Nonfatal Myocardial Infarction (nonfatal + myocardial_infarction)

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Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Two-Year Clinical Registry Follow-up of Endothelial Progenitor Cell Capture Stent Versus Sirolimus-Eluting Bioabsorbable Polymer-Coated Stent Versus Bare Metal Stents in Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Background: Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) capture stent is designed to promote rapid endothelization and healing and is potentially useful in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We studied the intermediate-term efficacy and safety of EPC stent and compared that with sirolimus-eluting bioabsorbable polymer stent (CURA) and bare metal stent (BMS) in AMI patients. Methodology: Patients presenting with AMI who underwent primary PCI with the respective stents between January 2004 and June 2006 were enrolled in the single-center clinical registry. The study end-points were major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and stent thrombosis. Results: A total of 366 patients (EPC = 95, CURA = 53, BMS 218) were enrolled. Baseline demographics including age, gender, diabetes, renal impairment, predischarge left ventricular ejection fraction, and creatinine kinase level were comparable among the groups. Procedural success rate was 99.5%. Post-procedural thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) 3 flow was achieved in EPC 91.6%, CURA 96.2%, and BMS 88.5% (P = 0.209). At 2 years, the MACE rate was EPC 13.7%, CURA 15.1%, and BMS 19.7% (P = 0.383). Target vessel revascularizations (TVR) were EPC 4.2%, CURA 9.4%, and BMS 6.0% (P = 0.439). Nonfatal myocardial infarctions were EPC 1.1%, CURA 3.8%, and BMS 4.1% (P = 0.364). One patient in the EPC group had acute stent thrombosis. There was no late stent thrombosis in the EPC group. Conclusion: EPC stent appeared to be safe and had comparable clinical efficacy with a BMS when used in the AMI setting. At 2-year follow-up, the EPC group showed favorable, single-digit TVR rate and stent thrombosis remained a low-event occurrence. (J Interven Cardiol 2010;23:101-108) [source]

Prognostic Value of Exercise Stress Test and Dobutamine Stress Echo in Patients with Known Coronary Artery Disease

Francesca Innocenti M.D.
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the feasibility of dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) and exercise stress test (EST) between patients in different age groups and to evaluate their proportional prognostic value in a population with established coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: The study sample included 323 subjects, subdivided in group 1 (G1), comprising 246 patients aged <75 years, and group 2 (G2), with 77 subjects aged ,75 years. DSE and EST were performed before enrollment in a cardiac rehabilitation program; for prognostic assessment, end points were all-cause mortality and hard cardiac events (cardiac death or nonfatal myocardial infarction). Results: During DSE, G2 patients showed worse wall motion score index (WMSI), but the test was stopped for complications in a comparable proportion of cases (54 G1 and 19 G2 patients, P = NS). EST was inconclusive in similarly high proportion of patients in both groups (76% in G1 vs. 84% in G2, P = NS); G2 patients reached a significantly lower total workload (6 ± 1.6 METs in G1 vs. 5 ± 1.2 METs in G2, P < 0.001). At multivariate analysis, a lower peak exercise capacity (HR 0.566, CI 0.351,0.914, P = 0.020) was associated with higher mortality, while a high-dose WMSI >2 (HR 5.123, CI 1.559,16.833, P = 0.007), viability (HR 3.354, CI 1.162,9.678, P = 0.025), and nonprescription of beta-blockers (HR 0.328, CI 0.114,0.945, P = 0.039) predicted hard cardiac events. Conclusion: In patients with known CAD, EST and DSE maintain a significant prognostic role in terms of peak exercise capacity for EST and of presence of viability and an extensive wall motion abnormalities at peak DSE. [source]

Risk Stratification and Prognosis in Octogenarians Undergoing Stress Echocardiographic Study

