Nongovernmental Organizations (nongovernmental + organization)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Nongovernmental Organizations

  • international nongovernmental organization


  • Selected Abstracts


    Predictors of the International HIV,AIDS INGO Network Over Time

    HUMAN COMMUNICATION RESEARCH, Issue 4 2005
    Michelle Shumate
    The HIV,AIDS epidemic is one of the most challenging and significant health crises facing the world today. In order to cope with its complexities, the United Nations and World Health Organization have increasingly relied upon the resources offered by networks of HIV,AIDS nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The research reported here uses evolutionary theory to predict the patterns of alliances and collaborations within the HIV,AIDS International Nongovernmental Organizations (INGO) network. The hypotheses are tested using 8 years of data from the Yearbook of International Organizations. The results showed that geographic proximity and common ties with intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) predict the pattern of alliances among HIV,AIDS INGOs. The best predictor of such alliances, however, is past relationships among these organizations. [source]


    Doctors, Borders, and Life in Crisis

    CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
    Peter Redfield
    The politics of life and death is explored from the perspective of Doctors Without Borders (Médecins sans frontières [MSF]), an activist nongovernmental organization explicitly founded to respond to health crises on a global scale. Following the work of Michel Foucault and Giorgio Agamben, I underline key intersections between MSF's operations that express concern for human life in the midst of humanitarian disaster and the group's self-proclaimed ethic of engaged refusal. Adopting the analytic frame of biopolitics, I suggest that the actual practice of medical humanitarian organizations in crisis settings presents a fragmentary and uncertain form of such power, extended beyond stable sovereignty and deployed within a restricted temporal horizon. [source]


    Science, Policy Advocacy, and Marine Protected Areas

    CONSERVATION BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    NOELLA J. GRAY
    área marina cabildeo político; protegida; credibilidad; positivismo Abstract:,Much has been written in recent years regarding whether and to what extent scientists should engage in the policy process, and the focus has been primarily on the issue of advocacy. Despite extensive theoretical discussions, little has been done to study attitudes toward and consequences of such advocacy in particular cases. We assessed attitudes toward science and policy advocacy in the case of marine protected areas (MPAs) on the basis of a survey of delegates at the First International Marine Protected Areas Congress. Delegates were all members of the international marine conservation community and represented academic, government, and nongovernmental organizations. A majority of respondents believed science is objective but only a minority believed that values can be eliminated from science. Respondents showed only partial support of positivist principles of science. Almost all respondents supported scientists being integrated into MPA policy making, whereas half of the respondents agreed that scientists should actively advocate for particular MPA policies. Scientists with a positivist view of science supported a minimal role for scientists in policy, whereas government staff with positivist beliefs supported an advocacy or decision-making role for scientists. Policy-making processes for MPAs need to account for these divergent attitudes toward science and advocacy if science-driven and participatory approaches are to be reconciled. Resumen:,Mucho se ha escrito en años recientes sobre sí y hasta que punto deben involucrarse los científicos en el proceso político, y el enfoque ha sido principalmente en el tema del cabildeo. No obstante extensas discusiones teóricas, se ha hecho poco para estudiar las actitudes hacia y las consecuencias del cabildeo en casos particulares. Evaluamos actitudes hacia la ciencia y el cabildeo político en el caso de áreas marinas protegidas (AMP) con base en un muestreo de delegados en el Primer Congreso Internacional de Áreas Marinas Protegidas (1CIAMP). Todos los delegados eran miembros de comunidad internacional de conservación marina y representaban a organizaciones académicas, gubernamentales y no gubernamentales. La mayoría de respondientes consideraron que la ciencia es objetiva pero solo una minoría creyó que los valores pueden ser eliminados de la ciencia. Los respondientes mostraron apoyo solo parcial a los principios positivistas de la ciencia. Casi todos los respondientes apoyaron que los científicos deben ser integrados a la definición de políticas para las AMP, mientras que la mitad de los respondientes estuvo de acuerdo en que los científicos deben cabildear activamente a favor de políticas AMP particulares. Los científicos con una visión positivista de la ciencia apoyaron un papel mínimo para los científicos en política, mientras que el personal gubernamental con creencias positivistas apoyó un papel en el cabildeo y toma de decisiones para los científicos. Los procesos de definición de políticas para AMP deben considerar estas actitudes divergentes hacia la ciencia y el cabildeo sí se quiere reconciliar a los métodos basados en ciencia y los participativos. [source]


    Local Participation in Natural Resource Monitoring: a Characterization of Approaches

