Nongenetic Factors (nongenetic + factor)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Offspring-driven local dispersal in female sand lizards (Lacerta agilis)

K. Ryberg
Abstract We report on a field study in which determinants of female breeding dispersal (i.e. the shift in the mean home range coordinates between successive breeding events) was investigated. Offspring were released in full sib groups (or half sib ones if there was within-clutch multiple paternity) at a separation distance from the females that varied between ,families'. This allowed for analysis of ,offspring nearness' effects on maternal dispersal. When a female's offspring were released more closely to her, she responded with greater dispersal. Furthermore, when the data set was truncated at 100 m maternal,offspring separation distance at offspring release (because perception at longer distances is likely to be unrealistic), maternal dispersal resulted in greater separation distance between female and offspring in the following year. A corresponding analysis for juveniles revealed no effect of maternal nearness on offspring dispersal but identified a significant effect of clutch size, to our surprise with dispersal declining with increasing clutch size. We discuss this result in a context of the ,public information hypothesis' (reinterpreted for juveniles in a nonsocial foraging species), suggesting that conspecific abundance perhaps acts as an indicator of local habitat quality. Thus, our analysis suggests a microgeographic structuring of the adult female population driven by genetic factors, either through inbreeding avoidance, or from simply avoiding individuals with a similar genotype regardless of their pedigree relatedness, while a nongenetic factor seems more important in their offspring. [source]

A new look at viruses in type 1 diabetes

Hee-Sook Jun
Abstract Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Genetic factors are believed to be a major component for the development of T1D, but the concordance rate for the development of diabetes in identical twins is only about 40%, suggesting that nongenetic factors play an important role in the expression of the disease. Viruses are one environmental factor that is implicated in the pathogenesis of T1D. To date, 14 different viruses have been reported to be associated with the development of T1D in humans and animal models. Viruses may be involved in the pathogenesis of T1D in at least two distinct ways: by inducing beta cell-specific autoimmunity, with or without infection of the beta cells, [e.g. Kilham rat virus (KRV)] and by cytolytic infection and destruction of the beta cells (e.g. encephalomyocarditis virus in mice). With respect to virus-mediated autoimmunity, retrovirus, reovirus, KRV, bovine viral diarrhoea-mucosal disease virus, mumps virus, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are discussed. With respect to the destruction of beta cells by cytolytic infection, encephalomyocarditis virus, mengovirus and Coxsackie B viruses are discussed. In addition, a review of transgenic animal models for virus-induced autoimmune diabetes is included, particularly with regard to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, influenza viral proteins and the Epstein-Barr viral receptor. Finally, the prevention of autoimmune diabetes by infection of viruses such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus is discussed. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Expression of organic cation transporters OCT1 (SLC22A1) and OCT3 (SLC22A3) is affected by genetic factors and cholestasis in human liver,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
Anne T. Nies
An important function of hepatocytes is the biotransformation and elimination of various drugs, many of which are organic cations and are taken up by organic cation transporters (OCTs) of the solute carrier family 22 (SLC22). Because interindividual variability of OCT expression may affect response to cationic drugs such as metformin, we systematically investigated genetic and nongenetic factors of OCT1/SLC22A1 and OCT3/SLC22A3 expression in human liver. OCT1 and OCT3 expression (messenger RNA [mRNA], protein) was analyzed in liver tissue samples from 150 Caucasian subjects. Hepatic OCTs were localized by way of immunofluorescence microscopy. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray technology served to genotype 92 variants in the SLC22A1-A3/OCT1-3 gene cluster. Transport of metformin by recombinant human OCT1 and OCT3 was compared using transfected cells. OCT1 mRNA and protein expression varied 113- and 83-fold, respectively; OCT3 mRNA expression varied 27-fold. OCT1 transcript levels were on average 15-fold higher compared with OCT3. We localized the OCT3 protein to the basolateral hepatocyte membrane and identified metformin as an OCT3 substrate. OCT1 and OCT3 expression are independent of age and sex but were significantly reduced in liver donors diagnosed as cholestatic (P , 0.01). Several haplotypes for OCT1 and OCT3 were identified. Multivariate analysis adjusted for multiple testing showed that only the OCT1-Arg61Cys variant (rs12208357) strongly correlated with decreased OCT1 protein expression (P < 0.0001), and four variants in OCT3 (rs2292334, rs2048327, rs1810126, rs3088442) were associated with reduced OCT3 mRNA levels (P = 0.03). Conclusion: We identified cholestasis and genetic variants as critical determinants for considerable interindividual variability of hepatic OCT1 and OCT3 expression. This indicates consequences for hepatic elimination of and response to OCT substrates such as metformin. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.) [source]

Determinants of red blood cell methotrexate polyglutamate concentrations in rheumatoid arthritis patients receiving long-term methotrexate treatment,

Lisa K. Stamp
Objective Methotrexate (MTX) is the most commonly used disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) in the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MTX is transported into cells, where additional glutamate moieties are added and it is retained as MTX polyglutamates (MTXGlu [referred to as a group as MTXGlun]). There is large interpatient variability in MTXGlun concentrations. This study was undertaken to determine nongenetic factors that influence red blood cell (RBC) MTXGlun concentrations in patients receiving long-term stable low-dose oral MTX. Methods One hundred ninety-two patients receiving long-term oral MTX for the treatment of RA were recruited. Trough MTXGlun concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Univariate analysis was performed to determine variables influencing MTXGlun concentrations. Backward stepwise multivariate regression analysis was done to determine variables that affect individual MTXGlun concentrations; variables with P values of <0.1 in the univariate analysis for any MTXGlun were included. Results Univariate analysis revealed that increased age, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), higher MTX dosage, longer duration of MTX treatment, and use of prednisone were associated with significantly higher MTXGlun concentrations. Smokers had significantly lower concentrations of MTXGlu3, MTXGlu3,5, and MTXGlu1,5. Sex, rheumatoid factor and anti,cyclic citrullinated peptide status, RBC folate level, and body mass index had no significant effect on MTXGlun levels. Concomitant use of other DMARDs was associated with lower MTXGlu2 levels, and treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs was associated with lower MTXGlu3 and MTXGlu1,5 concentrations. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that age, MTX dosage, and estimated GFR were the major determinants of MTXGlun concentrations. Conclusion Large interpatient variability in MTXGlun concentrations can be explained, at least in part, by a combination of factors, particularly age, MTX dosage, and renal function. There are complex interactions between smoking, RBC folate levels, and concentrations of MTXGlun. [source]

Offspring size and survival in the frog Rana latastei: from among-population to within-clutch variation

Egg size is considered to be a major maternal effect for offspring in oviparous organisms. It has profound consequences on fitness, and differences in egg size are viewed as plastic responses to environmental variability. However, it is difficult to identify the effect of egg size per se because egg size can covary with genetic features of the mother and with other nongenetic factors. We analysed the relationship between offspring starting size (i.e. a proxy of egg size) and larval survival in the frog Rana latastei. We analysed this relationship: (1) among five populations at different altitudes; (2) among clutches laid from different females; and (3) among siblings within clutches, to evaluate the effect of starting size. We observed differences among populations for offspring size, but starting size was not related to altitude or genetic diversity. Mortality was higher in populations and families with small average starting size; however, among siblings, the relationship between starting size and mortality was not verified. The relationship observed among clutches may therefore be caused by covariation between egg size and other effects. This suggests that the covariation between egg size and other effects can result in apparent relationships between egg size and fitness-related traits. Proximate and ultimate factors can cause the phenotypic variation of hatchlings in the wild, and key traits can be related to this variation, but the underlying causes require further investigation. 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 97, 845,853. [source]