non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (non-hodgkin + lymphoma)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

  • b-cell non-hodgkin lymphoma
  • primary non-hodgkin lymphoma

  • Selected Abstracts

    Immunocytochemical typing of primary tumors on fine-needle aspiration cytologies of lymph nodes

    Alexandre Sherlley Casimiro Onofre M.Sc.
    Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the role of immunocytochemistry as an ancillary method on routine FNACs of enlarged lymph nodes, using different markers. In a validating cohort study all patients had confirmatory histological and/or clinical follow-up. 10 FNACs were analyzed for the differentiation of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) from metastatic carcinoma (MC), 30 cases to identify the sites of metastatic unknown primary tumors and 16 cases were checked to confirm clinical suspicion of a specific MC. Accuracy to differentiate NHL from MC was 100%, 92.3% to identify a primary tumor site of MC, and 100% to confirm a clinical suspicion of a specific MC. In 7 cases, the site of the primary tumor remained clinically unknown. Application of immunocytochemical markers on the same slide used for microscopic diagnosis is a useful tool in the routine assessment of FNACs of lymph nodes. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2008;36:207,215. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Primary Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma of the Skull Base Presenting with Garcin Syndrome: MRI Manifestations

    Ayami Nakamura MD
    ABSTRACT Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the skull base is a rare disorder. We report a case of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the skull base presenting with Garcin syndrome. MRI revealed peculiar lesions in the cavernous sinus, clivus, and occipital bone. Diagnosis was made by biopsy of the tumor in the cavernous sinus. [source]

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder after pediatric liver transplantation: Characteristics and outcome

    María C. Fernández
    Abstract:,Purpose:, Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder (PTLD) is a life threatening complication in organ transplant recipients. Risk factors include primary Epstein-Barr virus infection, intensity of immunosupression and cytomegalovirus infection. Objectives:, To evaluate the incidence, clinical presentation, risk factors, histopathologic appearance and outcome of pediatric liver recipients with PTLD at our institution. Method:, Retrospective, descriptive and observational analysis. Between November 1992 and December 2005, 383 liver transplants were performed. The diagnosis of PTLD was based on clinical history and physical examination and confirmed by histologic appearance and immunohistologic staining. Knowles' classification was used for histopathologic diagnosis. Results:, The incidence of PTLD was 5.7% (n: 22p). The average onset after tansplantation (OLT) was 24.9 months. Clinical manifestations were malaise, anorexia, fever of more than 3 days, peripheral adenopathy, tonsillar hypertrophy, abdominal mass, hepatosplenomegaly, snoring, interstitial pulmonary infiltrate, G.T.-tract bleeding, rash, submaxilar mass. Histopathologic diagnosis were Plasmocytic Hyperplasia (n: 10), Polymorphic Lymphoproliferative Disorder (n: 8), Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (n: 4). Mortality was 18%. Conclusion:, The clinical presentations were protean and not specific. A high index of suspicion is important for early diagnosis as it correlates with more benign lesions and more favorable outcume. The lower mortality rate in our series is concordant with that reported in more recent articles. [source]

    Hematological malignancies in the island of Sardinia, 1974,1993: age and sex distributions and temporal changes in incidence

    G. Broccia
    Abstract We have collected, by an active retrospective survey, all the cases of hematologic malignancies (HM) newly diagnosed during the time period 1974,1993 in the resident population of Sardinia. Diagnosis was deemed valid, after consultation of clinical records, in more than 90% of the 7264 collected cases. The number of newly diagnosed cases by year more than doubled during the 20-year period investigated. This striking increase can be only partially accounted for by ageing of population. Indeed, age-specific and age-adjusted rates of most of HM increased during this period, although Hodgkin Disease (HD), Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) were notable exceptions. The observed increase in rates is likely, in a large part, to be fictitious, due to easier access to a health care system, which in the meantime, improved its diagnostic efficiency. This was particularly evident for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL), Multiple Myeloma (MM) and some others myelo- and lympho-proliferative disorders, but its relevance declined after 1984,1989. A likely true increase in occurrence was evidenced for Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL) and similarly, although to a lesser extent and more doubtful, for Myelodysplasias (MDS) and Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). At the end of the studied period each type of HM presented age and sex distributions and age-adjusted rates that show only minor differences from those reported for other western countries. No argument emerged to suggest that any genetic peculiarities of the Sardinian population might have affected the occurrence of HM. The confounding effects of improved diagnostic efficiency have prevented a reliable assessment of influence on incidences of environmental and socio-economic changes that, in relatively recent times, have occurred in Sardinia. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Nuclear morphometry and texture analysis of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: Utility in subclassification on cytosmears