    CONSERVATION BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    FINN DANIELSEN
    conservación; evaluación de la biodiversidad; esquemas de monitoreo; intereses locales; manejo de recursos naturales Abstract:,The monitoring of trends in the status of species or habitats is routine in developed countries, where it is funded by the state or large nongovernmental organizations and often involves large numbers of skilled amateur volunteers. Far less monitoring of natural resources takes place in developing countries, where state agencies have small budgets, there are fewer skilled professionals or amateurs, and socioeconomic conditions prevent development of a culture of volunteerism. The resulting lack of knowledge about trends in species and habitats presents a serious challenge for detecting, understanding, and reversing declines in natural resource values. International environmental agreements require signatories undertake systematic monitoring of their natural resources, but no system exists to guide the development and expansion of monitoring schemes. To help develop such a protocol, we suggest a typology of monitoring categories, defined by their degree of local participation, ranging from no local involvement with monitoring undertaken by professional researchers to an entirely local effort with monitoring undertaken by local people. We assessed the strengths and weaknesses of each monitoring category and the potential of each to be sustainable in developed or developing countries. Locally based monitoring is particularly relevant in developing countries, where it can lead to rapid decisions to solve the key threats affecting natural resources, can empower local communities to better manage their resources, and can refine sustainable-use strategies to improve local livelihoods. Nevertheless, we recognize that the accuracy and precision of the monitoring undertaken by local communities in different situations needs further study and field protocols need to be further developed to get the best from the unrealized potential of this approach. A challenge to conservation biologists is to identify and establish the monitoring system most relevant to a particular situation and to develop methods to integrate outputs from across the spectrum of monitoring schemes to produce wider indices of natural resources that capture the strengths of each. Resumen:,El monitoreo de tendencias en el estatus de especies o hábitats es rutinario en los países desarrollados, donde es financiado por el estado o por grandes organizaciones no gubernamentales y a menudo involucra a grandes números de voluntarios amateurs competentes. El monitoreo de recursos naturales es menos intenso en los países en desarrollo, donde las agencias estatales tienen presupuestos pequeños, hay menos profesionales o amateurs competentes y las condiciones socioeconómicas limitan el desarrollo de una cultura de voluntariado. La consecuente falta de conocimientos sobre las tendencias de las especies y los hábitats presenta un serio reto para la detección, entendimiento y reversión de las declinaciones de los recursos naturales. Los tratados ambientales internacionales requieren que los signatarios realicen monitoreos sistemáticos de sus recursos naturales, pero no existe un sistema para guiar el desarrollo y la expansión de los esquemas de monitoreo. Para ayudar al desarrollo de tal protocolo, sugerimos una tipología de categorías de monitoreo, definidas por el nivel de participación local, desde ningún involucramiento local con el monitoreo realizado por investigadores profesionales hasta un esfuerzo completamente local con el monitoreo llevado a cabo por habitantes locales. Evaluamos las fortalezas y debilidades de cada categoría de monitoreo, así como su sustentabilidad potencial en países desarrollados o en desarrollo. El monitoreo basado localmente es particularmente relevante en los países en desarrollo, donde puede llevar a decisiones rápidas para resolver amenazas clave sobre sus recursos naturales, puede facultar a las comunidades locales para un mejor manejo de sus recursos naturales y puede refinar las estrategias de uso sustentable para mejorar la forma de vida local. Sin embargo, reconocemos que la precisión y exactitud del monitoreo llevado a cabo por comunidades locales en situaciones diferentes requiere de mayor estudio y los protocolos de campo requieren de mayor desarrollo para obtener lo mejor del potencial de este método. Un reto para los biólogos de la conservación es la identificación y establecimiento del sistema de monitoreo más relevante para la situación particular, así como el desarrollo de métodos para integrar los resultados de una gama de esquemas de monitoreo para producir índices de recursos naturales más amplios que capturen las fortalezas de cada uno. [source]


    Consumer Control of Salt Marshes Driven by Human Disturbance

    CONSERVATION BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    MARK D. BERTNESS
    control de consumidor; impactos humanos; conservación de pantano de sal; cascadas de trophic Abstract:,Salt marsh ecosystems are widely considered to be controlled exclusively by bottom,up forces, but there is mounting evidence that human disturbances are triggering consumer control in western Atlantic salt marshes, often with catastrophic consequences. In other marine ecosystems, human disturbances routinely dampen (e.g., coral reefs, sea grass beds) and strengthen (e.g., kelps) consumer control, but current marsh theory predicts little potential interaction between humans and marsh consumers. Thus, human modification of top,down control in salt marshes was not anticipated and was even discounted in current marsh theory, despite loud warnings about the potential for cascading human impacts from work in other marine ecosystems. In spite of recent experiments that have challenged established marsh dogma and demonstrated consumer-driven die-off of salt marsh ecosystems, government agencies and nongovernmental organizations continue to manage marsh die-offs under the old theoretical framework and only consider bottom,up forces as causal agents. This intellectual dependency of many coastal ecologists and managers on system-specific theory (i.e., marsh bottom,up theory) has the potential to have grave repercussions for coastal ecosystem management and conservation in the face of increasing human threats. We stress that marine vascular plant communities (salt marshes, sea grass beds, mangroves) are likely more vulnerable to runaway grazing and consumer-driven collapse than is currently recognized by theory, particularly in low-diversity ecosystems like Atlantic salt marshes. Resumen:,Se ha considerado extensamente que los ecosistemas de marismas son controlados exclusivamente por dinámicas abajo-arriba, pero se ha acumulado evidencia de que las perturbaciones humanas están provocando el control por consumidores en marismas del Atlántico occidental, a menudo con consecuencias catastróficas. En otros ecosistemas marinos, las perturbaciones humanas rutinariamente disminuyen (e.g., arrecifes de coral, pastos marinos) y refuerzan (e.g., varec) el control por consumidores, pero la teoría de marismas actual predice una leve interacción potencial entre humanos y consumidores en las marismas. Por lo tanto, las modificaciones humanas al control arriba-abajo en las marismas no estaba anticipada y aun era descontada en la teoría de marismas actual, a pesar de advertencias sobre el potencial de impactos humanos en cascada en trabajos en otros ecosistemas marinos. No obstante los experimentos recientes que han desafiado el dogma de marismas establecido y que han demostrado la desaparición gradual de marismas conducida por consumidores, las agencias gubernamentales y las organizaciones no gubernamentales continúan manejando la disminución de marismas en el marco de la teoría vieja y sólo consideran como agentes causales a factores abajo-arriba. Esta dependencia intelectual en la teoría sistema-específico (i.e., teoría de marismas abajo-arriba) de muchos ecólogos y manejadores costeros tiene el potencial de tener repercusiones graves para el manejo y conservación de ecosistemas costeros frente a las crecientes amenazas humanas. Enfatizamos que las comunidades plantas vasculares marinas (marismas, pastos marinos, manglares) son potencialmente más vulnerables al pastoreo descontrolado y al colapso conducido por consumidores que lo que reconoce la teoría actualmente, particularmente en ecosistemas con baja diversidad como las marismas del Atlántico. [source]