F. A. C. C., Farooq A. Chaudhry M.D.
Background: The prognostic value of stress echocardiography (SE) for the diagnosis and risk stratification of coronary artery disease in octogenarians is not well defined. Methods: Follow-up of 5 years (mean 2.9 ± 1.0 years) for confirmed nonfatal myocardial infarction (n = 17) and cardiac death (n = 37) was obtained in 335 patients, age ,80 years (mean age 84 ± 3 years, 44% male), undergoing SE (33% treadmill, 67% dobutamine). Left ventricular (LV) regional wall motion was assessed by a consensus of two echocardiographers and scored as per standard five-point scale, 16-segment model of wall motion analysis. Ischemic LV wall segment was defined as deterioration in the thickening and excursion during stress (increase in wall-motion score index (WMSI) ,1). Results: By univariate analysis, inducible ischemia (chi-square = 38.4, P < 0.001), left ventricular ejection fraction (chi-square = 41.2, P < 0.001), a history of previous myocardial infarction (chi-square = 22.3, P < 0.01), hypertension (chi-square = 33, P < 0.01), and age (chi-square = 27.7, P < 0.01) were significant predictors of future cardiac events. WMSI, an index of inducible ischemia, provided incremental prognostic information when forced into a multivariable model where clinical and rest echocardiography variables were entered first. WMSI effectively stratified octogenarians into low- and high-risk groups (annualized event rates of 1.2 versus 5.8%/year, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Stress echocardiography yields incremental prognostic information in octogenarians and effectively stratifies them into low- and high-risk groups. Precise therapeutic decision making in very elderly patients should incorporate combined clinical and stress echocardiography data. [source]

Markers of eosinophilic inflammation and risk prediction in patients with coronary artery disease

C. Falcone
Abstract Background, The eotaxin family comprises three distinct peptides (eotaxin, eotaxin-2 and eotaxin-3) which have been implicated in eosinophilic inflammation. In vitro and clinical studies suggest that eotaxins could play a role in vascular inflammation, but no data are available on their prognostic significance in patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials and methods, Baseline plasma samples were obtained from 1014 patients with documented CAD. We tested the predictive effect of markers of eosinophilic inflammation and C-reactive protein (CRP) on death from cardiovascular causes and nonfatal myocardial infarction over a 2·7,4·1-year follow-up period. Results, Unexpectedly, lower eotaxin-3 concentrations were observed in patients with adverse cardiovascular events, whereas both eotaxin and eotaxin-2 showed no association with risk. After adjustment for most potential confounders, patients in the upper-quartile of eotaxin-3 levels had a 0·42 hazard-ratio (95% CI, 0·29,0·61, P < 0·001) for adverse events compared with subjects in the lower-quartile. The highest risk of future cardiovascular events was observed in subjects with combined elevation of CRP and reduction of eotaxin-3; 4·4 hazard-ratio (95% CI, 2·1,9·5, P < 0·001). Importantly, receiver-operating-characteristic curves analysis suggested a superior prognostic value of eotaxin-3 compared with CRP for predicting cardiac events in patients with CAD. Conclusions, Low levels of eotaxin-3 are an independent predictor of future adverse cardiovascular events in patients with CAD and may be useful for risk stratification. [source]

Plasma matrix metalloproteinase-3 level is an independent prognostic factor in stable coronary artery disease

T. C. Wu
Abstract Background, Recent evidence suggests the important role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the progression of atherosclerosis and development of clinical events. We assessed the prognostic value of different plasma MMPs in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials and methods, A total of 165 consecutive nondiabetic patients with angiographically significant CAD (n = 150) or normal coronary angiograms despite exercise-induced myocardial ischemia (cardiac syndrome X, n = 15) and 17 normal subjects were evaluated. In each subject, plasma inflammatory markers including high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and MMP-2, 3 and 9 were measured. In CAD patients, major cardiovascular events including cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unscheduled coronary revascularization and hospitalization as a result of unstable angina were prospectively followed up for more than 6 months. Results, Plasma levels of MMPs were significantly higher in CAD patients than in those with cardiac syndrome X and in normal subjects (MMP-2: 914·76 ± 13·20 vs. 830·79 ± 31·95 vs. 783·08 ± 28·40 ng mL,1, P = 0·002; MMP-3: 129·59 ± 4·21 vs. 116·86 ± 8·09 vs. 91·71 ± 9·55 ng mL,1, P = 0·011; MMP-9: 31·42 ± 2·84 vs. 11·40 ± 5·49 vs. 6·71 ± 2·89 ng mL,1, P = 0·006). In CAD patients, there were 48 major cardiovascular events during a mean follow-up period of 17·74 ± 0·85 months. The numbers of diseased vessels (HR = 2·19, 95% CI 1·20,1·02, P = 0·011), plasma hsCRP (HR = 2·21, 95% CI 1·18,4·11, P = 0·013) and MMP-3 level (HR = 2·46, 95% CI = 1·15,5·28, P = 0·021) were associated with the development of cardiovascular events. However, only the plasma MMP-3 level was an independent predictor of the adverse events in CAD patients (HR = 2·47, 95% CI 1·10,5·54, P = 0·028). Conclusions, Plasma MMP levels were increased in CAD patients. Plasma MMP-3 level, rather than hsCRP, was an independent prognostic marker for future cardiovascular events, suggesting its potential role in risk stratification and clinical management of stable CAD. [source]

Reduced lung function predicts increased fatality in future cardiac events.

