non-Hispanic Whites (non-hispanic + white)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by non-Hispanic Whites

  • non-hispanic white woman

  • Selected Abstracts


    Relationship Quality and Changes in Depressive Symptoms Among Urban, Married African Americans, Hispanics, and Whites

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 3 2009
    Jay Fagan
    Bivariate analyses showed that continuously married urban African American, non-Hispanic White, and Hispanic fathers and mothers reporting greater marital support and less relational control experienced a decrease in depressive symptoms. Multiple regression showed a stronger association between concurrent marital support and decreased depressive symptoms for mothers than fathers. African American and Hispanic fathers reporting higher levels of spousal relationship support when children were infants reported a larger decrease in depressive symptoms when children were age 3 compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Relationship control at age 3 was positively related to increased depressive symptoms among all groups except African American fathers and White mothers. African American and Hispanic fathers with marital problems may need additional support services. [source]


    A Review of the Health Beliefs and Lifestyle Behaviors of Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC, GYNECOLOGIC & NEONATAL NURSING, Issue 5 2009
    Emily J. Jones
    ABSTRACT Objective: To critically review and synthesize original research designed to examine the health beliefs, including risk perceptions and health behaviors related to diet and physical activity of women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus. Data Sources: PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for studies published in the last decade (1998-2008) that examined variables related to the health beliefs and behaviors of women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus. Keyword searches included health beliefs, health behaviors, perceived risk, gestational diabetes, type 2 diabetes, diet, physical activity, and postpartum. Study Selection: Eight articles, representing 6 studies, were selected that met the inclusion criteria of original research, dependent variable of health beliefs and behaviors of women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, and measurement after pregnancy. Data Extraction: Articles were reviewed and discussed according to the concepts of risk perception and health beliefs, health behaviors related to diet and physical activity, and psychosocial factors related to women's health beliefs and behaviors. Data Synthesis: Data revealed common health beliefs and behaviors of women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, including low risk perceptions for future type 2 diabetes mellitus and suboptimal levels of physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. The majority of studies revealed a distinct knowledge-behavior gap among women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, whereas others revealed a lack of knowledge regarding necessary lifestyle modifications. Conclusions: Findings from this review may assist women's health researchers and clinicians in developing appropriate interventions for increasing risk awareness, promoting self-efficacy for weight loss and physical activity behaviors, and decreasing rates of diabetes and cardiovascular disease among women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus. Further research is necessary to identify factors that influence the health beliefs and behaviors of women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus. Future research should focus on populations of greater racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic diversity, as the majority of studies have been conducted with non-Hispanic White, socioeconomically advantaged women. [source]


    Ethnic Labels and Ethnic Identity as Predictors of Drug Use among Middle School Students in the Southwest

    JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON ADOLESCENCE, Issue 1 2001
    Flavio Francisco Marsiglia
    This article explores differences in the self-reported drug use and exposure to drugs of an ethnically diverse group of 408 seventh-grade students from a large city in the southwest. We contrast the explanatory power of ethnic labels (African American, non-Hispanic White, Mexican American, and mixed ethnicity) and two dimensions of ethnic identity in predicting drug use. One dimension focuses on perceived ethnically consistent behavior, speech, and looks, while the other gauges a sense of ethnic pride. Ethnic labels were found to be somewhat useful in identifying differences in drug use, but the two ethnic identity measures, by themselves, did not generally help to explain differences in drug use. In conjunction, however, ethnic labels and ethnic identity measures explained far more of the differences in drug use than either did alone. The findings indicate that the two dimensions of ethnic identity predict drug outcomes in opposite ways, and these relations are different for minority students and non-Hispanic White students. Generally, African American, Mexican American, and mixed-ethnicity students with a strong sense of ethnic pride reported less drug use and exposure, while ethnically proud White students reported more. Ethnic minority students who viewed their behavior, speech, and looks as consistent with their ethnic group reported more drug use and exposure, while their White counterparts reported less. These findings are discussed, and recommendations for future research are provided. [source]


    Preparing to Implement a Self-Management Program for Back Pain in New York City Senior Centers: What Do Prospective Consumers Think?

    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 3 2010
    Sarah Townley RN
    Abstract Objective., Prior to testing the feasibility/potential efficacy of a newly developed self-management pain program for seniors with back pain, this study sought to: 1) determine prospective consumers' prior exposure to self-management pain programs, 2) determine their willingness to participate in the new program, and 3) ascertain perceived barriers/facilitators to program participation. Design., Cross-sectional survey. Setting., Six senior centers located in New York City. Participants., We enrolled a race/ethnicity stratified (African American, Hispanic, or non-Hispanic White) sample of 90 subjects who were ages 60 years or older and had chronic back pain. Results., While 60% of non-Hispanic Whites reported prior participation in a self-management pain program, fewer Hispanic (23%) and African Americans (20%) participants reported prior participation. Most participants (80%) were strongly willing to participate in the new program. Multivariate analyses revealed that only pain intensity had a trend toward significance (P = 0.07), with higher pain scores associated with greater willingness to participate. Few barriers to participation were identified, however, respondents felt that tailoring the course to best meet the needs of those with physical disabilities, providing flexibility in class timing, and informing individuals about program benefits prior to enrollment could help maximize program reach. No race/ethnicity differences were identified with respect to willingness to participate or program participation barriers. Conclusions., These data support efforts to disseminate self-management pain programs in older populations, particularly minority communities. The recommendations made by participants can help to guide implementation efforts of the newly developed pain program and may help to enhance both their reach and success. [source]