    RICE PRODUCER-PROCESSOR NETWORKS IN CÔTE D'IVOIRE,

    GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW, Issue 2 2009
    Laurence Becker
    ABSTRACT. Pressured by structural adjustment loan conditions, Côte d'Ivoire reduced state support for rice production and processing during the 1990s. In this article we examine how various actors in the rice commodity chain adapted to the macroeconomic reforms. Following a brief history of the rice sector, we present the results of fieldwork based on interviews conducted in 2002 of farmers, millers, traders, and workers in the state extension service and nongovernmental organizations. We found that, in the absence of state supports for farmers, private millers became the focal point of regional producer-processor rice networks. The four networks identified became the sole source of domestic commercial rice when the state removed subsidies for fertilizer and modern seeds, privatized extension, and liberalized prices and imports. To increase their role in the national rice supply, the rice networks may need support through microlending and a focus on niche markets. [source]


    Deliberative Democracy and International Labor Standards

    GOVERNANCE, Issue 1 2003
    Archon Fung
    Political theorists have argued that the methods of deliberative democracy can help to meet challenges such as legitimacy, effective governance, and citizen education in local and national contexts. These basic insights can also be applied to problems of international governance such as the formulation, implementation, and monitoring of labor standards. A participatory and deliberative democratic approach to labor standards would push the labor,standards debate into the global public sphere. It would seek to create broad discussion about labor standards that would include not only firms and regulators, but also consumers, nongovernmental organizations, journalists, and others. This discussion could potentially improve (1) the quality of labor standards by incorporating considerations of economic context and firm capability, (2) their implementation by bringing to bear not only state sanctions but also political and market pressures, and (3) the education and understanding of citizens. Whereas the role of public agencies in state,centered approaches is to formulate and enforce labor standards, central authorities in the decentralized,deliberative approach would foster the transparency of workplace practices to spur an inclusive, broad, public conversation about labor standards. To the extent that a substantive consensus around acceptable behavior emerges from that conversation, public power should also enforce those minimum standards. [source]


    Legitimacy and the Privatization of Environmental Governance: How Non,State Market,Driven (NSMD) Governance Systems Gain Rule,Making Authority

    GOVERNANCE, Issue 4 2002
    Benjamin Cashore
    In recent years, transnational and domestic nongovernmental organizations have created non,state market,driven (NSMD) governance systems whose purpose is to develop and implement environmentally and socially responsible management practices. Eschewing traditional state authority, these systems and their supporters have turned to the market's supply chain to create incentives and force companies to comply. This paper develops an analytical framework designed to understand better the emergence of NSMD governance systems and the conditions under which they may gain authority to create policy. Its theoretical roots draw on pragmatic, moral, and cognitive legitimacy granting distinctions made within organizational sociology, while its empirical focus is on the case of sustainable forestry certification, arguably the most advanced case of NSMD governance globally. The paper argues that such a framework is needed to assess whether these new private governance systems might ultimately challenge existing state,centered authority and public policy,making processes, and in so doing reshape power relations within domestic and global environmental governance. [source]


    Predictors of the International HIV,AIDS INGO Network Over Time

    HUMAN COMMUNICATION RESEARCH, Issue 4 2005
    Michelle Shumate
    The HIV,AIDS epidemic is one of the most challenging and significant health crises facing the world today. In order to cope with its complexities, the United Nations and World Health Organization have increasingly relied upon the resources offered by networks of HIV,AIDS nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The research reported here uses evolutionary theory to predict the patterns of alliances and collaborations within the HIV,AIDS International Nongovernmental Organizations (INGO) network. The hypotheses are tested using 8 years of data from the Yearbook of International Organizations. The results showed that geographic proximity and common ties with intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) predict the pattern of alliances among HIV,AIDS INGOs. The best predictor of such alliances, however, is past relationships among these organizations. [source]