A population-based study
Abstract. Objective., Moderately reduced lung function in apparently healthy subjects has been associated with incidence of coronary events. However, whether lung function is related to the fatality of the future events is unknown. This study explored whether reduced forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) in initially healthy men is related to the fatality of the future coronary events. Design., Prospective cohort study. Setting., Population-based study from Malmö, Sweden. Subjects., A total of 5452 healthy men, 28,61 years of age. Main outcome measures., Incidence of first coronary events was monitored over a mean follow-up of 19 years. The fatality of the future events was studied in relation to FEV and FVC. Results., A total of 589 men suffered a coronary event during follow-up, 165 of them were fatal during the first day. After risk factors adjustment, low FEV or FVC were associated with incidence of coronary events (fatal or nonfatal) and this relationship was most pronounced for the fatal events. Amongst men who subsequently had a coronary event, the case-fatality rates were higher in men with low FEV or FVC. Adjusted for risk factors, the odds ratio for death during the first day was 1.00 (reference), 1.63 (95% CI: 0.9,3.1), 1.86 (1.0,3.5) and 2.06 (1.1,3.9), respectively, for men with FVC in the 4th, 3rd, 2nd, and lowest quartiles (trend: P < 0.05). FEV showed similar relationships with the fatality rates. Conclusion., Apparently healthy men with moderately reduced lung function have higher fatality in future coronary events, with a higher proportion of coronary heart disease deaths and less nonfatal myocardial infarction. [source]

Association of boiled and filtered coffee with incidence of first nonfatal myocardial infarction: the SHEEP and the VHEEP study

N. Hammar
Abstract., Hammar N, Andersson T, Alfredsson L, Reuterwall C, Nilsson T, Hallqvist J, Knutsson A, Ahlbom A (Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Stockholm Center of Public Health, Stockholm, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Västernorrland County Council, Sundsvall, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Norrland University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden) Association of boiled and filtered coffee with incidence of first nonfatal myocardial infarction: the SHEEP and the VHEEP study. J Intern Med 2003; 253: 653,659. Objectives., To evaluate the influence of consumption of filtered and boiled coffee, on the incidence of first nonfatal myocardial infarction. Design., Population-based case,control study. Setting and subjects., The study base consisted of the population 45,65/70 years-old in two Swedish counties, Stockholm and Västernorrland, 1992/93,94. In all, 1943 cases of first nonfatal myocardial infarction were identified. For each case one control was selected from the study base concurrently with disease incidence by matching the sex, age and place of residence of the case. Information about coffee consumption and other factors was obtained by mailed questionnaire and a medical examination. The participation rate was 85% amongst cases and 74% amongst controls. Results., Men with a reported consumption of 7,9 dL filtered coffee per day showed an increased incidence of first myocardial infarction compared with consumers of 3 dL day,1 or less (RR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.03,1.70). A consumption of at least 10 dL day,1 was associated with an RR of 1.93 (95% CI: 1.42,2.63) for filtered and 2.20 (95% CI: 1.17,4.15) for boiled coffee. Amongst women, no clear association was seen between consumption of filtered coffee and myocardial infarction but consumption of boiled coffee tended to be related to an increased incidence. Comparing subjects drinking boiled coffee with those drinking filtered coffee and adjusting for the amount consumed gave an increased incidence for boiled coffee amongst both men (RR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.07,1.80) and women (RR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.04,2.56). Conclusions., Consumption of boiled coffee appears to increase the incidence of first nonfatal myocardial infarction. This increased incidence is consistent with randomized trials showing an adverse impact of boiled coffee on blood lipids. [source]

Protected Carotid Stenting in High-Risk Patients: Results of the SpideRX Arm of the Carotid Revascularization with ev3 Arterial Technology Evolution Trial