    Shilpa Gupta M.D.
    Abstract Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a heterogeneous group of lymphoid neoplasms and accurate subclassification is an essential prerequisite for proper management of patients. This study was aimed at evaluating the utility of nuclear morphometry and textural features on cytology smears to classify the cases of NHL on aspiration cytology. Fine needle aspiration smears of 50 cases of B-cell NHL were included. Various morphometric and texture parameters were obtained by manually tracing the nuclei on digitized images in each case and discriminant analysis performed using various features taken individually as well as all together. The percentage of cells correctly classified to a particular NHL subtype using the discriminant functions so obtained was noted. Our results show that discriminant analysis done on size parameters could correctly classify a greater number of cells than on shape parameters (36.4% vs. 21.2%, respectively). Texture parameters based on single pixel values (first order texture) were inferior (42.8%) to those based on pair of pixels (58.7%) in subtyping of cells. Discriminant analysis based on color parameters was more effective (61.9%) as compared to rest of the morphometric and textural parameters. Using all the morphometric and textural parameters together, 83.3% of cells could be correctly classified to a particular NHL subtype. The present study, perhaps the first study of detailed morphometric analysis on cytosmears, shows that satisfactory classification of NHL on aspiration cytology is possible using nuclear morphometry and textural parameters considered together. These results are promising for further studies on this subject and development of automated cytodiagnosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma preceded by recalcitrant eczema

    Ken Natsuga
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    High-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation for children with HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER, Issue 7 2007
    Simon Fluri MD
    Abstract In contrast to adults, autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) as part of the salvage strategy after high-dose chemo/radiotherapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is not yet established for children. We report on a 13-year patient with congenital HIV infection and refractory Burkitt lymphoma, who was successfully treated by high-dose therapy (HDT) including rituximab followed by ASCT. After 26 months follow-up the patient remains in complete remission and his HIV parameters have normalized with continued highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). HIV infection may no longer exclude children from ASCT as part of salvage therapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2007;49:984,987. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    T-Cell lymphoblastic lymphoma presenting as bilateral multinodular breast masses: A case report and review of the literature

    Efsevia Vakiani
    Abstract Non-Hodgkin lymphoma of T-cell lineage involving the breast is rare. We report on a 41-year-old woman with T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma who presented with multiple bilateral breast masses. The patient was treated with intensive chemotherapy and mediastinal and whole-brain irradiation. She remains in complete remission 24 months after diagnosis. The clinical, histologic, phenotypic, and cytogenetic features are described, with a review of the literature. Am. J. Hematol. 80:216,222, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Ophthalmic lymphoma: epidemiology and pathogenesis

    ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, Issue thesis1 2009
    Lene Dissing Sjö
    Abstract With a lifetime risk of 1% and 700 new cases per year, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the seventh most frequent type of cancer in Denmark. The incidence of NHL has increased considerably in Western countries over the last decades; consequently, NHL is an increasing clinical problem. Ophthalmic lymphoma, (lymphoma localized in the ocular region, i.e. eyelid, conjunctiva, lacrimal sac, lacrimal gland, orbit, or intraocularly) is relatively uncommon, accounting for 5%,10% of all extranodal lymphomas. It is, however, the most common orbital malignancy. The purpose of this thesis was to review specimens from all Danish patients with a diagnosis of ophthalmic lymphoma during the period 1980,2005, in order to determine the distribution of lymphoma subtypes, and the incidence- and time trends in incidence for ophthalmic lymphoma. Furthermore, an extended analysis of the most frequent subtype, extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (MALT lymphoma), was done to analyse clinical factors and cytogenetic changes with influence on prognosis. A total of 228 Danish patients with a biopsy-reviewed verified diagnosis of ocular adnexal-, orbital-, or intraocular lymphoma were identified. We found that more than 50% of orbital- and ocular adnexal lymphomas were of the MALT lymphoma subtype, whereas diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) predominated intraocularly (Sjo et al. 2008a). Furthermore, lymphoma arising in the lacrimal sac was surprisingly predominantly DLBCL (Sjo et al. 2006). Incidence rates were highly dependent on patient age. There was an increase in incidence rates for the whole population from 1980 to 2005, corresponding to an annual average increase of 3.4% (Sjo et al. 2008a). MALT lymphoma arising in the ocular region was found in 116 patients (Sjo et al. 2008b). One third of patients had a relapse or progression of disease after initial therapy and relapses were frequently found at extra-ocular sites. Overall survival, however, was not significantly poorer for patients with relapse. Furthermore, we found that the frequency of translocations involving the MALT1- and IGH-gene loci is low in ocular region MALT lymphoma (2 of 42, 5%), but may predict increased risk of relapse (Sjo et al. 2008b). In conclusion the incidence of ophthalmic lymphoma is increasing at a high rate in Denmark. Ophthalmic lymphoma consists primarily of MALT lymphoma. The molecular pathogenesis of MALT lymphoma arising in the ocular region rarely involves translocations in the MALT1- and IGH-gene loci. [source]

    Genetic and Environmental Risk Indicators in Canine Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas: Breed Associations and Geographic Distribution of 608 Cases Diagnosed throughout France over 1 Year