    Migration, Displacement, and Violence: Prosecuting Romanian Street Children at the Paris Palace of Justice

    INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION, Issue 5 2004
    Susan J. Terrio
    This paper examines the displacement and vulnerability associated with the migration of unaccompanied illegal Romanian minors who came as economic migrants to Western Europe, found no legal opportunities for work or education, and were forced into criminal activity on the streets of French cities such as Paris, Lyon, and Nice. Beginning in 1997 growing numbers of unaccompanied Romanians, mostly boys, some as young as age ten, many younger than age 15, were subject to systematic prosecution rather than protection in Paris, the site of the largest and most influential juvenile court in the nation. They were arrested, detained, indicted, released pending trial, judged, and sentenced in absentia, multiple times with different identities. The Romanian minors were caught without legal papers or visas, claimed to be squatters living in abandoned buildings, trailers, or camps outside Paris, and gave little reliable information about their families or lives. Initially arrested for the destruction of city property and the theft of the proceeds from city parking meters, they gradually turned to begging, shoplifting, and prostitution when the city switched from coin to card payment. Deeply concerned by the penalization of a vulnerable population, the president of the Paris juvenile court created a special court to deal more humanely with unaccompanied minors in general, and Romanian children in particular, by establishing their identities and reconnecting them with their families. This article explores the contradictions that emerged between the representation of Romanian children in the media, the legal establishment, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and the Government, on the one hand, and their treatment in the juvenile justice system, on the other. It examines the discourse and the context of judging as well as the interactions between court personnel and Romanian minors from in-take interviews in jail and indictment hearings in chambers to judgment in absentia in the formal court. It compares and contrasts cases heard before and after the creation of the special court and centres on the gaps between official rhetoric, legal norms, and judicial practice. It concludes that the creation of the special court may be having the unintended effect of reinforcing and institutionalizing the very judicial practice it was designed to prevent, namely the penalization of marginality. [source]


    Transnational Networks and Policy Diffusion: The Case of Gender Mainstreaming

    INTERNATIONAL STUDIES QUARTERLY, Issue 1 2001
    Jacqui True
    How can we account for the global diffusion of remarkably similar policy innovations across widely differing nation-states? In an era characterized by heightened globalization and increasingly radical state restructuring, this question has become especially acute. Scholars of international relations offer a number of theoretical explanations for the cross-national convergence of ideas, institutions, and interests. We examine the proliferation of state bureaucracies for gender mainstreaming. These organizations seek to integrate a gender-equality perspective across all areas of government policy. Although they so far have received scant attention outside of feminist policy circles, these mainstreaming bureaucracies,now in place in over 100 countries,represent a powerful challenge to business-as-usual politics and policymaking. As a policy innovation, the speed with which these institutional mechanisms have been adopted by the majority of national governments is unprecedented. We argue that transnational networks composed largely of nonstate actors (notably women's international nongovernmental organizations and the United Nations) have been the primary forces driving the diffusion of gender mainstreaming. In an event history analysis of 157 nation-states from 1975 to 1998, we assess how various national and transnational factors have affected the timing and the type of the institutional changes these states have made. Our findings support the claim that the diffusion of gender-mainstreaming mechanisms has been facilitated by the role played by transnational networks, in particular by the transnational feminist movement. Further, they suggest a major shift in the nature and the locus of global politics and national policymaking. [source]


    Sovereignty in the Balance: Claims and Bargains at the UN Conferences on the Environment, Human Rights, and Women

    INTERNATIONAL STUDIES QUARTERLY, Issue 4 2000
    Kathryn Hochstetler
    States vary the content and subject matter of their claims to sovereignty. In an analysis of when states invoked sovereignty at recent UN World Conferences on the environment (1992), human rights (1993), and women (1995), the authors revise and extend Litfin's (1997) notion of bargains among components of sovereignty. At the conferences, states invoked sovereignty in debates over cultural and religious values, economics, and increased international accountability. The authors interpret the debates based on how four elements of sovereignty,autonomy, control, and legitimacy in the eyes of other states and nonstate actors,are traded by states through implicit or explicit bargaining. They identify patterns that vary by issue area. The authors argue that nongovernmental organizations as well as other states may legitimate or delegitimate states' sovereign claims. They find that countries of the global South made more sovereignty claims of all kinds than Northern states. And, sovereignty bargains may be struck more easily over power and economics than social values. [source]