Purpose:,A prospective nonrandomized multicenter registry of 160 patients with severe carotid stenosis and high-risk features for carotid endarterectomy was conducted during the 3-month period from March to May 2005. Methods:,Carotid artery stenting (CAS) was performed with the SpideRXŌ Embolic Protection System (ev3, Inc., Plymouth, MN, USA) as part of an investigational device exemption from the Food and Drug Administration. Results:,The primary end-point of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events at 30 days after CAS was observed in nine patients (5.6%), including death in four patients (2.5%), nonfatal stroke in five patients (3.1%), and nonfatal myocardial infarction in one patient (0.6%). A secondary end-point of technical success (defined as successful deployment of all devices, filter retrieval, and final diameter stenosis <50%) was achieved in 156 of 160 patients (97.5%). The only independent predictor of death or stroke at 30 days was baseline stenosis severity (P < 0.05). Conclusion:,CAS with distal embolic protection using the SpideRXŌ Embolic Protection System is a reasonable alternative for revascularization of some high-risk patients with severe carotid stenosis. (J Interven Cardiol 2010;23:491,498) [source]

Latest news and product developments

PRESCRIBER, Issue 9 2007
Article first published online: 3 SEP 200
Clinical trials flatter anti-TNFs in RA The efficacy of anti-TNF agents in clinical trials is not matched by experience in daily practice in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, say Dutch investigators (Ann Rheum Dis online: 10 April 2007; doi:10.1136/ard.2007.072447). They compared outcomes from a systematic review of trials of etanercept (Enbrel), infliximab (Remicade) and adalimumab (Humira) and a national postmarketing surveillance scheme (DREAM). In 5 of 11 comparisons, the response rate in DREAM was significantly lower than that in RCTs. Responses among DREAM patients who met the inclusion criteria for clinical trials were significantly greater than among noneligible patients and comparable with those of patients participating in the trials. The authors conclude that patients in trials have more severe disease and therefore a response to treatment that is not matched in daily practice. Methadone prescriptions double in 10 years Methadone treatment for opiate addicts has more than doubled in the past 10 years, according to an audit of opiate substitution in England by the National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse ( The total number of methadone prescriptions increased from 970 900 in 1995 to over 1.8 million in 2004. The introduction of buprenorphine (Subutex) has not reduced methadone prescribing , 96 per cent of responding centres prescribed methadone and 88 per cent prescribed buprenorphine. Seventy-two per cent of centres prescribe benzodiazepines to opiate addicts, causing the NTA some concern. GPs were involved in prescribing management in about 60 per cent of centres. Next NICE guidelines The Department of Health has referred eight topics to NICE for the development of clinical guidelines: preventing venous thromboembolism, acute coronary syndromes, chest pain, social complications during pregnancy (eg drug misuse), benign prostatic hyperplasia, constipation in children, neonatal jaundice and metastatic disease of unknown primary origin. Errors with children , Every step of drug treatment for children, from prescribing to writing notes, is associated with a substantial level of error, say US investigators (Quality and Safety in Health Care 2007;16:116-26). Their systematic review of 31 studies reporting medication errors in paediatrics found that 3-37 per cent were associated with prescribing errors, 5-58 per cent with dispensing errors, 72-75 per cent with errors of administration, and 17-21 per cent with documentation errors. Suggestions for remedial strategies were not evidence based, the authors found. , and transplant patients Errors in medication are common among outpatients who have received liver, kidney or pancreas transplants, a second US study has found (Arch Surg 2007;142:278-83). Twelve months' follow-up of 93 patients revealed a total of 149 errors of drug treatment, with a frequency of 15 in 219 visits over a four-week period. One-third of errors were associated with adverse events including hospital admission and graft rejection. Patients were taking an average