    M. Pastor
    Background: The etiology of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) is multifactorial. Environmental and genetic factors are frequently incriminated both in humans and dogs. Objectives: Our purpose was to study the geographic distribution of canine NHL (CNHL) in France and to evaluate genetic and environmental influences. Animals: Six hundred and eight cases of CNHL, diagnosed throughout France over 1 year, were collected from 7 Veterinary Histopathologic Laboratories. Methods: Retrospective study. Breeds affected by lymphomas were compared with the national population and associations between breed and immunophenotype were studied. The distribution of CNHL and canine T-cell NHL per 100,000 dogs per department was compared with the distribution of waste incinerators, polluted sites, and radioactive waste. Results: The breeds significantly overrepresented among lymphoma cases were Boxer, Setter, and Cocker Spaniel (P < .001). There was a significant association between Boxer and T-cell NHL (P < .001), and between German Shepherd and Rottweiler and B-cell NHL (P < .01). The geographic distribution of CNHL and canine T-cell NHL indicated significant heterogeneity. Significant association between distributions of CNHL and waste incinerators (,= 0.25, P < .05), polluted sites (,= 0.36, P < .001), and radioactive waste (,= 0.51, P < .001) was found. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Influence of genetics in the development of CNHL was supported by the existence of an association between breed and immunophenotype. Waste incinerators, polluted sites, and radioactive waste could just be considered as risk indicators of CNHL, but not as risk factors. Case-control studies around critical sites are necessary to confirm the implication of those environmental factors in the development of CNHL. [source]

    Role of ancillary techniques in diagnosing and subclassifying non-Hodgkin's lymphomas on fine needle aspiration cytology

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
    P. DeyArticle first published online: 8 SEP 200
    Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) are tumours of the lymphoid cells. During the process of development of lymphoid cells, neoplasia may evolve at any point. Neoplastic cells usually carry the imprint of cell of origin at the stage of origin. Various types of NHL may have similar morphology with wide variation in origin, immunophenotype and other biological features. Different ancillary laboratory techniques may help to overcome the limitations of morphology in this aspect. The commonly used ancillary techniques in lymphomas are immunocytochemistry (IC), flow cytometry, Southern blot (SB) technique, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). In addition, laser scanning cytometry (LSC) and DNA microarray technologies are in the research phase. Various laboratory techniques are used for immunophenotyping, demonstration of monoclonality, identification of chromosomal translocation, assessment of cell kinetics and expression of mRNA in the tumour cells. Flow cytometry helps in rapid immunophenotying of NHL and it has an added advantage over IC in recognizing the co-expression of CD markers. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) combined with flow immunophenotyping may help us to diagnose and subclassify certain NHLs, such as follicular lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma, which were previously recognized as pure morphological entities. Loss of morphology is one of the important limitations of flow cytometry. LSC can overcome this limitation by studying morphology along with the immunophenotyping pattern of individual cells. Chromosomal changes in NHL can be identified by SB, PCR and FISH. Molecular diagnosis of NHL helps in diagnosis, subclassification, prognostic assessment and even in planning of therapy. DNA microarray is a relatively newer and promising technology. It gives information about the expression of several thousands of genes in a tumour in a single experiment. In the near future, FNAC combined with ancillary techniques may play a major role in diagnosis, subclassification and management of lymphomas. [source]

    Parotid gland involvement in advanced AIDS

    ORAL DISEASES, Issue 2 2003
    PA Vargas
    OBJECTIVE: ,This study describes the involvement and the histological alterations found in the parotid glands of 100 patients who died with AIDS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ,Sex, age, CD4 cell count and clinical history were obtained from the files of 100 patients who died with AIDS. Histological analysis of the parotid glands was performed using H&E, Gomori,Grocott, Ziehl,Neelsen and Mucicarmine. Histological findings were grouped in reactive, infectious, cystic, neoplastic and concomitant lesions. RESULTS: ,None of the patients presented complaints or symptoms related to salivary gland alterations prior to death. The mean age of the patients and CD4 cell count were 36.4 years and 76.07 cells ,l ,1 , respectively. Histological alterations of the parotid glands were found in 51% of the patients. The most common alteration was non-specific chronic sialadenitis (29 cases), followed by infectious conditions (22 cases). Mycobacteriosis was the most common infectious disease (10 cases), followed by cytomegalovirus (nine cases), cryptococcosis (three cases) and histoplasmosis (two cases). Lymphoepithelial cysts occurred in six cases, Warthin's tumor and non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in one case each. CONCLUSIONS: ,These results indicate that infection and other lesions in the parotid glands are more frequent than hitherto described in the specialized literature in AIDS patients. Clinicians should consider parotid gland involvement, when evaluating disease extension in advanced AIDS patients. [source]

    Nuclear morphometry and texture analysis of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: Utility in subclassification on cytosmears