    Policy Wars for Peace: Network Model of NGO Behavior,

    INTERNATIONAL STUDIES REVIEW, Issue 3 2009
    Anna Ohanyan
    The challenge of orchestrating coordination and cooperation among the many international organizations active in international development has attracted much interest from academics and practitioners alike. This study addresses a particular piece of the larger puzzle: as nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and their donors, each usually with much different policy orientations, coalesce within interorganizational networks, what determines whose policy preferences are pursued, implemented, and delivered on the ground? Within the network-based model of NGO behavior introduced in this article, certain attributes and the internal institutional composition of NGO,donor policy networks are significant determinants in shaping opportunities for NGOs and in giving both NGOs and donors leverage over the policy process. The model focuses specifically on demonstrating the effects of a network on NGO autonomy,that is, an NGO's ability to advance its own policy preferences regardless of their congruency with those of its donors. The network typology presented in this study identifies the comparative advantages of distinct network types in which the NGO is most empowered as an autonomous policy actor and is best equipped to withstand parochial donor preferences. Using network analysis and the proposed network-based model, this research takes the form of a comparative study of four NGO,donor policy networks from the postconflict microfinance sector in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The study also charts new research paths toward developing network-based approaches to the study of international institutions. [source]


    Comparative Policy Brief: Status of Intellectual Disabilities in the Republic of Zambia

    JOURNAL OF POLICY AND PRACTICE IN INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES, Issue 2 2008
    James Mung'omba
    Abstract, In the Republic of Zambia, an estimated 256,000 persons have some form of disability, and of these, 5.4% have intellectual disabilities. Even now, traditional beliefs about the etiology of intellectual disabilities persist and considerable stigma is attached to the presence of persons with intellectual disabilities who are often excluded from community life. Recently, antidiscrimination legislation has been enacted and there is a policy related to pupils with special educational needs. Although a range of Zambian and international nongovernmental organizations and church groups have developed services for children and their families, their impact is impeded by widespread poverty. Adults remain vulnerable, with no entitlement to social welfare benefits and very limited access either to government-led trust funds for persons with disabilities or to employment. The most striking issue is poverty (Zambia is one of the world's poorest nations) and an absence of even basic support for people with intellectual disabilities outside of families. Other key issues include a lack of useful data, no specific policy related to persons with intellectual disabilities, and limited progress in achieving education for all. [source]


    Deceptive Utopias: Violence, Environmentalism, and the Regulation of Multiculturalism in Colombia

    LAW & POLICY, Issue 3 2009
    DIANA BOCAREJO
    Multiculturalism, constructed as a liberal utopia intended to recognize marginal populations, commonly draws upon deceptive mechanisms that reify the old trope of anthropological "savage slots" (a term borrowed from Trouillot 2003). Such slots configure the relationship between politics and places: the fixation of ethnicity in a territory and the creation of strong frontiers,both physical and symbolic,between grantees and nongrantees of differential citizenships. In the case analyzed in this article, those frontiers reify the distinction between peasants and indigenous peoples; two group categories widely mobilized in the context of indigenous land expansion in the northern region of Colombia (South America). This article explores how an environmental "utopic space" used by state institutions and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), has turned into a fetish that hides a segment of Colombia's most dramatic reality: the violent context wherein paramilitary threats force small peasant landholders to sell and leave their land. [source]


    Finnish Allergy Programme 2008,2018 , time to act and change the course

    ALLERGY, Issue 6 2008
    T. Haahtela
    Background:, The prevalence of allergic diseases has grown in Finland, similarly to many other western countries. Although the origin of allergy remains unresolved, increasing body of evidence indicates that the modern man living in urban built environment is deprived from environmental protective factors (e.g. soil microorganisms) that are fundamental for normal tolerance development. The current dogma of allergen avoidance has not proved effective in halting the ,epidemic', and it is the Finnish consensus that restoring and strengthening tolerance should more be in focus. Aim:, The national 10-year programme is aimed to reduce burden of allergies. The main goals are to (i) prevent the development of allergic symptoms; (ii) increase tolerance against allergens; (iii) improve the diagnostics; (iv) decrease work-related allergies; (v) allocate resources to manage and prevent exacerbations of severe allergies and (vi) decrease costs caused by allergic diseases. Methods:, For each goal, specific tasks, tools and evaluation methods are defined. Nationwide implementation acts through the network of local co-ordinators (primary care physicians, nurses, pharmacists). In addition, three nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) take care of the programme implementation. The 21 central hospital districts carry out a three step educational process: (i) healthcare personnel; (ii) representatives and educators of NGOs and (iii) patients and the general population. For outcome evaluation, repeated surveys are performed and healthcare registers employed at the beginning, at 5 years, and at the end of the programme. The process will be evaluated by an independent external body. Conclusion:, The Finnish initiative is a comprehensive plan to reduce burden of allergies. The aim is to increase immunological tolerance and change attitudes to support health instead of medicalizing common and mild allergy symptoms. It is time to act, when allergic individuals are becoming a majority of western populations and their numbers are in rapid increase worldwide. The Programme is associated with the Global Alliance of Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD), WHO. [source]