of 11 medicines; analysis showed that over half of errors originated with the patients and 13 per cent were associated with prescribing. Paracetamol pack benefit challenged A new study has challenged accepted wisdom that reducing the OTC pack size of paracetamol cut the suicide rate (PLoS Medicine 2007;4:e105). In 1998, pack sizes of paracetamol were limited to 16 in general sale outlets and 32 in pharmacies. Suicide rates subsequently decreased but, though widely assumed, a causal link has not been established. Researchers from London and the Office of National Statistics have now examined mortality trends from suicide associated with antidepressants, aspirin, compound paracetamol preparations and nondrug poisoning. They found that all fatal suicides declined at similar rates after the pack size reductions. While not excluding the possibility that restricting easy access to paracetamol may have helped, these data suggest that other factors were also important. CV risk with ibuprofen among aspirin users Ibuprofen, but not naproxen, is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events and heart failure than lumiracoxib (Prexige) in high-risk patients, according to a new analysis of the TARGET trial (Ann Rheum Dis online: 5 April 2007; doi:10.1136/ard.2006.066001). TARGET comprised two studies comparing naproxen or ibuprofen with lumiracoxib in a total of 18 325 patients with OA. This post-hoc analysis stratified patients by their cardiovascular risk; the primary end-point was a composite of cardiovascular mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke at one year. Among those at high risk who were taking aspirin, ibuprofen was associated with an increased risk of the composite end-point compared with lumiracoxib (2.14 vs 0.25 per cent). The risk was similar for naproxen and lumiracoxib (1.58 vs 1.48 per cent). In high-risk patients not taking aspirin, the risk was similar for ibuprofen and lumiracoxib, but lower for naproxen than lumiracoxib. Congestive heart failure was more common in patients taking ibuprofen than lumiracoxib (1.28 vs 0.14 per cent); the risk was similar with naproxen and lumiracoxib. The authors emphasise that their findings should be considered hypothesis-generating. CVD guidelines criticised The second edition of the guidelines of the Joint British Societies on preventing cardiovascular disease have been harshly criticised for failing to meet international quality standards (Int J Clin Pract online doi: 10.1111/j.1742-1241.2007.01310.x). Kent GP Dr Rubin Minhas evaluated the guidelines against the criteria of the Appraisal of Guidelines and Research (AGREE) Collaboration. He identified areas of weakness including stakeholder involvement, rigour of development, applicability (by not considering cost) and editorial independence from the pharmaceutical industry. The guidelines should not be recommended for clinical practice, he concludes. OTC naproxen? The MHRA is consulting on switching naproxen 250mg to pharmacy-only status for the treatment of period pain in women aged 15-50. The change would offer an alternative to ibuprofen, currently the only other OTC medicine with this indication. Responses should be submitted by 23 May. The Agency is currently considering responses to its consultation on switching tranexamic acid to OTC status for heavy menstrual bleeding. Diabetes costs The total cost of prescribing for diabetes in England has doubled in only five years, official statistics show. The NHS Information Centre ( report shows that spending in primary and secondary care in 2006 was £561 million, up 14 per cent on 2005. Growth was due to increased prescribing of oral hypoglycaemic agents (notably the glitazones , up by one-third over 2005) and the higher costs of insulins. Pharmacists may give flu jabs PCTs may consider using pharmacists to administer flu vaccines to some at-risk groups in the 2007/08 season, according to Department of Health plans. Flu vaccination payment for patients with diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke and TIA is provided under the Quality Outcomes Framework. The Department suggests that PCTs consider contracting a local enhanced service from pharmacists to reach other patients at increased risk, such as those with chronic liver disease, multiple sclerosis and related conditions, hereditary and degenerative disease of the CNS and carers. Copyright © 2007 Wiley Interface Ltd [source]