    Shilpa Gupta M.D.
    Abstract Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a heterogeneous group of lymphoid neoplasms and accurate subclassification is an essential prerequisite for proper management of patients. This study was aimed at evaluating the utility of nuclear morphometry and textural features on cytology smears to classify the cases of NHL on aspiration cytology. Fine needle aspiration smears of 50 cases of B-cell NHL were included. Various morphometric and texture parameters were obtained by manually tracing the nuclei on digitized images in each case and discriminant analysis performed using various features taken individually as well as all together. The percentage of cells correctly classified to a particular NHL subtype using the discriminant functions so obtained was noted. Our results show that discriminant analysis done on size parameters could correctly classify a greater number of cells than on shape parameters (36.4% vs. 21.2%, respectively). Texture parameters based on single pixel values (first order texture) were inferior (42.8%) to those based on pair of pixels (58.7%) in subtyping of cells. Discriminant analysis based on color parameters was more effective (61.9%) as compared to rest of the morphometric and textural parameters. Using all the morphometric and textural parameters together, 83.3% of cells could be correctly classified to a particular NHL subtype. The present study, perhaps the first study of detailed morphometric analysis on cytosmears, shows that satisfactory classification of NHL on aspiration cytology is possible using nuclear morphometry and textural parameters considered together. These results are promising for further studies on this subject and development of automated cytodiagnosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Hodgkin's lymphoma: Diagnostic difficulties in fine-needle aspiration cytology

    D.Sc., Dilip K. Das M.B.B.S., F.R.C.Path., Ph.D.
    Abstract It is commonly believed that cytodiagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is much easier than that of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). However, recognition of certain NHL subtypes with Reed-Sternberg (R-S)-like cells and results of immunohistochemical studies point to the contrary. To study the limitations of cytology in diagnosis of HL, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) smears of 130 lymphoma or suspected lymphoma cases were reviewed. Initial and reviewed cytodiagnoses were compared with histopathology in 89 cases. Immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical studies were performed in 56 and 59 cases, respectively. Among histologically diagnosed HL cases, definitive cytodiagnosis of HL (initial as well as reviewed) was significantly less frequent than cytodiagnosis of NHL among histologically diagnosed NHL cases (P = 0.0328 and = 0.0001, respectively). On the other hand, cytologically diagnosed HL/NHL cases were significantly more frequent in the former group (P = 0.0001 and = 0.0018, respectively). ALCL and TCRBCL were the two NHL subtypes which created confusion with HL in FNA smears. Twenty-one cytohistological concordant HL cases and equal number of discordant cases were compared. When compared with discordant group, the patients in concordant group were significantly younger (P = 0.045). Hodgkin/Hodgkin-like cells and typical R-S cells were significantly more frequent in FNA smears of the concordant group (P = 0.0478 and = 0.0431, respectively). Immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical studies showed good correlation with histological diagnosis of HL. It is suggested that proper interpretation of cytologic features, together with use of immunocytochemical parameters can help in reducing the margin of error in cytodiagnois of HL. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Mixed cryoglobulinemia is associated with increased risk for death, or neoplasia in HIV-1 infection

    T. Kordossis
    Backround Cryoglobulinemia has been reported in several chronic infectious and autoimmune diseases, and in patients with HIV-1 infection. Cryoglobulinemia associated with hepatitis C virus infection is considered a risk factor for the development of neoplasia, especially B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This study was undertaken to investigate whether the presence of circulating cryoglobulins is associated with survival or development of neoplastic disease in HIV-1 infection. Design We evaluated 87 unselected consecutive HIV-1 infected patients for the presence of cryoglobulinemia and they were prospectively followed up for a median of 34 months, with clinic visits at 4-month intervals. None of the patients had neoplasia at study entry. Time-to-event analysis for death, neoplasm and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder were performed with Cox proportional hazards models. Results Mixed cryoglobulinemia (types II and III) was detected in 24 (28%) of the 87 patients. During the follow up, 12 patients died and 8 developed neoplastic disease. Multivariate analysis showed that circulating cryoglobulins were an independent predictor of death [relative risk (RR), 4·97; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1·26,19·63] and development of neoplasia (RR, 5·18; 95% CI, 1·23,21·83). In addition, cryoglobulinemia reached borderline significance as a predictor of lymphoproliferative disorder of B-cell origin (P = 0·08; RR, 4·53; 95% CI, 0·83,24·75). Conclusions Our results suggest that cryoglobulinemia is associated with an increased risk for death, neoplasia or development of lymphoproliferative disorder of B-cell origin, in HIV-1 infected patients. [source]

    Clonally related splenic marginal zone lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma with unmutated V gene rearrangements and a 15-yr time gap between diagnoses