    Strategies and tactics in NGO,government relations

    NONPROFIT MANAGEMENT & LEADERSHIP, Issue 1 2010
    Insights from slum housing in Mumbai
    Relationships between nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and government agencies have been variously described in the nonprofit literature as cooperative, complementary, adversarial, confrontational, or even co-optive. But how do NGO,government relationships emerge in practice, and is it possible for NGOs to manage multiple strategies of interaction at once? This article examines the experience of three leading NGOs in Mumbai, India, involved in slum and squatter housing. We investigate how they began relating with government agencies during their formative years and the factors that shaped their interactions. We find that NGOs with similar goals end up using very different strategies and tactics to advance their housing agendas. More significant, we observe that NGOs are likely to employ multiple strategies and tactics in their interactions with government. Finally, we find that an analysis of strategies and tactics can be a helpful vehicle for clarifying an organization's theory of change. [source]


    A critical cross-cultural perspective for developing nonprofit international management capacity

    NONPROFIT MANAGEMENT & LEADERSHIP, Issue 4 2009
    Terence Jackson
    Issues of the effectiveness of international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are becoming critical among a claim that cultural sensitivity to people's needs and the appropriateness of interventions is a competitive advantage of the sector. Here, the cross-cultural management agenda is set out, particularly in terms of the transferability or appropriateness of management knowledge and development interventions. Research propositions are presented that, if supported through future empirical findings, suggest cultural hybridization is a process that can be managed through greater stakeholder involvement, leading to greater appropriateness as well as effectiveness of international NGOs. [source]


    Structures and processes in intermediary nongovernmental organizations: Research evidence from Northern Ireland

    NONPROFIT MANAGEMENT & LEADERSHIP, Issue 4 2005
    John M. Bruton
    This article reports the results of an exploratory study of the organizational characteristics, functions, and roles of intermediary nonprofit organizations selected by the European Union to deliver global grant funding in relation to its Special Support Programme for Peace and Reconciliation in Northern Ireland. The results show that the main factor for determining organizational processes is the need to respond to conflicting pressures from two directions: upward to funding agencies and downward to community groups. This produces contradictory demands that are imported into the organizations as a set of internal tensions. The different structures and capabilities developed by the organizations to maintain unity and integrity in response to these tensions are explored and related to differences in the perceived role of the organizations. [source]


    Organization and Management in the Third Sector: Toward a Cross-Cultural Research Agenda

    NONPROFIT MANAGEMENT & LEADERSHIP, Issue 1 2002
    David Lewis
    Third sector organizations in the industrialized and the developing world,and particularly the subset of third sector organizations known as development nongovernmental organizations (NGOs),are becoming more culturally diverse in internal staff composition, management styles, and working environments. Although cultural issues have been largely absent from the nonprofit and the NGO research literatures, the organizational implications of societal culture and organizational culture are widely debated within other research fields. This article proposes a closer engagement between third sector management research and the wider study of cross-cultural organizational issues within anthropology, development studies, and management theory. It argues that such an exchange is necessary if third sector organizational research agendas are to include changing organizational landscapes effectively, and the article concludes with some ideas for future research. [source]


    The Environmental Civil Society and the Transformation of State-Society Relations in China: Building a Tri-level Analytical Framework

    PACIFIC FOCUS, Issue 2 2007
    Teh-chang Lin
    State-society relations is a conventional tool used in analyzing the relational behavioral pattern of between the state and the society. In China, market reforms and open policy since 1978 have engendered the growth of environmental civil society organizations and thereby enhanced the changes in the nature of state-society relations. However, the analysis of Chinese state-society relations has in the past largely been two-dimensional, focusing on domestic relations. However, changing patterns of state-society relations in China has called for a more elaborate tri-level analytical framework of the state, its main civil society representative, domestic non-governmental organizations, and international non-governmental organizations. Through the study of environmental protests such as anti-dam construction demonstrations, we have found that domestically, Chinese environmental nongovernmental organizations not only act as a challenger to the state, but at times collaborate with the state. From an external perspective, international non-governmental organizations not only directly challenge the Chinese state, but also network with local Chinese NGOs in their protests. This article thus adds a new level to the conventional analysis of state-society relations in China. [source]


    Despite the Northern Territories: Hokkaido's Courting of the Russian Far East

    PACIFIC FOCUS, Issue 1 2003
    Tsuneo Akaha
    Recent studies of Japan's postwar policy toward Russia have persuasively argued that the intrinsic (symbolic and psychological) value rather than the instrumental (economic or strategic) value that the Northern Territories (Southern Kuriles) represents to Japan is the most important obstacle to the normalization of relations between the two countries. Theoretically, there are three ways in which the intrinsic value of the disputed islands might be substantially depreciated and the instrumental value of closer bilateral ties appreciated: (1) major concessions from Russia, which are highly unlikely, (2) the emergence of a security or strategic of common concern to Tokyo and Moscow prompting the two sides to offer mutual concessions on the territorial issue or indefinitely postpone its resolution, and (3) a substantial expansion of economic, cultural, and social ties between the Japanese and the Russians, dramatically improving Japanese attitudes toward Russia. This study explores the third possibility, with a particular focus on developments at the subnational level, the level that has been largely ignored by students of Russian-Japanese relations. Namely, the study examines relations between Hokkaido and the Russian Far East since the 1960s and asks: Do the same logic and dynamic that operate at the national level apply at the regional level? Does the intrinsic importance of the territorial dispute prevail over considerations of economic and other tangible values at the subnational level as it does at the national level? The paper concludes that while Hokkaido has not deviated from the Japanese government,s official position on the territorial issue,that all the islands belong to Japan, the dispute has not prevented the provincial administration, municipal governments, or nongovernmental organizations in Hokkaido from launching and sustaining initiatives to cement closer ties with their northern neighbors, with growing economic and human ties playing important roles in the process. [source]


