Nonenzymatic Glycation (nonenzymatic + glycation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

,Lipoproteins, glycoxidation and diabetic angiopathy'

Alicia J. Jenkins
Abstract The chronic vascular complications of diabetes (nephropathy, retinopathy and accelerated atherosclerosis) are a major cause of morbidity and premature mortality. In spite of the more widespread availability of intensive diabetes management, approximately one in three people with diabetes develop aggressive complications and over 70% die of atherosclerosis-related diseases. Genetic and acquired factors are likely to be contributory. Potential mediators of vascular damage may include the interrelated processes of lipoprotein abnormalities, glycation, oxidation and endothelial dysfunction. Lipoprotein abnormalities encompass alterations in lipid concentrations, lipoprotein composition and subclass distribution and lipoprotein-related enzymes. Nonenzymatic glycation and oxidative damage to lipoproteins, other proteins and to vascular structures may also be deleterious. As atherosclerosis is a chronic condition commencing in youth, and because clinical events may be silent in diabetes, surrogate measures of vascular disease are important for early identification of diabetic patients with or at high risk of vascular damage, and for monitoring efficacy of interventions. The increasing array of biochemical assays for markers and mediators of vascular damage, noninvasive measures of vascular health, and therapeutic options should enable a reduction in the excessive personal and economic burden of vascular disease in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Advanced glycation end-products and the kidney

Martin Busch
Eur J Clin Invest 2010; 40 (8): 742,755 Abstract Background, Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are increased in situations with hyperglycemia and oxidative stress such as diabetes mellitus. They are products of nonenzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins and lipids. The kidney plays an important role in clearance and metabolism of AGEs. Methods, Medline© and other relevant databases were searched. In addition, key review articles were scanned for relevant original publication. Finally, original data from our research group were also included. Results, Kidney podocytes and endothelial cells express specific receptors for AGEs. Their activation leads to multiple pathophysiological effects including hypertrophy with cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, altered migration, and generation of proinflammatory cytokines. AGEs have been primarily implicated in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy and diabetic microvascular complications. AGEs are also involved in other primary renal diseases as well as in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. However, serum or plasma concentrations of AGEs do not correlate well with cardiovascular events in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This is likely due to the fact that serum concentrations failed to correlate with AGEs deposited in target tissues. Several inhibitors of the AGE-RAGE axis are currently tested for various indications. Conclusion, AGEs and their receptors are involved in the pathogenesis of vascular and kidney disease. The role of circulating AGEs as biomarkers for cardiovascular risk estimation is questionable. Whether putative inhibitors of AGEs will get the maturity for its therapeutic use in the future remains open. [source]

Diabetes, oxidative stress, and antioxidants: A review

A. C. Maritim
Abstract Increasing evidence in both experimental and clinical studies suggests that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of both types of diabetes mellitus. Free radicals are formed disproportionately in diabetes by glucose oxidation, nonenzymatic glycation of proteins, and the subsequent oxidative degradation of glycated proteins. Abnormally high levels of free radicals and the simultaneous decline of antioxidant defense mechanisms can lead to damage of cellular organelles and enzymes, increased lipid peroxidation, and development of insulin resistance. These consequences of oxidative stress can promote the development of complications of diabetes mellitus. Changes in oxidative stress biomarkers, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione levels, vitamins, lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration, nonenzymatic glycosylated proteins, and hyperglycemia in diabetes, and their consequences, are discussed in this review. In vivo studies of the effects of various conventional and alternative drugs on these biomarkers are surveyed. There is a need to continue to explore the relationship between free radicals, diabetes, and its complications, and to elucidate the mechanisms by which increased oxidative stress accelerates the development of diabetic complications, in an effort to expand treatment options. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 17:24,38, 2003; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/jbt.10058 [source]

Platelet activation in type 2 diabetes mellitus

P. Ferroni
Summary., The abnormal metabolic state that accompanies diabetes renders arteries susceptible to atherosclerosis, being capable of altering the functional properties of multiple cell types, including endothelium and platelets. In particular, an altered platelet metabolism and changes in intraplatelet signaling pathways may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherothrombotic complications of diabetes. A variety of mechanisms may be responsible for enhanced platelet aggregation. Among them, hyperglycemia may represent a causal factor for in vivo platelet activation, and may be responsible for nonenzymatic glycation of platelet glycoproteins, causing changes in their structure and conformation, as well as alterations of membrane lipid dynamics. Furthermore, hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is responsible for enhanced peroxidation of arachidonic acid to form biologically active isoprostanes, which represents an important biochemical link between impaired glycemic control and persistent platelet activation. Finally, increased oxidative stress is responsible for activation of transcription factors and expression of redox-sensitive genes leading to a phenotypic switch of endothelium toward an adhesive, pro-thrombotic condition, initial platelet activation, adhesion and subsequent platelet aggregate formation. All this evidence is strengthened by the results of clinical trials documenting the beneficial effects of metabolic control on platelet function, and by the finding that aspirin treatment may even be more beneficial in diabetic than in high-risk non-diabetic patients. Attention to appropriate medical management of diabetic patients will have great impact on long-term outcome in this high-risk population. [source]