    Richard Rosenquist
    Abstract:, Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) can rarely occur during the course of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL), where both the HL and NHL tumours have been reported to be clonally related in most of the few combination lymphomas so far investigated. We here investigated a case that developed HL 15 yr after being diagnosed with an indolent B-cell lymphoma, classified as a splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL). Analysis of rearranged immunoglobulin genes in the SMZL clone and in single Hodgkin Reed,Sternberg cells revealed presence of identical V gene rearrangements, thus demonstrating a clonal relationship. In contrast to previously described B-NHL/HL combinations, in this case both types of tumour cells carried unmutated V gene rearrangements. We conclude that the HL evolved from an unmutated tumour precursor, either the SMZL clone itself or a common earlier precursor. [source]

    ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: strong T and B anti-tumour responses may cause hypocellular aspects of lymph nodes mimicking inflammatory lesions

    B. Borisch
    Abstract: The anaplastic large cell lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma which occurs in children mostly. The ALK protein is highly immunogenic and elicits both humoral and cellular immune responses. A 15-yr-old child presented with fever and adenopathy and did not respond to antibiotics. Biopsy of the enlarged lymph node contained almost no lymphoid element except for a few CD8-positive T cells, plasma cells and isolated CD30-positive blasts. The patient's condition improved following lymphadenectomy but relapse occurred 3 months later with multiple nodes, high fever and an abdominal mass. This time an ALK-positive ALCL was diagnosed and the retrospective analysis of the initial biopsy revealed rare, isolated ALK+ cells. Molecular analysis showed T-cell clones and oligoclonal B cells in both biopsies and peripheral blood of the patient. The tumour cells harbour a t(2;5) translocation, revealing a null phenotype by immunohistochemistry and no evidence for T-cell clonality by Southern blotting. The patient's serum contained anti-ALK antibodies. Our findings suggest that the T-cell clones and anti-ALK antibodies in this patient constitute an anti-tumour response that caused the hypocellularity of the initial lymph node. Hypocellular and oedematous lymph nodes occurring in a child with evocative symptoms should be tested for the presence of ALK. [source]

    Acute isolated cerebral mucormycosis in a patient with high grade non-Hodgkins lymphoma

    M. Zarei
    A 57-year-old female in complete remission of grade IV non-Hodgkin lymphoma whilst on intensive chemotherapy, suddenly developed unilateral hemispheric stroke with a fatal outcome in 3 days. She was apyrexial and had received antifungal prophylaxis during her treatment. Post-mortem examination showed complete thrombosis of the internal carotid artery leading to infarction in the territory of the middle and anterior cerebral arteries. Microscopic examination of the brain showed involvement of intra-cranial vessel walls and brain parenchyma by mucormyces, with no evidence of systemic mucormycosis. Isolated cerebral mucormycosis is a rare occurrence, more commonly found in intravenous drug abusers, but can occur in patients with haematological malignancy. [source]

    Population-based study of cancer among carriers of a constitutional structural chromosomal rearrangement

    Iben Bache
    We measured the occurrence of cancer in an unselected cohort of carriers of constitutional structural rearrangements in virtually complete nationwide registries for cancer and constitutional cytogenetic abnormalities. We identified 4,816 carriers of a constitutional structural rearrangement in the Danish Cytogenetic Registry and searched for cancer diagnoses by linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. There was no overall increased risk for cancer among carriers (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84,1.10), and no significant difference from that expected was found in balanced and unbalanced rearrangements or in any subtypes of rearrangements. We found significantly lower risks for carriers with rearrangements involving chromosome 21 (SIR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.22,0.99) and for paternally inherited rearrangements (SIR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.06,0.88). Risk estimates for the observed type-specific cancers showed an increased risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.09,3.69). However, subgroup analyses were not guided by study hypotheses, and our statistical evaluation of the data should be looked upon as exploratory. In addition, we found 12 constitutional structural rearrangements with a breakpoint potentially associated with a cancer-related gene. Potential new loci associated with type-specific cancers were suggested by the findings of families with more than one affected carrier and by the involvement of the same cytogenetic bands in unrelated carriers. Molecular mapping of these breakpoints might provide new insight into cancer predisposition. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    High expression of B-cell receptor inducible gene BIC in all subtypes of Hodgkin lymphoma

    Anke van den Berg
    In a search for genes specifically expressed in Reed,Sternberg (RS) cells of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), we applied the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) technique on the HL-derived cell line DEV. Genes highly expressed in DEV were subjected to an RT-PCR analysis to confirm the SAGE results. For one of the genes, a high expression was observed in DEV and other HL-derived cell lines but not in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL),derived cell lines and normal controls, suggesting an HL-specific expression. This gene corresponds to the human BIC gene, a member of the noncoding mRNA-like molecules. RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) indicated an exclusive nucleolar localization of BIC transcripts in all RS cells in 91% of HL cases, including nodular lymphocyte predominance (NLP) HL and classical HL. Analyses of normal human tissues revealed BIC transcripts in only a small number of CD20-positive B-cells in lymph node and tonsil tissue, albeit at a much lower level compared to that of RS cells. BIC RT-PCR in the Burkitt lymphoma,derived cell line Ramos demonstrated a significant up-regulation upon cross-linking of the B-cell receptor (BcR). I,B,-mediated blocking of NF-,B translocation in Ramos did not effect the up-regulation of BIC expression upon BcR triggering, suggesting that activation of NF-,B is not involved in regulation of BIC expression. In summary, our data show that expression of BIC is specific for RS cells of HL. In normal tissue, BIC is expressed weakly in a minority of germinal center B cells. Expression of BIC can be modified/influenced by BcR triggering, indicating that BIC might play a role in the selection of B cells. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Molecular cytogenetic characterization of non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines

