non-Hispanic Blacks (non-hispanic + blacks)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The association between incisor trauma and occlusal characteristics in individuals 8,50 years of age

Jay D. Shulman
Abstract,,, To explore the association between incisal trauma and occlusal characteristics using oral examination and health interview data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988,1994 (NHANES III). Incisal trauma examinations were performed on 15 364 individuals 6,50 years of age using an ordinal scale developed by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Occlusal examinations were performed on 13 057 individuals 8,50 years of age. We fitted separate multivariate logistic regression models for maxillary and mandibular incisor trauma adjusting for socio-demographic variables (age, gender, race-ethnicity) and occlusal characteristics (overbite, overjet, open bite). 23.45% of all individuals evidenced trauma on at least one incisor, with trauma more than four times more prevalent on maxillary (22.59%) than on mandibular incisors (4.78%). Males (OR = 1.67) had greater odds of trauma than females; Whites (OR = 1.37) and non-Hispanic Blacks (OR = 1.37) had greater odds of trauma than Mexican,Americans. The odds of trauma increased with age, peaked from age 21 to 30 (OR = 2.92), and declined. As overjet increased, so did the odds of trauma. Compared to individuals with ,0-mm overjet, odds of trauma increased from 1,3 mm (OR = 1.42) to 4,6 mm (OR = 2.42) to 7,8 mm (OR = 3.24) to >8 mm (OR = 12.47). Trauma to incisors is prevalent but mostly limited to enamel. Trauma to maxillary incisors is associated with overjet, gender, race-ethnicity, and age, while trauma to mandibular incisors is associated with gender, age, and overbite. [source]

Relationship of serum cholesterol levels to atopy in the US population

ALLERGY, Issue 7 2010
M. B. Fessler
To cite this article: Fessler MB, Jaramillo R, Crockett PW, Zeldin DC. Relationship of serum cholesterol levels to atopy in the US population. Allergy 2010; 65: 859,864. Abstract Background:, Cholesterol promotes Th2 immunity and allergic inflammation in rodents; whether this occurs in humans is unclear. Reports of both direct and inverse associations between serum cholesterol and atopy in different populations suggest that race and/or other demographic variables may modify these relationships. Aims of the study:, To determine the relationships between levels of three serum cholesterol measures [total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and non-HDL-C] and atopy in a sample representative of the US population. Methods:, Cross-sectional study of 6854 participants aged ,6 years from the 2005,2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results:, In the overall population, adjusted odds ratios (AORs) per two-standard deviation increase in TC and non-HDL-C for biochemical atopy (defined as ,1 allergen-specific IgE to 19 allergens) were 1.17 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00,1.38] and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.03,1.39), respectively. Interactions by race were noted for the two relationships (interaction P = 0.004 and P = 0.009, respectively) with non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) having direct relationships [TC: AOR 1.27 (95% CI, 1.03,1.57); non-HDL-C: AOR 1.27 (95% CI, 1.03,1.56)] and non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs) inverse relationships [TC: AOR 0.77 (95% CI, 0.62,0.95); non-HDL-C: AOR 0.86 (95% CI, 0.69,1.08)]. The adjusted HDL-C,atopy relationship was nonsignificant for NHWs and inverse for NHBs [AOR 0.77 (95% CI, 0.61,0.96)]. Relationships were independent of body mass index and serum C-reactive protein and unmodified by corticosteroid or statin usage. Results were similar using current hay fever/allergy as the atopy outcome. Conclusions:, There are marked inter-racial differences in the relationship between serum cholesterol and atopy in the US population. [source]

Isokinetic Leg Muscle Strength in Older Americans and Its Relationship to a Standardized Walk Test: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999,2000

Yechiam Ostchega PhD
Objectives: To describe isokinetic knee extensor muscle strength in older U.S. men and women by age and race/ethnicity and to ascertain its relationship to a standard, timed walking-speed test. Setting: The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999,2000. Design: A cross-sectional nationally representative health examination survey. Participants: All surveyed persons aged 50 and older (N=1,499) who performed muscle strength and timed walk examinations in the NHANES mobile examination center. Measurements: Concentric peak torque (strength) of the knee extensors at 1.05 rads/ s,1 velocity and a 6-m walk timed in seconds. Results: Knee extensor strength was inversely associated with age (P<.01), and women had less knee extensor muscle strength than men (P<.01). After adjustment for standing height, no significant difference in muscle strength was found across the three race/ethnicity groups (Mexican Americans, non-Hispanic blacks, and non-Hispanic whites) for men or women. After adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, weight, and height, increasing knee extensor strength was associated with significant increases in meters walked per second (P<.01). Conclusion: Knee extensor muscle strength is affected by age and sex but not by race/ethnicity and it is significantly associated with timed walk. [source]