    Ethnic variation of fetal nasal bone length between 11,14 weeks' gestation

    PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS, Issue 8 2005
    Fadi Collado
    Abstract Objective We sought to compare the fetal nasal bone length (FNBL) between different ethnic groups at 11,14 weeks' gestation. Methods FNBL and the FNBL/CRL ratio were measured in patients undergoing first trimester ultrasound for nuchal translucency (NT) and the ethnicity of the patient was recorded under four categories: non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and Chinese. Results Two hundred and one patients were included in the study. Measurement of the FNBL could not be obtained in nine patients (4.5%) and foetal nasal bone was absent in one fetus. Comparing the four groups, non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and Asian, there were no statistical differences in crown-rump length (61 14 mm; 68.6 15 mm; 60.2 14 mm; 62.4 8.8 mm, respectively) or the NT (1.3 0.5 mm; 1.25 0.4 mm; 1.35 1 mm; 1.4 0.4 mm, respectively). However, the FNBL (2.9 0.7 mm; 2.5 0.6 mm; 2.5 0.6 mm; 2.2 0.4 mm, respectively, p < 0.01) and the FNBL/CRL ratio (0.049 0.01, 0.045 0.01, 0.043 0.01, 0.037 0.01, respectively, p < 0.01) were both statistically different, when comparing between these groups. Conclusion If the FNBL is to be introduced into first-trimester screening, it should be adjusted for ethnicity. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Breast Cancer in the Middle Eastern Population of California, 1988,2004

    THE BREAST JOURNAL, Issue 2 2009
    Kiumarss Nasseri DVM
    Abstract:, This report presents the patterns of incidence, survival, and mortality of breast cancer in the Middle Eastern (ME) population of California. Cases were identified through surname recognition and population estimates were obtained from census public use files. Rates, trends, and survival in this ethnic group were compared with the non-Hispanic White (NHW) of California, as well as natives in the Middle East. Age-adjusted incidence rates for the insitu (22.8), invasive (126.2), and mortality (23.2) in ME women were significantly lower than similar rates of 26.0, 146.9, and 30.6 in the NHW women. Incidence rate in ME women in California was higher than rates in women in the Middle East. Lower rates for early stage and higher rates for late stage diagnoses in this ethnic population suggest lack of optimal access to preventive healthcare. Relative survival in the two groups is negatively associated with stage at diagnosis and is slightly higher in ME women, probably due to large numbers of lost to follow-up in ME women suggesting the presence of salmon bias. Positive association with socioeconomic standing was detected only in the NHW women. Incidence of breast cancer in ME men was significantly higher than that of NHW men. [source]


    Higher fasting insulin but lower fasting C-peptide levels in African Americans in the US population,

    DIABETES/METABOLISM: RESEARCH AND REVIEWS, Issue 2 2002
    Maureen I. Harris
    Abstract Background Fasting serum insulin and fasting serum C-peptide are risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes. Because of the higher incidence of type 2 diabetes in African Americans and Hispanic Americans, it is likely that these groups may differ from non-Hispanic whites in their levels of insulin and C-peptide. Methods We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of adults in the US population for whom sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory information were obtained. The data were used to describe distributions of fasting insulin and fasting C-peptide in non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American men and women aged ,20 years without a medical history of diabetes. Results Among men, Mexican Americans had higher insulin values than non-Hispanic whites and blacks. Among women, both Mexican Americans and blacks had higher insulin values than whites. For C-peptide, differences by sex and race-ethnicity paralleled those seen for fasting insulin with the exception that black men had significantly lower C-peptide values than whites and Mexican Americans. After adjustment for age, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), the higher levels for insulin in blacks and Mexican Americans remained; both black men and women had significantly lower C-peptide values than whites and Mexican Americans. The molar ratio of fasting C-peptide to fasting insulin was similar for men and women in each race-ethnic group. However, blacks had substantially lower ratios than whites and Mexican Americans. Conclusions We found wide variations in fasting insulin and fasting C-peptide levels by race and ethnicity in US adults that were not explained by confounding factors, primarily measures of obesity. Most notably, the higher fasting insulin and lower fasting C-peptide levels in blacks implies that there is a derangement in insulin clearance and an impairment in beta-cell function in blacks compared with whites and Mexican Americans. Published in 2002 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Childhood growth and age at diagnosis with Type 1 diabetes in Colorado young people

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 10 2009
    K. Vehik
    Abstract Objective, Studies have suggested that the age at diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is decreasing over time. The overload hypothesis postulates that risk factors, such as accelerated growth, may be responsible for this decrease. We assessed changes in age, body mass index (BMI), weight and height at diagnosis with T1D in non-Hispanic white (NHW) and Hispanic (HISP) young people from Colorado, using data from the IDDM Registry and SEARCH Study. Methods, In three time periods, 656 (1978,1983), 562 (1984,1988) and 712 (2002,2004) young people aged 2,17 years were newly diagnosed with T1D. Age, weight, height and presence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at diagnosis with T1D were obtained from medical records. Trends over the three time periods were assessed with regression analyses. Results, Age at diagnosis decreased by 9.6 months over time (P = 0.0002). Mean BMI standard deviation score (SDS), weight SDS and height SDS increased over time (P < 0.0001), while prevalence of DKA decreased (P < 0.0001). Increasing height over time accounted for 15% (P = 0.04) of the decreasing age at diagnosis with T1D. Conclusions, Our study provides evidence that increased linear growth, but not increased BMI or weight over time, may account, at least in part, for the younger age at diagnosis of T1D in Colorado children. This finding supports the hypothesis that increasing environmental pressure resulting from changes in potentially preventable risk factors may accelerate the onset of T1D in children. [source]


    Differences in the measured alcohol content of drinks between black, white and Hispanic men and women in a US national sample