    Reactions of Developing-Country Elites to International Population Policy

    POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW, Issue 4 2002
    Nancy Luke
    The authors examine the global diffusion of international population policy, which they consider a cultural item. The process of cultural diffusion is often seen as spontaneous: items of Western culture are in demand because they are universally attractive. Yet cultural flows may also be directed, they may be unattractive to their intended recipients, and their acceptance may depend on persuasion and material incentives. The authors consider the range of responses of national elites to the new population policy adopted by the United Nations at Cairo in 1994. Strongly influenced by feminists, the Cairo Program of Action promotes gender equity and reproductive health and demotes previous concerns with population growth. The data are interviews with representatives of governmental and nongovernmental organizations involved in population and health in five developing countries. To interpret the interviews, the authors draw on two theoretical frameworks. The first emphasizes the attractiveness of new cultural items and the creation of a normative consensus about their value. The second emphasizes differentials in power and resources among global actors and argues that the diffusion of cultural items can be directed by powerful donor states. Interviews in Bangladesh, Ghana, Jordan, Malawi, and Senegal portray a mixed reception to Cairo: enthusiastic embrace of certain aspects of the Cairo policy by some members of the national elite and a realistic assessment of donor power by virtually all. Strategies of rhetoric and action appear to be aimed at maintaining and directing the flows of donor funds. [source]


    Administrative Failure and the International NGO Response to Hurricane Katrina

    PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REVIEW, Issue 2007
    Angela M. Eikenberry
    The devastation caused by Hurricane Katrina and the subsequent failure of government agencies and public administrators elicited an unprecedented response by international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs) to a disaster in the United States. This paper focuses on why so many INGOs were compelled to provide humanitarian assistance and relief in the United States for the first time and the administrative barriers they faced while doing so. What does such a response reveal about administrative failures in the wake of Katrina, and what might the implications be for reconceptualizing roles for nonprofit and nongovernmental organizations in disaster relief? The authors answer these questions using data from interviews with INGO representatives, organizational press releases and Web sites, news articles, and official reports and documentation. [source]


    American Federalism and the Search for Models of Management

    PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REVIEW, Issue 6 2001
    Robert Agranoff
    Changes in the United States federal system mean that managers must operate by taking into account multiple interacting governments and nongovernmental organizations; dealing with numerous programs emanating from Washington and state capitols; and engaging in multiple intergovernmental transactions with an expanding number of intergovernmental instruments. Four models of management within this changing system are identified. The top-down model emphasizes executive-branch control and is embedded in enforcement and exchange related to the laws, regulations, funding rules, program standards, and guidelines associated with federal/state grant, procurement, and regulation programs. The donor-recipient model emphasizes mutual dependence or shared program administration, where two-party bargaining or reciprocal interactions among government officials is the norm. The jurisdiction-based model is defined by the initiated actions of local officials and managers who seek out program adjustments and other actors and resources to serve the strategic aims of their governments. The network model highlights the actions of multiple interdependent government and nongovernmental organizations pursuing joint action and intergovernmental adjustment. Although the first two models are long-standing and the latter two are emergent, all appear to be alive and well on the intergovernmental scene, posing complex challenges for public managers. [source]


    The Promise of Patronage: Adapting and Adopting Neoliberal Development

    ANTIPODE, Issue 1 2010
    Kathleen O'Reilly
    Abstract:, Much of the literature on nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and development suggests that a top-down process is underway which leads to the dispersal of neoliberal ideals. Drawing on 2 years of ethnographic research in Rajasthan, India, this paper examines how a poverty alleviation project "fits" into competitive,and,co-operative socio-economic relations already operating on the ground. It argues that in contradiction to neoliberal notions of empowerment espoused by project policies, both NGOs and their constituents have an interest in establishing and maintaining patronage networks that stabilize relationships of dependency. The paper concludes that neoliberal development projects serve to enable patron,client relationships between NGOs and villagers, and enroll the state in the continuing provision of benefits beyond those planned by the project. [source]


    Relationship of business and NGOs: an empirical analysis of strategies and mediators of their private relationship

    BUSINESS ETHICS: A EUROPEAN REVIEW, Issue 2 2009
    Carmen Valor
    Managing the relationship with nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) is a key capability for most companies, because dialogue with stakeholders is a requested feature of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). This paper analyses the relationship between businesses and NGOs in Spain. By applying grounded theory, the authors summarize this relationship in the dynamics of conflict and cooperation. NGOs' strategies vis-à-vis companies are categorized and the variables explaining different approaches on both companies' and NGOs' side are examined. The paper concludes by placing the private relationship with NGOs in a wider context (the public arena), dominated by the approach-withdrawal dynamics between firms and NGOs. Finally, this paper presents the theory that results from this research. [source]