Dental Insurance and Clinical Dental Outcomes in NHANES III

Tonya R. Stancil PhD
Abstract Objectives: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) 1988,1994 is one of the few nationally representative data sets with information on both private dental insurance and a clinical dental exam. The objective of this analysis was to examine the possible associations between private dental insurance and clinical exam outcomes, demographic variables, and dental visits. Methods: Using NHANES III data, analysis was limited to persons aged 20 years or older who had a dental exam and reported on their private dental insurance status. Initial analyses were based on comparisons between those with and without private dental insurance. Propensity scoring method was used to examine the effects of dental insurance on clinical exam variables. Results: The percentage of individuals with private dental insurance was significantly greater among non-Hispanic blacks, those with higher educational attainment, those living at/above the federal poverty level, and those with a dental visit in the past year compared to their respective counterparts. Those with untreated caries, those with a loss of attachment of greater than 4 mm, and those with 12,27 missing teeth were significantly less likely to have dental insurance (p<0.05) than their respective counterparts. Conclusions: These results suggest that having private dental insurance is associated with better clinical oral health status. [source]

Prevalence and Degree of Childhood and Adolescent Overweight in Rural, Urban, and Suburban Georgia

Richard D. Lewis
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of OW and EOW in school-aged youths from 4 regions of Georgia. A 2-stage cluster sampling procedure was performed in 2002, with participation of 4th-, 8th- and 11th-grade students (N = 3114). Measured height and weight were used to determine body mass index (BMI) for age percentiles and data were weighted to estimate population prevalence of OW. A logistic regression model determined predictors of OW. The overall estimate of OW prevalence was 20.2% and highest in males (22.0%), non-Hispanic blacks (21.8%), "other races" (32.4%), and students residing in rural growth (23.7%) and rural decline (23.0%) areas. Overweight prevalence was similar among grades. The overall estimated EOW was 4.3 and highest in males (4.7), other races (5.6), non-Hispanic blacks (5.2), and students from rural growth (5.4) and rural decline (5.0) areas. Sex, race, location, and economic tier were significant predictors (= 0.02) of OW. The prevalence and severity of OW was higher in youths residing in Georgia than nationally. School health professionals, community leaders, and parents should provide support for updated school policies aimed at providing BMI surveillance and a school environment that encourages physical activity and healthy nutrition practices. (J Sch Health. 2006;76(4):126-132) [source]

Neighbourhood deprivation and small-for-gestational-age term births in the United States

Irma T. Elo
Summary Residential context has received increased attention as a possible contributing factor to race/ethnic and socio-economic disparities in birth outcomes in the United States. Utilising vital statistics birth record data, this study examined the association between neighbourhood deprivation and the risk of a term small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth among non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks in eight geographical areas. An SGA birth was defined as a newborn weighing <10th percentile of the sex- and parity-specific birthweight distribution for a given gestational week. Multi-level random intercept logistic regression models were employed and statistical tests were performed to examine whether the association between neighbourhood deprivation and SGA varied by race/ethnicity and study site. The risk of term SGA was higher among non-Hispanic blacks (range 10.8,17.5%) than non-Hispanic whites (range 5.1,9.2%) in all areas and it was higher in cities than in suburban locations. In all areas, non-Hispanic blacks lived in more deprived neighbourhoods than non-Hispanic whites. However, the adjusted associations between neighbourhood deprivation and term SGA did not vary significantly by race/ethnicity or study site. The summary fully adjusted pooled odds ratios, indicating the effect of one standard deviation increase in the deprivation score, were 1.15 [95% CI 1.08, 1.22] for non-Hispanic whites and 1.09 [95% CI 1.05, 1.14] for non-Hispanic blacks. Thus, neighbourhood deprivation was weakly associated with term SGA among both non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks. [source]

The Asian birth outcome gap

Cheng Qin
Summary Asians are often considered a single group in epidemiological research. This study examines the extent of differences in maternal risks and birth outcomes for six Asian subgroups. Using linked birth/infant death certificate data from the State of California for the years 1992,97, we assessed maternal socio-economic risks and their effect on birthweight, preterm delivery (PTD), neonatal, post-neonatal and infant mortality for Filipino (87 120), Chinese (67 228), Vietnamese (45 237), Korean (23 431), Cambodian/Laotian (21 239) and Japanese (18 276) live singleton births. The analysis also included information about non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks in order to give a sense of the magnitude of risks among Asians. Logistic regression models explored the effect of maternal risk factors and PTD on Asian subgroup differences in neonatal and post-neonatal mortality, using Japanese as the reference group. Across Asian subgroups, the differences ranged from 2.5- to 135-fold for maternal risks, and 2.2-fold for infant mortality rate. PTD was an important contributor to neonatal mortality differences. Maternal risk factors contributed to the disparities in post-neonatal mortality. Significant differences in perinatal health across Asian subgroups deserve ethnicity-specific interventions addressing PTD, teen pregnancy, maternal education, parity and access to prenatal care. [source]