    ADDICTION, Issue 9 2009
    William C. Kerr
    ABSTRACT Aims To measure and describe drink alcohol content differences between Hispanic, non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black men and women in the United States. Design A telephone survey re-interview of 397 respondents who participated originally in the 2005 National Alcohol Survey, of whom 306 provided complete information on home drinks. Setting United States. Participants Adults aged 18 years and older from across the United States. Measurements Direct measurement by respondents of simulated drink pours in respondents' own glassware using a provided beaker and reported beverage brands were used to calculate drink alcohol content. Findings Black men were found to have the largest overall mean drink alcohol content at 0.79 oz (23 ml) of alcohol. This was significantly larger than the mean for white men or for black women and added 30% to black men's monthly alcohol intake when applied to their reported number of drinks. Spirits drinks were found to be particularly large for men. Multivariate models indicated that drink alcohol content differences are attributable more to income and family structure differences than to unmeasured cultural factors tied to race or ethnicity per se. Models predicting alcohol-related consequences and dependence indicate that adjusting drink alcohol content improves model fit and reduces differences between race/ethnicity defined groups. Conclusions Differences in drink alcohol content by gender, race/ethnicity and beverage type choice should be considered in comparisons of drinking patterns and alcohol-related outcomes. Observed differences can be explained partially by measured characteristics regarding family structure and income. [source]


    Cumulative adversity and drug dependence in young adults: racial/ethnic contrasts

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2003
    R. Jay Turner
    ABSTRACT Aims To study cumulative exposure to stressors as a risk factor for drug dependence, and evaluate whether group differences in exposure contribute to differences in prevalence. Design Cross-sectional community survey of life-time adverse experiences and substance and psychiatric disorders. Setting Data collected between 1997 and 2000 in Miami,Dade County, USA. Participants A total of 1803 former Miami,Dade public school students, 93% between ages 19 and 21 years when interviewed. Males and females of Cuban origin, other Caribbean basin Hispanics, African-Americans and non-Hispanic whites are represented equally. Measurements Drug dependence disorder assessed by DSM-IV criteria using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and a 41-item checklist of life-time exposure to major and potentially traumatic experiences. Both measures include age at time of first occurrence. Findings Life-time rate of drug dependence disorder (total 14.3%) did not vary significantly (P > 0.05) by socio-economic group. Male rate (17.6%) was significantly greater than female rate (10.9%). The African-American rate (6.5%) was dramatically lower than non-Hispanic white (17.0%), Cuban (18.1%) and non-Cuban Hispanic (16.0%) rates despite their dramatically higher exposure to adversity. Twenty-eight of 33 individual adversities were associated with the subsequent onset of drug dependence (P < 0.05). Cumulative life-time exposure was greatest for males and for African-Americans, and was associated inversely with socio-economic level. Multivariate discrete-time event history analysis revealed significant independent effects of distal (>1 year earlier) and proximal (previous year) exposure to adverse events (P < 0.05), controlling for childhood conduct disorder, attention deficit hyperactive disorder and previous psychiatric disorder. Conclusions Life-time cumulative exposure to distant as well as more recent adversity predicts risk of subsequent drug dependence, although it does not explain ethnic group differences in risk. [source]


    Racial Differences in the Receipt of Bowel Surveillance Following Potentially Curative Colorectal Cancer Surgery

    HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH, Issue 6p2 2003
    Gary L. Ellison
    Objective. To investigate racial differences in posttreatment bowel surveillance after colorectal cancer surgery in a large population of Medicare patients. Data Sources. We used a large population-based dataset: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) linked to Medicare data. Study Design. This is a retrospective cohort study. We analyzed data from 44,768 non-Hispanic white, 2,921 black, and 4,416 patients from other racial/ethnic groups, aged 65 and older at diagnosis, who had a diagnosis of local or regional colorectal cancer between 1986 and 1996, and were followed through December 31, 1998. Cox Proportional Hazards models were used to investigate the relation of race and receipt of posttreatment bowel surveillance. Data Collection. Sociodemographic, hospital, and clinical characteristics were collected at the time of diagnosis for all members of the cohort. Surgery and bowel surveillance with colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and barium enema were obtained from Medicare claims using ICD-9-CM and CPT-4 codes. Principal Findings. The chance of surveillance within 18 months of surgery was 57 percent, 48 percent, and 45 percent for non-Hispanic whites, blacks, and others, respectively. After adjusting for sociodemographic, hospital, and clinical characteristics, blacks were 25 percent less likely than whites to receive surveillance if diagnosed between 1991 and 1996 (RR=0.75, 95 percent CI=0.70,0.81). Conclusions. Elderly blacks were less likely than non-Hispanic whites to receive posttreatment bowel surveillance and this result was not explained by measured racial differences in sociodemographic, hospital, and clinical characteristics. More research is needed to explore the influences of patient- and provider-level factors on racial differences in posttreatment bowel surveillance. [source]


    Prevalence of storage and voiding symptoms among men aged 40 years and older in a US population-based study: results from the Male Attitudes Regarding Sexual Health study