    Sukvarsha Mehra
    Spectral karyotyping (SKY) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) have greatly enhanced the resolution of cytogenetic analysis, enabling the identification of novel regions of rearrangement and amplification in tumor cells. Here we report the analysis of 10 malignant non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cell lines derived at the Ontario Cancer Institute (OCI), Toronto, designated as OCI-Ly1, OCI-Ly2, OCI-Ly3, OCI-LY4, OCI-Ly7, OCI-Ly8, OCI-Ly12, OCI-Ly13.2, OCI-Ly17, and OCI-Ly18, by G-banding, SKY, and CGH, and we present their comprehensive cytogenetic profiles. In contrast to the 52 breakpoints identified by G-banding, SKY identified 87 breakpoints, which clustered at 1q21, 7p15, 8p11, 13q21, 13q32, 14q32, 17q11, and 18q21. G-banding identified 10 translocations, including the previously described recurring translocations, t(8;14)(q24;q32) and t(14;18)(q32;q21). In contrast, SKY identified 60 translocations, including five that were recurring, t(8;14)(q24;q32), t(14;18)(q32;q21), t(4;7)(p12;q22), t(11;18)(q22;q21), and t(3;18)(q21;p11). SKY also identified the source of all the marker chromosomes. In addition, 10 chromosomes that were classified as normal by G-banding were found by SKY to be rearranged. CGH identified seven sites of high-level DNA amplification, 1q31-32, 2p12-16, 8q24, 11q23-25, 13q21-22, 13q32-34, and 18q21-23; of these, 1q31-32, 11q23-25, 13q21-22, and 13q32-34 have previously not been described as amplified in NHL. This comprehensive cytogenetic characterization of 10 NHL cell lines identified novel sites of rearrangement and amplification; it also enhances their value in experimental studies aimed at gene discovery and gene function. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Intravascular lymphoma: a neoplasm of ,homeless' lymphocytes?

    Maurilio Ponzoni
    Abstract Intravascular lymphoma (IVL) is an extremely rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by almost exclusive growth of neoplastic lymphocytes within blood vessel lumen. IVL is morphologically characterized in most instances by large cells with B-cell lineage. IVL is an aggressive and usually disseminated disease that predominantly affects elderly patients, resulting in poor PS, B-symptoms, anemia, and high lactate dehydrogenase serum level. The brain and skin are the most commonly involved sites; nodal disease is rare. Survival after conventional chemotherapy is disappointing, with a relevant impact of diagnostic delay and lethal complications. Notwithstanding these results, IVL limited to the skin (cutaneous variant) is a favorable presentation with distinctive clinical characteristics. Moreover, differences in clinical presentation with Eastern Countries IVL cases, mostly associated with hemophagocytic syndrome, do exist. Intensive combinations containing drugs with higher central nervous system bioavailability are needed in cases with brain involvement; the role of high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation should be investigated in younger patients with unfavorable features. The present review will discuss the most recent acquisitions related either to diagnosis and immunophenotypic/biologic characteristics as well as clinical/therapeutic issues of IVL. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The changing face of HIV-associated lymphoma: what can we learn about optimal therapy inl the post highly active antiretroviral therapy era?