Latest news and product developments

PRESCRIBER, Issue 8 2007
Article first published online: 23 JUL 200
Lamotrigine for partial, valproate for generalised A large UK trial has shown that lamotrigine is the most effective choice in the treatment of partial epilepsy (Lancet 2007;369: 1000-15). The SANAD trial, commissioned by the National Institute for Health Research's Health Technology Assessment programme, randomised 1721 patients (for whom carbamazepine monotherapy would have been the treatment of choice) to treatment with carbamazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine (Trileptal) or topiramate (Topamax). Lamotrigine was associated with a longer time to treatment failure, though time to 12-month remission favoured carbamazepine. Over four years' follow-up, lamotrigine was numerically but not significantly superior. The authors concluded lamotrigine is clinically superior to carbamazepine for partial epilepsy A second arm of the trial, yet to be published, evaluated the treatment of generalised epilepsy and found valproate to be clinically most effective, though topiramate was cost effective for some patients. Chronic pain common in nursing homes Most residents in nursing homes say they have long- term pain but only one in seven say a health professional has ever discussed its treatment with them, according to a report by the Patients' Association ( Pain in Older People ,A Hidden Problem was a qualitative study of 77 older residents in care homes in England. Most were frail and suffered long-term illness. The study found that 85 per cent of residents said they were often troubled by aches or pains and these lasted over a year in 74 per cent. Most described their pain as moderate (33 per cent) or severe (38 per cent) but 8 per cent said it was excruciating. Many reported limitations on mobility and social activities despite a high level of stoicism. All but one were taking medication to relive pain; one-third experienced adverse effects but 78 per cent believed drugs offered the most effective treatment. One-quarter said a doctor or nurse had discussed how to stop their pain worsening, and 15 per cent said they had discussed how to treat their pain. Visits from GPs appeared to be uncommon. Atherothrombotic events despite treatment Between one in five and one in seven of high-risk patients experience atherothrombotic events despite evidence-based treatment, the REACH study has shown (J Am Med Assoc 2007;297:1197-1206). REACH (REduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health) is an international observational study involving 68 236 patients with atherothrombotic disease or at least three risk factors. Most were taking conventional evidence-based medication. After one year, the incidence of the combined endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke or hospitalisation for atherothrombotic events was approximately 15 per cent for patients with coronary artery disease or cardiovascular disease, and 21 per cent in patients with peripheral artery disease and established coronary disease. Event rates increased with the number of vascular beds affected, rising to 26 per cent in patients with three symptomatic arterial disease locations. Extended CD prescribing by nurses and pharmacists The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) is consulting on expanding the prescribing of controlled drugs (CDs) by nonmedical prescribers. Currently, nurse independent prescribers can prescribe 12 CDs, including diamorphine and morphine, but pharmacist independent prescribers may not prescribe any CDs. The proposal is to allow both professions to prescribe any CDs within their competence, with the exception of cocaine, diamorphine or dipipanone for the management of addiction. The closing date for consultation is 15 June. Consultation is also underway on expanding the range of CDs nurses and pharmacists can prescribe under a patient group direction (PGD), and their use for pain relief. The closing date for consultation is 20 April. Intrinsa: transdermal testosterone for women A transdermal formulation of testosterone has been introduced for the treatment of low sexual desire associated with distress in women who have experienced an early menopause following hysterectomy involving a bilateral oophorectomy and are receiving concomitant oestrogen therapy. Manufacturer Procter & Gamble says that Intrinsa, a twice-weekly patch, delivers testosterone 300µg every 24 hours, achieving premenopausal serum testosterone levels. Clinical trials showed that Intrinsa reduced distress in 65-68 per cent and increased satisfying sexual activity in 51-74 per cent of women. A month's treatment (eight patches) costs £28.00. Fish oil for secondary ,not primary ,prevention of CHD Supplementing statin therapy with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduces the risk of major coronary events in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) ,but not in patients with no history of CHD Lancet 2007;369:1090-8). The five-year study in 18 645 patients with total cholesterol levels of 6.5mmol per litre or greater found that the incidence of sudden cardiac death, fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction in CHD patients treated with EPA plus a statin was 8.7 per cent compared with 10.7 per cent with a statin alone (relative risk reduction 19 per cent). A similar relative risk reduction in patients with no CHD was not statistically significant. There was no difference in mortality between the groups but EPA did reduce unstable angina and nonfatal coronary events. Department pilots information prescriptions The Department of Health has announced 20 sites to pilot information prescriptions prior to a nationwide roll-out in 2008. The prescriptions will guide people with long-term conditions such as diabetes and cancer to sources of support and information about their condition. The Department hopes the project will increase patients' understanding of their discussions with health professionals, empower them to locate the information they need, and provide long-term support. NPSA guidelines for safer prescribing The National Patient Safety Agency ( has published five guidelines to improve medication safety in the NHS. Targeting ,high-risk issues', the guidance covers anticoagulant prescribing, liquid medicines for oral or enteral administration, injectable medicines, epidural injections and infusions, and paediatric intravenous infusions. The implementation of each guide is supported by additional tools and resources. Better adherence not matched to outcomes A systematic review has found that interventions can increase adherence to prescribed medication but there is no evidence that clinical outcomes also improve (Arch Intern Med 2007;167:540-9). The review of 37 trials identified 20 reporting increased adherence. The most effective interventions were behavioural changes to reduce dose demands and those involving monitoring and feedback. Improvements in clinical outcomes were variable and did not correspond to changes in adherence. Antidepressant plus mood stabiliser no better US investigators have found that combining a mood stabiliser with an antidepressant is no more effective than a mood stabiliser alone in preventing mood changes (N Engl J Med 2007; published online 28 March, doi.10.1056/NEJMoa064135). The study found durable recovery occurred in 23.5 per cent of patients treated with a mood stabiliser and adjunctive antidepressant therapy for six months compared with 27.3 per cent of those taking a mood stabiliser plus placebo. [source]