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 8 2007
    D. B. Glasser
    Summary Aims:, Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are categorised as storage (urgency, frequency, nocturia and incontinence), voiding (sensation of incomplete emptying, hesitancy, weak stream and straining) or mixed symptoms. Methods:, In this US population-based study, we investigated the prevalence of male LUTS and the relative frequency of the LUTS subtypes, and we evaluated associations between LUTS and age, race/ethnicity and erectile dysfunction (ED). The Male Attitudes Regarding Sexual Health study included a nationally representative sample of non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white and Hispanic men aged , 40 years. Participants completed a questionnaire including items on ED and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). The prevalence and subtypes of LUTS were investigated post hoc by age, race/ethnicity and the presence of ED. Results:, The overall prevalence rates of storage (13%) and mixed (9%) symptoms were higher than that of voiding symptoms (6%). The prevalence of storage symptoms was similar across age groups, whereas voiding and mixed symptoms increased with age. Among men with IPSS , 8, the rates of storage (29%) and mixed (38%) symptoms were also higher than voiding symptoms (23%). Distributions of the LUTS subtypes were comparable among black, white and Hispanic respondents with IPSS , 8. The overall prevalence rate of ED (40%) increased with age among those with IPSS , 8. Isolated storage symptoms were more than twice as common as isolated voiding symptoms among US men , 40 years of age. Conclusion:, Careful attention to individual symptoms may help distinguish storage LUTS from voiding LUTS, a distinction that has important implications for treatment. [source]


    The National Survey of American Life: a study of racial, ethnic and cultural influences on mental disorders and mental health

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF METHODS IN PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH, Issue 4 2004
    James S. Jackson
    Abstract The objectives of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) are to investigate the nature, severity, and impairment of mental disorders among national samples of the black and non-Hispanic white (n = 1,006) populations in the US. Special emphasis in the study is given to the nature of race and ethnicity within the black population by selecting and interviewing national samples of African-American (N = 3,570), and Afro-Caribbean (N = 1,623) immigrant and second and older generation populations. National multi-stage probability methods were used in generating the samples and race/ethnic matching of interviewers and respondents were used in the largely face-to-face interview, which lasted on average 2 hours and 20 minutes. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) IV World Mental Health Composite Interview (WHO-CIDI) was used to assess a wide range of serious mental disorders, potential risk and resilience factors, and help seeking and service use patterns. This paper provides an overview of the design of the NSAL, sample selection procedures, recruitment and training of the national interviewing team, and some of the special problems faced in interviewing ethnically and racially diverse national samples. Unique features of sample design, including special screening and listing procedures, interviewer training and supervision, and response rate outcomes are described. Copyright 2004 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


    Sexual Protective Strategies of Late Adolescent Females: More Than Just Condoms

    JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC, GYNECOLOGIC & NEONATAL NURSING, Issue 4 2001
    M. Katherine Hutchinson RN
    Objective: To identify the sexual protective strategies of late adolescent heterosexual women. Design: Open-ended questioning regarding sexual protective strategies was included in a larger cross-sectional survey on sexual risk. Participants' responses were recorded verbatim and analyzed using content analysis. Participants: 234 African American, Hispanic/Latina, and non-Hispanic white 19- to 21-year-old females were recruited from the driver's license records of a mid-Atlantic state. Main Outcome Measures: Participants re-1 to the on-ended question, "How or what do you do to reduce your risk for sexually transmitted diseases and HIV?" Results: Seven primary sexual protective strategies were identified from participants' responses: using condoms, abstaining or postponing sexual intercourse, getting tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted diseases (SIDs), selecting safe partners, negotiating condom use, talking about sexual risk histories, and limiting the number of sexual partners. Conclusions: Some of the sexual protective strategies identified by study participants were less than effective and left young women vulnerable to infection with HIV and STDs. In addition, the use of these alternative strategies may leave young women feeling less at risk and thus less likely to use other more effective strategies such as condoms. The implications for nursing practice and the assessment of the sexual protective strategies of young heterosexual women are discussed. [source]


    Physical Activity and Healthy Eating in the After-School Environment

    JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH, Issue 12 2008
    Karen J. Coleman PhD
    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND:, No research to date has extensively described moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and healthful eating (HE) opportunities in the after-school environment. The current study described the quality of the after-school environment for its impact on children's MVPA and HE. METHODS:, An alliance of 7 elementary schools and Boys and Girls Clubs who worked with the Cooperative Extension Service in Lawrence, KS, was selected to participate in a larger intervention study. After-school settings were observed for information regarding session type, session context, leader behavior, physical activity, and snack quality using validated instruments such as the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time. Data presented are baseline measures for all sites. RESULTS:, Participating children (n = 144) were primarily non-Hispanic white (60%) and in fourth grade (69%). After-school sites offered 4 different sessions per day (active recreation, academic time, nonactive recreation, and enrichment activities). Children were provided with a daily snack. On 36% of the days observed, this snack included fruit, fruit juice, or vegetables. There was significantly more time spent in MVPA during free play sessions (69%) compared to organized adult-led sessions (51%). There was also significantly more discouragement of physical activity during organized adult-led sessions (29%) as compared to the free play sessions (6%). CONCLUSIONS:, The quality of after-school programs can be improved by providing fruits and vegetables as snacks; offering more free play activities; training the after-school staff in simple, structured games for use in a variety of indoor and outdoor settings; and training after-school staff to promote and model MVPA and HE in and out of the after-school setting. [source]


    Ethnic variation in lower oesophageal sphincter pressure and length

    ALIMENTARY PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 5 2008
    K. J. VEGA
    Summary Background, Oesophageal manometry (OM) is used to diagnose oesophageal motor disorders. Normal values of OM among United States ethnic groups are only available for Hispanic Americans (HA). Aim, To obtain normal values of OM in adult African American (AA) volunteers, compare these with those obtained in HA and non-Hispanic white (nHw) volunteers to determine if ethnic variation in normal oesophageal motor function exists. Methods, Healthy AA, HA and nHw were recruited from the Jacksonville metropolitan area. Ethnicity was self-reported. Exclusion criteria were symptoms suggestive of oesophageal disease, medication use or concurrent illness affecting OM. All underwent OM using a solid-state system with wet swallows. Resting lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) pressure and LOS length were measured at mid-expiration, while per cent peristaltic contractions, distal oesophageal contraction velocity, amplitude and duration were measured after 5 cc water swallows. Results, Fifty-six AA, 20 HA and 48 nHw were enrolled. All completed OM. AA had significantly higher resting LOS pressure, LOS length and distal oesophageal contraction duration than nHw (P < 0.05). Conclusions, Significant ethnic exist in OM findings between AA and nHw. These underscore the need for ethnic specific reference values for OM to allow for correct diagnosis of oesophageal motor disorders in AA. [source]