    Alison Clayton
    Abstract Epidemiological data indicate that the risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in HIV positive individuals is related to age and CD4 count (i.e. degree of immunosuppression). The prognosis of patients with HIV-NHL has been shown to be linked to several features including age, stage, modified IPI, prior AIDS diagnosis, CD4 count, immunoblastic pathology, LDH, and HAART use. These features are, as would be expected, a mixture of prognostic factors relating to both the HIV, and to the NHL. Population studies indicate that the incidence of associated (HIV-NHL) may be reducing with the advent of HAART, although not all studies concur. However, most population-based studies have not as yet shown a significant improvement in the survival of patients with HIV-NHL with HAART. The optimal chemotherapy for these patients is unknown, although it is generally accepted that CNS prophylaxis is mandatory. There is currently no good evidence of any survival benefit with increased dose intensity from large RCT. However, it must be borne in mind that the large randomised studies comparing differing dose intensities were undertaken before the advent of effective HAART. There is some evidence that there may be a subset of good prognosis patients who may benefit from more intensive therapy.6 Given that the prognosis of patients with HIV can now be considerably improved with HAART, we cannot necessarily assume that the same results would apply with regard to chemotherapy dose intensity. There is some evidence that there is a survival benefit from the addition of HAART to chemotherapy, although this is retrospective. It is likely, however, that the reason for this is that the HAART improves the prognosis of the patients from their HIV, and therefore reduces the number of patients dying from other HIV-related illnesses whilst in remission from their lymphoma, as was seen in large numbers of patients in the earlier chemotherapy trials. It must not be forgotten that the prognosis of the patient's NHL is intimately linked to their prognosis with respect to the HIV. Although the number of patients with HIV-NHL is currently few, there is a need for more trials of chemotherapy, particularly now in the HAART era, when the prognosis from the point of view of the HIV has improved so much. In particular, the issue of dose intensity needs revisiting for patients whose overall prognosis can be improved by commencing HAART. Patients with HIV-NHL should be managed at specialist centres, and where possible should be managed as part of RCT. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the humerus following traumatic injury: case report

    V. Stemberga
    Abstract A case of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the right humerus which occurred in a 21-year-old male patient after an impact to the right shoulder in a car accident in July 1983 is described. Seventeen years after the injury, due to a civil lawsuit, the biopsy material was revised. Immunohistochemical analysis showed CD20 and CD79a positivity on large pleomorphic cells, while small reactive lymphocytes were CD3, Bcl-2 and CD20 positive. Molecular analysis carried out with PCR revealed a monoclonal B-lymphocyte population. The diagnosis of diffuse large peripheral B cell lymphoma of the bone was confirmed. The present case concurs with the literature on primary bone lymphoma, in which the diagnostic problem, trauma-related presentation and an excellent prognosis of malignant tumour are emphasized. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Decreasing mortality from non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Australia

    M. Coory
    Abstract Based on the number of new cases (incidence), non-Hodgkin lymphoma is an increasingly common cancer in Australia and many developed countries. Until recently, mortality trends have been stable or slightly increasing. However, since the year 2000, mortality has decreased every year by an average of 5.1% per year (95% confidence interval (CI) ,7.1 to ,3.1%), whereas incidence has continued to increase at 0.9% per year (95%CI 0.6 to 1.2%). It was not possible with the population-based registry data available to us to untangle the causes of the decrease in mortality. The stable mortality rates during the 1990s (in the face of increasing incidence) might have been because of introduction of novel therapies such as autologous stem cell transplant for relapsed diffuse large cell lymphoma or the purine analogue-based therapy for indolent lymphomas. A plausible explanation for the large decrease in mortality since 2000 is the introduction of the monoclonal antibody rituximab. [source]

    GBV-C/hepatitis G virus infection and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a case control study

    Mel Krajden
    Abstract We investigated whether there was an association between GBV-C viremia and the development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in 553 NHL cases and 438 controls from British Columbia, Canada. Cases were aged 20,79, diagnosed between March 2000 and February 2004, and resident in Greater Vancouver or Victoria. Cases and controls were tested for GBV-C RNA by RT-PCR and positive samples were genotyped. Overall, GBV-C RNA was detected in 4.5% of NHL cases vs. 1.8% of controls [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.22,6.69]. The association between GBV-C RNA detection and NHL remained even after individuals with a history of prior transfusion, injection drug use and hepatitis C virus sero-positivity were excluded. GBV-C viremia showed the strongest association with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (adjusted OR = 5.18, 95% CI = 2.06,13.71). Genotyping was performed on 29/33 GBV-C RNA positive individuals; genotypes 2a (n = 22); 2b (n = 5) and 3 (n = 2) were identified, consistent with the distribution of genotypes found in North America. This is the largest case-control study to date associating GBV-C viremia and NHL risk. As GBV-C is known to be transmitted through blood products this may have important implications for blood safety. [source]

    New malignancies following childhood cancer in the United States, 1973,2002

    Peter D. Inskip
    Abstract The objectives of our study were to quantify risks for developing new malignancies among childhood cancer survivors, identify links between particular types of first and subsequent cancer, and evaluate the possible role of treatment. A cohort of 25,965 2-month survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed in the U.S. during 1973,2002 was identified and followed through SEER cancer registries. Observed-to-expected ratios (O/E) were calculated, and Poisson regression was used to compare risks among treatment groups. Childhood cancer survivors were at nearly 6-fold risk of developing a new cancer relative to the general population (O/E = 5.9, 95% CI: 5.4,6.5). Most common were subsequent primary cancers of the female breast, central nervous system, bone, thyroid gland and soft tissue, as well as cutaneous melanoma and acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL). The greatest risks of subsequent cancers occurred among patients diagnosed previously with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), Ewing sarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, or retinoblastoma. Risk of subsequent solid cancers was higher among persons whose initial treatment for childhood cancer included radiotherapy, whereas the excess of subsequent ANLL was strongly related to chemotherapy. The O/E for subsequent ANLL increased with increasing calendar year of initial cancer diagnosis among survivors of cancers other than HL, most likely due to increasing use of leukemogenic drugs for solid cancers and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Childhood cancer survivors are at markedly increased risk of developing a variety of new cancers relative to the general population, but the magnitude of excess risk and specific types of second cancer vary widely by type of first cancer. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Carbaryl exposure and incident cancer in the Agricultural Health Study