    Strategic inter-organizational environmentalism in the US: A multi-sectoral perspective of alternating eco-policy roles,

    BUSINESS STRATEGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT, Issue 4 2002
    Mark Starik
    During the last several decades, numerous policies and programs intended to advance environmental goals have been formulated in the US by governmental bodies and implemented by businesses and nongovernmental organizations. This article forwards a multi-sectoral perspective that business and nonprofit organizations have also been significantly involved in environmental policy and program formulation, as well as implementation, and that governments have also fulfilled the latter strategic role in US environmental policy. In this article, nine US environmental initiatives are described and categorized according to which of the three sectors' organizations were significant formulators of the programs and which were significant implementors. Implications for future research include investigation of other environmental dyadic program combinations in addition to those presented, extension of the present analysis beyond dyads into environmental policy networks, inclusion of the strategic environmental program evaluation stage to complement formulation and implementation and exploration of effectiveness variables in cross-sectoral, inter-organizational collaborations. Implications for educators and practitioners are also presented. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and ERP Environment. [source]


    Generation, Capture, and Utilization of Industrial Carbon Dioxide

    CHEMSUSCHEM CHEMISTRY AND SUSTAINABILITY, ENERGY & MATERIALS, Issue 3 2010
    Andrew
    Abstract As a carbon-based life form living in a predominantly carbon-based environment, it is not surprising that we have created a carbon-based consumer society. Our principle sources of energy are carbon-based (coal, oil, and gas) and many of our consumer goods are derived from organic (i.e., carbon-based) chemicals (including plastics, fabrics and materials, personal care and cleaning products, dyes, and coatings). Even our large-volume inorganic-chemicals-based industries, including fertilizers and construction materials, rely on the consumption of carbon, notably in the form of large amounts of energy. The environmental problems which we now face and of which we are becoming increasingly aware result from a human-induced disturbance in the natural carbon cycle of the Earth caused by transferring large quantities of terrestrial carbon (coal, oil, and gas) to the atmosphere, mostly in the form of carbon dioxide. Carbon is by no means the only element whose natural cycle we have disturbed: we are transferring significant quantities of elements including phosphorus, sulfur, copper, and platinum from natural sinks or ores built up over millions of years to unnatural fates in the form of what we refer to as waste or pollution. However, our complete dependence on the carbon cycle means that its disturbance deserves special attention, as is now manifest in indicators such as climate change and escalating public concern over global warming. As with all disturbances in materials balances, we can seek to alleviate the problem by (1),dematerialization: a reduction in consumption; (2),rematerialization: a change in what we consume; or (3),transmaterialization: changing our attitude towards resources and waste. The "low-carbon" mantra that is popularly cited by organizations ranging from nongovernmental organizations to multinational companies and from local authorities to national governments is based on a combination of (1) and (2) (reducing carbon consumption though greater efficiency and lower per capita consumption, and replacing fossil energy sources with sources such as wind, wave, and solar, respectively). "Low carbon" is of inherently less value to the chemical and plastics industries at least in terms of raw materials although a version of (2), the use of biomass, does apply, especially if we use carbon sources that are renewable on a human timescale. There is however, another renewable, natural source of carbon that is widely available and for which greater utilization would help restore material balance and the natural cycle for carbon in terms of resource and waste. CO2, perhaps the most widely discussed and feared chemical in modern society, is as fundamental to our survival as water, and like water we need to better understand the human as well as natural production and consumption of CO2 so that we can attempt to get these into a sustainable balance. Current utilization of this valuable resource by the chemical industry is only 90,megatonne per year, compared to the 26.3,gigatonne CO2 generated annually by combustion of fossil fuels for energy generation, as such significant opportunities exist for increased utilization of CO2 generated from industrial processes. It is also essential that renewable energy is used if CO2 is to be utilized as a C1 building block. [source]


    Technological revolution meets policy and the market: Explaining cross-national differences in agricultural biotechnology regulation

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL RESEARCH, Issue 5 2003
    Thomas Bernauer
    The European Union (EU) has imposed severe restrictions on agricultural biotechnology, particularly in terms of approval and labeling of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food. The United States has adopted a far more permissive approval policy and has not required labeling. This article explains these differences in terms of the collective action capacity of consumer and producer interests, and the institutional environment in which regulation has taken place. We find that the regulatory outcome in the EU can be traced back to nongovernmental organizations' (NGOs) increased collective action capacity due to public outrage, an institutional environment favorable to anti-biotechnology NGO interests (multilevel regulatory policy making) and a disintegration of the producer coalition due to NGO campaigns and differences in industrial structure. Biotechnology politics in the United States has been dominated by a strong and cohesive coalition of pro-biotechnology upstream and downstream producers and farmers. Because of lower public outrage and a less favorable institutional environment (centralized regulatory policy making), anti-biotechnology NGOs in the United States have been largely excluded from agricultural biotechnology policy making. [source]