    Prevalence and Correlates of Erectile Dysfunction by Race and Ethnicity Among Men Aged 40 or Older in the United States: From the Male Attitudes Regarding Sexual Health Survey

    THE JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE, Issue 1 2007
    Edward O. Laumann PhD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Most U.S. population-based estimates of erectile dysfunction (ED) prevalence restricted upper age, were not nationally representative, or underrepresented minority groups. Aim., To estimate, by race/ethnicity in the United States, the prevalence of ED and the impact of sociodemographic, health, relationship, psychological, and lifestyle variables. Methods., This cross-sectional, population-based, nationally representative probability survey conducted between May 2001 and January 2002 in the general community setting facilitated equivalent representation among U.S. non-Hispanic white (N = 901), non-Hispanic black (N = 596), and Hispanic (N = 676) men aged 40 and older by using targeted phone lists to oversample the minority populations. Main Outcome Measure., Estimated prevalence of moderate or severe ED, defined as a response of "sometimes" or "never" to the question "How would you describe your ability to get and keep an erection adequate for satisfactory intercourse?" Results., The estimated prevalence was 22.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.4,24.6) overall, 21.9% (95% CI, 18.8,24.9) in whites, 24.4% (95% CI, 18.4,30.5) in blacks, and 19.9% (95% CI, 13.9,25.9) in Hispanics, and increased with increasing age. The odds ratio increased with increasing age. Probability also increased with diabetes, hypertension, and moderate or severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) overall; age ,70 years and diabetes in whites; severe LUTS in blacks; and age ,60 years, moderate LUTS, hypertension, and depression in Hispanics. It decreased with exercise and college vs. less than high school education overall; with exercise, good relationship quality, and according to alcohol intake in blacks; and with high school or college education in Hispanics. Conclusions., The odds of ED increased with increasing age across race/ethnicity when controlling for sociodemographic, health, relationship, psychological, and lifestyle variables. These initial analyses suggest further study of the interrelationships among risk factors for ED. Laumann EO, West S, Glasser D, Carson C, Rosen R, and Kang J-H. Prevalence and correlates of erectile dysfunction by race and ethnicity among men aged 40 or older in the United States: From the Male Attitudes Regarding Sexual Health survey. J Sex Med 2007;4:57,65. [source]


    Shorter telomeres are associated with mortality in those with APOE ,4 and dementia

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 2 2006
    Lawrence S. Honig MD
    Objective Reduced telomere length may be a marker of biological aging. We hypothesized that telomere length might thus relate to increased risk for dementia and mortality. Methods This nested case,control study used stored leukocyte DNA from 257 individuals (mean age, 81.4 7.9 years; 64.6% female; 44.7% Hispanic, 33.5% non-Hispanic black, and 21.8% non-Hispanic white). Our assay used real-time polymerase chain reaction, with two separate reactions amplifying telomere sequence and reference single copy gene (ribosomal-protein-P0), providing a calculated telomere-to-single copy gene (T/S) ratio. Results Mean telomere length was shorter among subjects dying during follow-up than in those surviving (0.453 0.211 vs 0.525 0.226 [ standard deviation]; p < 0.009). It was also shorter in those with Alzheimer's disease compared with control subjects (0.458 0.207 vs 0.516 0.229; p < 0.03). For participants with Alzheimer's disease, compared with those with the longest telomeres, the mortality odds ratio (OR) was 4.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7,13.8) in those with intermediate-length telomeres and 7.3 (95% CI, 2.4,22.0) in those with the shortest telomeres. The presence of an ,4 allele also increased the mortality OR, with an OR of 5.8 (95% CI, 1.3,26.4) for intermediate-length telomeres and an OR of 9.0 (95% CI, 1.9,41) for the shortest telomeres. Interpretation Our findings suggest that leukocyte telomere length is related to both dementia and mortality and may be a marker of biological aging. Ann Neurol 2006; [source]


    Risks of selected congenital malformations among offspring of mixed race-ethnicity

    BIRTH DEFECTS RESEARCH, Issue 10 2004
    Juan Yang
    Abstract BACKGROUND Little is known about the occurrence of specific congenital malformations among offspring of mixed race-ethnicity. METHODS Using data from a population-based registry, we explored the occurrence of selected malformation phenotypes in offspring to parents who were of different race-ethnicity. Data were derived from the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, a population-based active surveillance system for collecting information on infants and fetuses with congenital malformations using multiple source ascertainment. Approximately 2.6 million live births and stillbirths occurred during 1989,2000. Information on parental race-ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, black, and Asian) was obtained from birth certificates and fetal death files. Malformation phenotypes studied were spina bifida, anencephaly, cleft lip, cleft palate, tetralogy of Fallot, d-transposition of great arteries, hypospadias, small intestinal atresia, preaxial polydactyly, microtia, and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. RESULTS A total of 11.2% of births were to parents of mixed race-ethnicity. Compared to births of parents who were both white, moderately increased risks (risk ratio , 1.7) of anencephaly, polydactyly, and microtia, and decreased risks (risk ratio , 0.6) of hypospadias and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis were observed among births of several mixed race-ethnicity groups. For anencephaly, polydactyly, and microtia, but not other phenotypes, the risks were different depending on whether maternal versus paternal race-ethnicity was considered. Risks observed between births of a nonwhite parent and a white parent and births of parents who were both nonwhite were similar for most malformation phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS Some malformation phenotypes appear to vary in their risk based on mixed racial-ethnic groupings. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Productivity and Career Paths of Previous Recipients of Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Research Grant Awards