    Rajeev Mahajan
    Abstract Carbaryl is a carbamate insecticide with a broad spectrum of uses in agricultural, commercial and household settings. It has previously been linked with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) but studies of cancer risk in humans are limited. We examined occupational carbaryl use and risk of all cancers in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective study of a cohort of pesticide applicators in North Carolina and Iowa. This analysis included 21,416 subjects (1,291 cases) enrolled from 1993,1997 and followed for cancer incidence through 2003. Pesticide exposure and other data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Poisson regression was used to calculate rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) while controlling for potential confounders. Carbaryl was not associated with cancer risk overall. Relative to subjects who never used carbaryl, melanoma risk was elevated with >175 lifetime exposure-days (RR = 4.11; 95%CI, 1.33,12.75; p -trend = 0.07), >10 years of use (RR = 3.19; 95%CI, 1.28,7.92; p -trend = 0.04), or ,10 days of use per year (RR = 5.50; 95%CI, 2.19,13.84; p -trend < 0.001). Risk remained after adjusting for sunlight exposure. Although not significant, there appeared to be a trend of decreasing prostate cancer risk with increasing level of exposure. A small increase in NHL risk was observed using some, but not all, exposure measures. No associations were observed with other examined cancer sites. Because the observed results were not hypothesized a priori and because of limited study of their biological plausibility, they should be interpreted with caution. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Expression of HYAL2 mRNA, hyaluronan and hyaluronidase in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: Relationship with tumor aggressiveness

    Philippe Bertrand
    Abstract Hyaluronidases and their substrate, hyaluronan (HA), were mainly explored in solid tumors but rarely in hematologic malignancies. While HA involvement was demonstrated in invasion and metastasis in most cases of solid tumors, the role of hyaluronidases in cancer progression remains controversial. One of the hyaluronidases, HYAL2, is suspected to be involved in the first step of HA degradation. In this work, HYAL2 mRNA, HA and total hyaluronidases expression were examined in lymphoma tissue extracts and correlated to the lymphoma subtype. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to evaluate HYAL2 mRNA. HA and hyaluronidase were assayed by enzyme-linked sorbent assay. Our results showed that HYAL2 mRNA expression was correlated to lymphoma diagnosis (p = 6 × 10,3) and was significantly lower in high-grade lymphoma, i.e., diffuse large B-cell diffuse lymphomas (DLBCLs). Several forms of hyaluronidase were detected by zymography and total hyaluronidase activity detected in tissue extracts was not significantly different according to tumor grade. HA levels also correlated to lymphoma subtype (p = 1 × 10,5) and were higher in DLBCLs. Moreover, HYAL2 mRNA and HA expressions were inversely correlated (p = 0.035). HYAL2 gene is localized on chromosome 3p21, which contains candidates tumor suppressor genes. Our results suggest that HYAL2 may have a prognostic significance in lymphomas and an antioncogenic activity. Conversely, HA overexpression in high-grade lymphomas is in favor of its involvement in tumor development and could provide a useful target for lymphoma therapy using HA-binding peptides. [source]

    Environmental and heritable causes of cancer among 9.6 million individuals in the Swedish family-cancer database

    Kamila Czene
    Abstract The genetic and environmental components in 15 common cancers were estimated using the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database. Tetrachoric correlations were used to describe similarity in cancer liability among family members. Structural equation modeling was used to derive estimates of the importance of genetic and environmental effects. Statistically significant estimates of proportion of cancer susceptibility, accounted for by genetic effects, were obtained for all studied cancers except for leukemia. The estimate was highest in thyroid cancer (53%), followed by tumors at endocrine glands (28%), testis (25%), breast (25%), cervix (22%), melanoma (21%), colon (13%), nervous system (12%), rectum (12%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (10%), lung (8%), kidney (8%), urinary bladder (7%), stomach (1%) and leukemia (1%). The estimates of shared environmental effects ranged from 0% (cervix) to 15% (stomach). The childhood shared environmental effects were most important in testicular cancer (17%), stomach cancer (13%) and cervix in situ (13%). Our results indicate that environment has a principal causative role in cancer at all studied sites except for thyroid. The relatively large effect of heritability in cancer at some sites, on the other hand, indicates that even though susceptibility genes have been described at many cancer sites, they are likely to explain only part of the genetic effects. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]