tumor growth can be inhibited by neutralization of endogenous VEGF and suggest that angiogenesis with the maintenance of endothelial hyperpermeability requires the presence of VEGF within the tissue microenvironment. Changes in tumor vessel permeability and tumor volumes as measured by contrast-enhanced MRI provide an assay that could prove useful for clinical monitoring of anti-angiogenic therapies in brain tumors. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2002;15:233,240. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Isotropic Component Trace Analysis

    Hitoshi Matsuzawa MD
    ABSTRACT A new method for analyzing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the brain, based on a recently introduced algorithm, lambda chart analysis (LCA), is presented. Pretreatment of a given DTI data set with LCA, which effectively segregates isotropic and aniso tropic components, allows for total removal of the anisotropic component from the DTI data set. The remaining pure isotropic component can therefore be subjected to further analysis simi lar to that applied in the trace histogram method. Deconvolution of the trace function yielded 3 Gaussian elements. Remapping of these 3 deconvoluted isotropic elements back onto the 2-dimensional image plane provided anatomical correlates of each element. The algorithm, referred to here as isotropic com ponent trace analysis, can be used as a pictorial analytic tool, as well as a numerical analytical tool, for the noninvasive assess ment of isotropic parenchymal components. The presented method provides quantitative indices of certain parenchymal parameters with better clarity than currently available methods. A ready-to-use program, EZ-LCA, for this powerful method is provided (available at [source]

    Intranasal delivery to the central nervous system: Mechanisms and experimental considerations

    Shyeilla V. Dhuria
    Abstract The blood,brain barrier (BBB) limits the distribution of systemically administered therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS), posing a significant challenge to drug development efforts to treat neurological and psychiatric diseases and disorders. Intranasal delivery is a noninvasive and convenient method that rapidly targets therapeutics to the CNS, bypassing the BBB and minimizing systemic exposure. This review focuses on the current understanding of the mechanisms underlying intranasal delivery to the CNS, with a discussion of pathways from the nasal cavity to the CNS involving the olfactory and trigeminal nerves, the vasculature, the cerebrospinal fluid, and the lymphatic system. In addition to the properties of the therapeutic, deposition of the drug formulation within the nasal passages and composition of the formulation can influence the pathway a therapeutic follows into the CNS after intranasal administration. Experimental factors, such as head position, volume, and method of administration, and formulation parameters, such as pH, osmolarity, or inclusion of permeation enhancers or mucoadhesives, can influence formulation deposition within the nasal passages and pathways followed into the CNS. Significant research will be required to develop and improve current intranasal treatments and careful consideration should be given to the factors discussed in this review. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 99: 1654,1673, 2010 [source]