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 6 2008
    Kelly D. Young MD
    Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to assess productivity of previous recipients of Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) grant awards. Methods:, All previous recipients of SAEM Research Training Grants, Neuroscience Research Awards, Scholarly Sabbatical Awards, and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Research Fellowship awards funded through 2004 were identified through SAEM's records and surveyed. Award categories assessed were those still offered by SAEM at the time of the survey and therefore excluded the Geriatric Research Award. The 2005,2006 SAEM Grants Committee developed a survey using previous publications assessing productivity of training grants and fellowship awards and refined it through consensus review and limited pilot testing. We assessed measures of academic productivity (numbers of publications and additional grants awarded), commitment to an academic career, satisfaction with the SAEM award, and basic demographic information. Results:, Overall response rate was 70%; usable data were returned by all seven Research Training Grant awardees, both Neuroscience awardees, four of five Scholarly Sabbatical awardees, and six of 14 EMS Research Fellowship awardees. Of those who gave demographic information, 78% (14/18) were male and 94% (16/17) were non-Hispanic white. All the respondents remained in academics, and 14 of 19 felt that they will definitely be in academics 5 years from the time of the survey. They have a median of 1.8 original research publications per year since the end of their grant period, and 74% (14/19) have received subsequent federal funding. All found the SAEM award to be helpful or very helpful to their careers. Conclusions:, Previous recipients of the SAEM grant awards show evidence of academic productivity in the form of subsequent grant funding and research publications, and the majority remain committed to and satisfied with their academic research careers. [source]


    Breast cancer incidence among American Indian and Alaska Native women: US, 1999,2004,,

    CANCER, Issue S5 2008
    Phyllis A. Wingo PhD
    Abstract BACKGROUND. Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women. Although published studies have suggested that breast cancer rates among AI/AN women are lower than those among other racial and ethnic populations, accurate determinations of the breast cancer burden have been hampered by misclassification of AI/AN race. METHODS. Cancer incidence data from the National Program of Cancer Registries and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program were combined to estimate age-adjusted rates for the diagnosis years 1999 through 2004. Several steps were taken to reduce the misclassification of AI/AN race: linking cases to Indian Health Service (IHS) patient services database, restricting analyses to Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties, and stratifying results by IHS region. RESULTS. Breast cancer incidence rates among AI/AN women varied nearly 3-fold across IHS regions. The highest rates were in Alaska (134.8) and the Plains (Northern, 115.9; Southern, 115.7), and the lowest rates were in the Southwest (50.8). The rate in Alaska was similar to the rate among non-Hispanic white (NHW) women in Alaska. Overall, AI/AN women had lower rates of breast cancer than NHW women, but AI/AN women were more likely to be diagnosed with late-stage disease. CONCLUSIONS. To the authors' knowledge, this report provides the most comprehensive breast cancer incidence data for AI/AN women to date. The wide regional variation indicates an important need for etiologic and health services research, and the large percentage of AI/AN women with late-stage disease demands innovative approaches for increasing access to screening. Cancer 2008;113(5 suppl):1191,202. Published 2008 by the American Cancer Society. [source]


    Prostate cancer incidence among American Indian and Alaska Native men, US, 1999,2004,,

    CANCER, Issue S5 2008
    Jeffrey A. Henderson MD
    Abstract BACKGROUND. American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) men experience lower incidence of prostate cancer than other race/ethnic populations in the US, but racial misclassification of AI/AN men threatens the validity of these estimates. To the authors' knowledge, little is known concerning prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing in AI/AN men. METHODS. The authors linked cancer registry data with Indian Health Service enrollment records to improve race classification. Analyses comparing cancer incidence rates and stage at diagnosis for AI/AN and non-Hispanic white (NHW) men for 6 geographic regions focused on counties known to have less race misclassification. The authors also used Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System data to characterize PSA testing in AI/AN men. RESULTS. Prostate cancer incidence rates were generally lower in AI/AN than in NHW men for all regions combined (rate ratio of 0.68). However, regional variation was noted among AI/AN men, with incidence rates (per 100,000 population) ranging from 65.7 in the Southwest to 174.5 on the Northern Plains. The rate of distant stage disease was somewhat higher among AI/AN (7.8) than NHW (6.2) men. Nationally, AI/AN men were less likely than NHW men to have undergone recent PSA testing (48.4% vs 58.0%), with prominent regional variation in screening rates noted. CONCLUSIONS. Prostate cancer incidence rates and the proportion of men with recent PSA testing were lower for AI/AN men than for NHW men. However, incident rates and rate of distant stage varied by region more for AI/AN than for NHW. Further research is needed among AI/AN men to evaluate strategies for better understanding the causes of the regional variation in prostate cancer incidence. Cancer 2008;113(5 suppl):1203,12. Published 2008 by the American Cancer Society. [source]