A meta-analysis of the utility of C-reactive protein in predicting early, intermediate-term and long term mortality and major adverse cardiac events in vascular surgical patients

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 4 2009
L. Padayachee
Summary We conducted a meta-analysis of the utility of pre-operative C reactive protein (CRP) in predicting early (< 30 days), intermediate (30,180 days) and long term (> 180 days) mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACE; cardiac mortality and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) combined) following vascular surgery. Of 291 studies identified, ten prospective patient cohorts were identified. A pre-operative CRP > 3 mg.l,1 was not associated with 30-day all-cause mortality, cardiac mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction or MACE. Intermediate-term all-cause mortality, cardiac death and MACE showed a trend to a worse outcome (odds ratio (OR) 9.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86,96.28, p = 0.07; OR 8.71, 95% CI 0.5,153.1, p = 0.14 and OR 2.81, 95% CI 0.78,5.18, p = 0.15 respectively). Long term all cause mortality (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.15,5.02, p = 0.02), cardiac death (OR 5.66, 95% CI 1.71,18.73, p = 0.005) and MACE (OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.38,5.55, p = 0.004) were significantly increased. [source]

Clinical Implications of QRS Duration and QT Peak Prolongation in Patients with Suspected Coronary Disease Referred for Elective Cardiac Catheterization

M. Nadeem Attar M.D., M.R.C.P.
Background: The electrocardiogram (ECG) remains a simple, universally available, and prognostically powerful investigation in heart failure, and acute coronary syndromes. We sought to assess the prognostic utility of clinical, angiographic, and simple ECG parameters in a large cohort of patients undergoing elective cardiac catheterization (CC) for known or suspected coronary artery disease. Methods: Consecutive consenting patients undergoing CC for coronary disease were enrolled at a single tertiary center. Patient data, drug therapy, catheter reports, and ECG recordings were prospectively recorded in a validated electronic archive. The primary outcome measure was death or nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) over 1 year or until percutaneous or cardiac surgical intervention. Independent prognostic markers were identified using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: A total of 682 individuals were recruited of whom 17(2.5%) died or suffered a nonfatal MI in 1 year. In multivariate analysis QRS duration (ms) (HR 1.03 95% CI 1.01,1.05, P = 0.003), extent of coronary disease (HR 2.01 95% CI 1.24,3.58, P = 0.006), and prolonged corrected QT peak interval in lead I (HR 1.02 95% CI 1.00,1.03, P = 0.044) were independently associated with death or nonfatal MI. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analysis for the multivariate model against the primary end point yielded an area under the curve of 0.759 (95% CI 0.660,0.858), P < 0.001. Conclusions: QRS duration and QT peak are independently associated with increased risk of death or nonfatal MI in stable patients attending for coronary angiography. [source]

Effect of fluvastatin on cardiac outcomes in kidney transplant patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: A randomized placebo-controlled study,

Gudrun E. Norby
Objective Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), with or without end-stage renal failure, are at increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease. Although statin therapy has been found to reduce cardiovascular risk in the general population, its effectiveness in kidney transplant recipients with SLE has not been examined. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fluvastatin on cardiac end points in a randomized controlled trial of renal transplant patients with SLE. Methods Patients with SLE were identified from among participants in the Assessment of Lescol in Renal Transplantation trial, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of fluvastatin (40,80 mg/day) on cardiovascular outcomes in renal transplant recipients. Patients were randomized to either a group receiving fluvastatin or a placebo group for the duration of the 5,6-year trial, and then invited to continue in a 2-year open-label extension during which all participants, regardless of original group, received fluvastatin. Patients were followed up for a total of 7,8 years for assessment of the primary end point of major cardiac events, comprising nonfatal myocardial infarction, cardiac death, and coronary intervention procedures. Results Fluvastatin reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 29.2% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 18.3,40%), from a mean ± SD of 4.0 ± 0.9 mmoles/liter to 2.8 ± 1.1 mmoles/liter, and total cholesterol by 19.6% (95% CI 11.7,27.5%), from 6.4 ± 0.9 mmoles/liter to 5.1 ± 1.1 mmoles/liter. Compared with placebo-treated patients, patients randomized to receive fluvastatin exhibited a 73.4% reduction in the risk of major cardiac events (relative risk 26.6 [95% CI 5.9,119.4], P = 0.064). Conclusion Our results indicate that the effect of fluvastatin on cardiac events in renal transplant recipients with SLE is similar to that observed with statin therapy in the renal transplant population as a whole. [source]