Prescription and non-prescription analgesic use among the US adult population: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III),

Ryne Paulose-Ram PhD
Abstract Purpose To estimate prescription and non-prescription analgesic use in a nationally representative sample of US adults. Methods Data collected during the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988,1994), for persons 17 years and older were analyzed (n,=,20,050). During the household interview, respondents reported use, in the last month, of prescription and non-prescription analgesics. Results An estimated 147 million adults reported monthly analgesic use, Prescription analgesic use was 9% while non-prescription use was 76%. Females were more likely than males to use prescription (11 vs. 7%, p,<,0.001) and non-prescription (81 vs. 71%, p,<,0.001) analgesics. Across race,ethnicity groups, males (,8%) and females (11,13%) had similar age-adjusted prescription analgesic use. Non-prescription analgesic use was higher among non-Hispanic whites than non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican,Americans for males (76 vs. 53% (p,<,0.001) and 59% (p,<,0.001), respectively) and females (85 vs. 68% (p,<,0.001) and 71% (p,<,0.001), respectively). With increasing age, prescription analgesic use increased whereas non-prescription use decreased. Approximately 30% of adults used multiple analgesics during a 1-month period. This was more common among females (35%) than males (25%, p,<,0.001) and among younger (17,44 years, 33%) rather than older age groups (45+ years, 26%, p,<,0.001). Conclusions Analgesic use among US adults is extremely high, specifically of non-prescription analgesics. Given this, health care providers and consumers should be aware of potential adverse effects and monitor use closely. Published in 2002 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer in Puerto Rico and among Hispanics, non-Hispanic whites, and non-Hispanic blacks in the United States, 1998-2002

CANCER, Issue 13 2009
Marievelisse Soto-Salgado MS
Abstract BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in Puerto Rico (PR). In the United States, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC have great variation by sex and race/ethnicity. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates of CRC in PR were assessed and compared with the rates among US Hispanics (USH), non-Hispanic whites (NHW), and non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) in the United States for the period from 1998 through 2002. Incidence and mortality trends and relative differences among racial/ethnic groups by sex and age were determined. METHODS: Age-standardized rates using the world standard population (ASR[World]) were based on cancer incidence and mortality data from the PR Central Cancer Registry and from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program using the direct method. The annual percentage changes (APC) and relative risks (RR) were calculated using Poisson regression models. RESULTS: During 1998 through 2002, the APC of CRC incidence and mortality increased for men in PR, whereas descending trends were observed for other racial/ethnic groups. Overall period rates indicated that, in both sexes, Puerto Ricans had CRC incidence and mortality rates similar to those for USH, but their rates were lower than those for NHW and NHB. However, Puerto Rican men and women ages 40 years to 59 years had the greatest risk of incidence and mortality compared with their USH counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: Areas of concern include the increasing trends of CRC in PR and the higher burden of the disease among young Puerto Ricans compared with the USH population. The authors concluded that further research should be performed to guide the design and implementation of CRC prevention and education programs in PR. Cancer 2009. 2009 American Cancer Society. [source]

Racial differences in tumor stage and survival for colorectal cancer in an insured population,

CANCER, Issue 3 2007
Chyke A. Doubeni MD
Abstract BACKGROUND. Despite declining death rates from colorectal cancer (CRC), racial disparities have continued to increase. In this study, the authors examined disparities in a racially diverse group of insured patients. METHODS. This study was conducted among patients who were diagnosed with CRC from 1993 to 1998, when they were enrolled in integrated healthcare systems. Patients were identified from tumor registries and were linked to information in administrative databases. The sample was restricted to non-Hispanic whites (n = 10,585), non-Hispanic blacks (n = 1479), Hispanics (n = 985), and Asians/Pacific Islanders (n = 909). Differences in tumor stage and survival were analyzed by using polytomous and Cox regression models, respectively. RESULTS. In multivariable regression analyses, blacks were more likely than whites to have distant or unstaged tumors. In Cox models that were adjusted for nonmutable factors, blacks had a higher risk of death from CRC (hazard ratio [HR], 1.17; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.06,1.30). Hispanics had a risk of death similar to whites (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.92,1.18), whereas Asians/Pacific Islanders had a lower risk of death from CRC (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.78,1.02). Adjustment for tumor stage decreased the HR to 1.11 for blacks, and the addition of receipt of surgical therapy to the model decreased the HR further to 1.06. The HR among Hispanics and Asians/Pacific Islanders was stable to adjustment for tumor stage and surgical therapy. CONCLUSIONS. The relation between race and survival from CRC was complex and appeared to be related to differences in tumor stage and therapy received, even in insured populations. Targeted interventions to improve the use of effective screening and treatment among vulnerable populations may be needed to eliminate disparities in CRC. Cancer 2007;109:612,620. 2006 American Cancer Society. [source]