    Cancer among Hispanic women in South Florida: An 18-year assessment

    CANCER, Issue 8 2002
    A report from the Florida Cancer Data System
    Abstract BACKGROUND The Hispanic population now represents the majority of residents in Miami-Dade County, Florida. The authors present cancer incidence and mortality data for South Florida's Hispanic women for the period 1990,1998 and compare these data to previously reported data from 1981,1989. Cancer incidence, risk, and mortality data should reflect current population distribution, lifestyle, and environmental risk factors so that cancer prevention and control activities are informed optimally. METHODS The study population consisted of all women with malignant disease during 1981,1998 from Miami-Dade County found in the Florida Cancer Data System data base; patients were divided into 2 9-year periods for analysis. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were computed for common disease sites; rates for Hispanic women were compared with the rates for non-Hispanic white (NHW) women as standardized rate ratios (SRR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs). Incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using linear regression. RESULTS Over 70,000 cancer incidents were analyzed. The overall decreased cancer risk for Hispanic women (SRR, 0.65; 95%CI, 0.64,0.67), compared with NHW women, remained essentially constant over the two study periods. Cancer incidence increased similarly for the two racial-ethnic groups. The incidence of lung carcinoma increased in both groups, becoming the second most common disease site for NHW women and the third most common disease site for Hispanic women. CONCLUSIONS The decreased relative cancer risk for Hispanic women in South Florida has remained stable over the past 18 years. Lung carcinoma is increasing among women in both racial-ethnic groups. Cancer 2002;95:1752,8. 2002 American Cancer Society. DOI 10.1002/cncr.10834 [source]


    Higher fasting insulin but lower fasting C-peptide levels in African Americans in the US population,

    DIABETES/METABOLISM: RESEARCH AND REVIEWS, Issue 2 2002
    Maureen I. Harris
    Abstract Background Fasting serum insulin and fasting serum C-peptide are risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes. Because of the higher incidence of type 2 diabetes in African Americans and Hispanic Americans, it is likely that these groups may differ from non-Hispanic whites in their levels of insulin and C-peptide. Methods We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of adults in the US population for whom sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory information were obtained. The data were used to describe distributions of fasting insulin and fasting C-peptide in non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American men and women aged ,20 years without a medical history of diabetes. Results Among men, Mexican Americans had higher insulin values than non-Hispanic whites and blacks. Among women, both Mexican Americans and blacks had higher insulin values than whites. For C-peptide, differences by sex and race-ethnicity paralleled those seen for fasting insulin with the exception that black men had significantly lower C-peptide values than whites and Mexican Americans. After adjustment for age, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), the higher levels for insulin in blacks and Mexican Americans remained; both black men and women had significantly lower C-peptide values than whites and Mexican Americans. The molar ratio of fasting C-peptide to fasting insulin was similar for men and women in each race-ethnic group. However, blacks had substantially lower ratios than whites and Mexican Americans. Conclusions We found wide variations in fasting insulin and fasting C-peptide levels by race and ethnicity in US adults that were not explained by confounding factors, primarily measures of obesity. Most notably, the higher fasting insulin and lower fasting C-peptide levels in blacks implies that there is a derangement in insulin clearance and an impairment in beta-cell function in blacks compared with whites and Mexican Americans. Published in 2002 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Cumulative adversity and drug dependence in young adults: racial/ethnic contrasts

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2003
    R. Jay Turner
    ABSTRACT Aims To study cumulative exposure to stressors as a risk factor for drug dependence, and evaluate whether group differences in exposure contribute to differences in prevalence. Design Cross-sectional community survey of life-time adverse experiences and substance and psychiatric disorders. Setting Data collected between 1997 and 2000 in Miami,Dade County, USA. Participants A total of 1803 former Miami,Dade public school students, 93% between ages 19 and 21 years when interviewed. Males and females of Cuban origin, other Caribbean basin Hispanics, African-Americans and non-Hispanic whites are represented equally. Measurements Drug dependence disorder assessed by DSM-IV criteria using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and a 41-item checklist of life-time exposure to major and potentially traumatic experiences. Both measures include age at time of first occurrence. Findings Life-time rate of drug dependence disorder (total 14.3%) did not vary significantly (P > 0.05) by socio-economic group. Male rate (17.6%) was significantly greater than female rate (10.9%). The African-American rate (6.5%) was dramatically lower than non-Hispanic white (17.0%), Cuban (18.1%) and non-Cuban Hispanic (16.0%) rates despite their dramatically higher exposure to adversity. Twenty-eight of 33 individual adversities were associated with the subsequent onset of drug dependence (P < 0.05). Cumulative life-time exposure was greatest for males and for African-Americans, and was associated inversely with socio-economic level. Multivariate discrete-time event history analysis revealed significant independent effects of distal (>1 year earlier) and proximal (previous year) exposure to adverse events (P < 0.05), controlling for childhood conduct disorder, attention deficit hyperactive disorder and previous psychiatric disorder. Conclusions Life-time cumulative exposure to distant as well as more recent adversity predicts risk of subsequent drug dependence, although it does not explain ethnic group differences in risk. [source]


    Racial Differences in the Receipt of Bowel Surveillance Following Potentially Curative Colorectal Cancer Surgery

    HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH, Issue 6p2 2003
    Gary L. Ellison
    Objective. To investigate racial differences in posttreatment bowel surveillance after colorectal cancer surgery in a large population of Medicare patients. Data Sources. We used a large population-based dataset: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) linked to Medicare data. Study Design. This is a retrospective cohort study. We analyzed data from 44,768 non-Hispanic white, 2,921 black, and 4,416 patients from other racial/ethnic groups, aged 65 and older at diagnosis, who had a diagnosis of local or regional colorectal cancer between 1986 and 1996, and were followed through December 31, 1998. Cox Proportional Hazards models were used to investigate the relation of race and receipt of posttreatment bowel surveillance. Data Collection. Sociodemographic, hospital, and clinical characteristics were collected at the time of diagnosis for all members of the cohort. Surgery and bowel surveillance with colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and barium enema were obtained from Medicare claims using ICD-9-CM and CPT-4 codes. Principal Findings. The chance of surveillance within 18 months of surgery was 57 percent, 48 percent, and 45 percent for non-Hispanic whites, blacks, and others, respectively. After adjusting for sociodemographic, hospital, and clinical characteristics, blacks were 25 percent less likely than whites to receive surveillance if diagnosed between 1991 and 1996 (RR=0.75, 95 percent CI=0.70,0.81). Conclusions. Elderly blacks were less likely than non-Hispanic whites to receive posttreatment bowel surveillance and this result was not explained by measured racial differences in sociodemographic, hospital, and clinical characteristics. More research is needed to explore the influences of patient- and provider-level factors on racial differences in posttreatment bowel surveillance. [source]