A Review of Clinical Trials with Eptifibatide in Cardiology

Uwe Zeymer
ABSTRACT Glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists inhibit the binding of ligands to activated platelet GP IIb/IIIa receptors and, therefore, prevent the formation of platelet thrombi. Additional antithrombin therapy should be given in connection with GP IIb/IIIa administration. Eptifibatide is a small heptapeptide, which is highly selective and rapidly dissociates from its receptor after cessation of therapy. In clinical trials (IMPACT-II and ESPRIT) concomitant administration of eptifibatide to patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) reduced thrombotic complications. In the PURSUIT trial, in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes, eptifibatide, compared to placebo, significantly reduced the primary endpoint of death and nonfatal myocardial infarction at 30 days. In patients with STEMI eptifibatide has been studied as an adjunct to fibrinolysis and primary PCI; it improved epicardial flow and tissue reperfusion. Current studies are evaluating eptifibatide as upstream therapy in high-risk patients with NSTE-ACS, in the EARLY-ACS and in comparison with abciximab in patients with primary PCI in the EVA-AMI trial. [source]

Continuous 12-lead electrocardiographic ST monitoring adds prognostic information to the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes

Michael N. Zairis M.D.
Abstract Background: Continuous 12-lead electrocardiographic (ECG) ST monitoring and the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction Risk Score (TIMI-RS), both have been shown to be useful for early risk stratification in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTACS). Hypothesis: Transient ST ischemic events, detected by continuous 12-lead ECG ST monitoring, early in the course of NSTACS, may add prognostic information to the TIMI-RS. Methods: In all, 567 consecutive patients with a NSTACS underwent 24-h continuous 12-lead ECG ST monitoring. An ST ischemic event was defined as a transient ST shift in any lead of , 0.10 mV compared with the reference ECG, lasting for ,l min. Results: The incidence of the composite of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (or reinfarction) and recurrent ischemia by Day 14 was 22.2%. By Day 30, the incidence of the composite of death and nonfatal myocardial infarction (or reinfarction) was 14.7%. There was a significantly increased risk of 14-day (p value for trend < 0.001) or 30-day (p value for trend <0.001) composite endpoint with increasing of TIMI-RS. Moreover, the occurrence of , 1 ST shifts during ST monitoring was associated with a significantly increased risk of 14-(p value < 0.001) or 30-day (p value < 0.001) composite end-point, and this was true throughout the groups of TIMI-RS. Conclusions: The present study suggests that continuous 12-lead ECG ST monitoring, early in the course of NSTACS, may serve as an affordable tool to add prognostic information to the TIMI-RS. [source]

Lipoprotein(a) was an independent predictor for major coronary events in treated hypertensive men

Ph.D., Stefan Agewall M.D.
Abstract Background and Hypothesis: Lipoprotein(a) may play a part in the development of coronary heart disease. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate lipoprotein(a) as a predictor of major coronary events (fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction and sudden death). Methods: This was a prospective study of 118 men, aged 56 to 77 years, with treated hypertension and at least one additional cardiovascular risk factor (hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, or smoking) were included in the study. Lipoprotein(a) was measured at entry and major coronary events were followed during follow-up. Results: The mean observation time was 3.0 years. Fourteen patients had a major coronary event during the follow-up period. Subjects with coronary heart disease (previous myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, or major electrocardiographic changes) at entry (n = 27) had significantly higher lipoprotein(a) levels than subjects without (n = 91) known coronary heart disease (p < 0.05). Lipoprotein(a) was a significant predictor for major coronary events (p = 0.033). Furthermore, when coronary disease at entry was included into the Cox regression analysis, lipoprotein(a) was an independent predictorfor major coronary events (p = 0.044). Conclusions: Among treated hypertensive men, lipoprotein(a) was an independent predictor of major coronary events. [source]