    Haplotype and genotypes of the VDR gene and cutaneous melanoma risk in non-Hispanic whites in Texas: A case,control study

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 9 2008
    Chunying Li
    Abstract In a hospital-based case,control study of 805 non-Hispanic whites with cutaneous melanoma and 841 cancer-free age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched control subjects, 3 VDR polymorphisms (i.e., TaqI, BsmI and FokI) were genotyped using blood samples collected between 1994 and 2006. We tested the hypothesis that the haplotypes and combined genotypes of these polymorphisms were associated with melanoma risk by interacting with known risk factors. Haplotypes t-B-F (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34,0.80) and t-B-f (adjusted OR, 0.51; CI, 0.27,0.94) were associated with a reduced risk when compared to T-b-f. The combined genotypes Tt+tt/Bb+BB/Ff+ff (adjusted OR, 0.69; CI, 0.52, 0.90) and Tt+tt/Bb+BB/FF (adjusted OR, 0.58; CI, 0.43, 0.78) were also associated with reduced risk, whereas the combined genotype TT/Bb+BB/Ff+ff genotype (adjusted OR, 2.35; CI, 1.13, 4.98) was associated with increased risk when compared to TT/bb/Ff+ff genotypes. On multivariate analysis, only the TaqI polymorphism was an independent risk factor, while the FokI polymorphism interacted with skin color (p = 0.029), moles (p = 0.017) and first-degree relatives with any cancer (p = 0.013) in modifying risk. Together, these findings suggest that VDR polymorphisms may directly affect or modify the risk associated with known melanoma risk factors. Larger, population-based studies are needed to replicate our findings. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Cancer incidence patterns among Vietnamese in the United States and Ha Noi, Vietnam,

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 4 2002
    Gem M. Le
    Abstract Nearly 600,000 persons have immigrated to the United States from Vietnam since the end of the Vietnam War. Despite the rapid growth of the U.S. Vietnamese population, little is known about cancer incidence in this migrant group. Using population-based data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program, California Cancer Registry and International Agency for Research on Cancer, we compared cancer incidence rates for Vietnamese in the United States (1988,1992) to rates for residents of Ha Noi, Vietnam (1991,1993); non-Hispanic whites were included to serve as the U.S. reference rates. Lung and breast cancers were the most common among Vietnamese males and females, respectively, regardless of geographic region. Rates of cancers more common to U.S. whites, such as breast, prostate and colon cancers, were elevated for U.S. Vietnamese compared to residents in Ha Noi but still lower than rates for U.S. whites. Rates of cancers more common to Asian countries, such as stomach, liver, lung and cervical cancers, were likewise elevated for U.S. Vietnamese compared to residents of Ha Noi and exceeded corresponding rates for whites. Incidence patterns for stomach, liver, lung and cervical cancers may reflect increased risk of exposures in this migrant population and should be further explored to uncover the relative contributions of environmental and genetic factors to cancer etiology. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    The Occupational Assimilation of Hispanic Immigrants in the U.S.: Evidence from Panel Data1

    INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW, Issue 3 2006
    Maude Toussaint-Comeau
    This study focuses on the occupational component of the labor market adjustment of Hispanic immigrants. The author asks whether Hispanic immigrants assimilate with natives and what factors influence occupational attainment. The findings suggest that years since migration narrow the socioeconomic gap between Hispanic immigrants, their U.S.-born Hispanic counterparts, and non-Hispanic whites. The level of human capital affects the rate of occupational mobility and determines whether convergence occurs in the groups' socioeconomic occupational status. The occupational status of Hispanic immigrants with low human capital remains fairly stable and does not converge with that of non-Hispanic whites. However, those with high human capital experience upward occupational mobility. In part, their occupational assimilation is driven by the acquisition of human capital among younger Hispanic immigrants. [source]


    Isokinetic Leg Muscle Strength in Older Americans and Its Relationship to a Standardized Walk Test: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999,2000

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 6 2004
    Yechiam Ostchega PhD
    Objectives: To describe isokinetic knee extensor muscle strength in older U.S. men and women by age and race/ethnicity and to ascertain its relationship to a standard, timed walking-speed test. Setting: The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999,2000. Design: A cross-sectional nationally representative health examination survey. Participants: All surveyed persons aged 50 and older (N=1,499) who performed muscle strength and timed walk examinations in the NHANES mobile examination center. Measurements: Concentric peak torque (strength) of the knee extensors at 1.05 rads/ s,1 velocity and a 6-m walk timed in seconds. Results: Knee extensor strength was inversely associated with age (P<.01), and women had less knee extensor muscle strength than men (P<.01). After adjustment for standing height, no significant difference in muscle strength was found across the three race/ethnicity groups (Mexican Americans, non-Hispanic blacks, and non-Hispanic whites) for men or women. After adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, weight, and height, increasing knee extensor strength was associated with significant increases in meters walked per second (P<.01). Conclusion: Knee extensor muscle strength is affected by age and sex but not by race/ethnicity and it is significantly associated with timed walk. [source]