Nondestructive Testing (nondestructive + testing)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Inspection of Remanent Polarization in the Ferroelectric Ceramic PZT 95/5 Through Pyroelectric Effect

Fu-Ping Zhang
Shock-induced depoling of the ferroelectric (FE) ceramic PZT 95/5 is utilized in a number of pulsed power devices. Nondestructive testing of remanent polarization of PZT 95/5 is developed by pyroelectric effect in this paper. Approximately linear relation between the change of polarization during low- to high-temperature rhombohedral FE phase and the remanent polarization was found through pyroelectricity of a single piece of PZT 95/5 ceramics. The change of polarization of a prototype for shock-driven pulsed power during the FEHT,FELT phase transformation was also investigated through directly measuring the pyroelectric current. Results indicate that pyroelectric effect caused by the reversible FEHT,FELT phase transition could be used as a non-destructive inspection for the remanent polarization of a prototype about shock-driven pulsed power supply. [source]

Nondestructive testing of polyaramide cables by longitudinal wave propagation: Study of the dynamic modulus

M. Ferreira
It has been observed that cables at different states of fatigue had their own speed of longitudinal propagation of acoustic waves (1). This speed can be measured with piezoelectric captors and is proportional to the square root of the sonic modulus. Our experiments, which have been carried out on Technora cables of diameter 2 mm, show that the modulus obtained from the wave speed has the same behavior in fatigue as the modulus obtained from tensile tests. Furthermore, our experiments also show that the residual strength in the cable is proportional to the modulus. A nondestructive control of cables can hence be made from these sonic modulus measurements. [source]


ABSTRACT A "Foreign Body" (FB) is any undesirable piece of solid matter (metal, glass, stone, plastic) present in a food product. It is naturally desirable by the food industry that all FBs are detected and removed before they reach the customer. A FB detector was developed based on the ultrasound pulse/echo method. Unlike the time-gating for flaw detection by nondestructive testing (NDT), a FB is detected by examining the amplitude ratios between the echoes from the container's outer and inner surfaces. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the ability of the proposed system to detect glass pieces in packed beverages and other foods. [source]

Mechanical Behavior and Failure Analysis of Prosthetic Retaining Screws after Long-term Use In Vivo.

Part 1: Characterization of Adhesive Wear, Structure of Retaining Screws
Abstract Purpose: The general aim of this study and those presented in Parts 2,4 of this series was to characterize the structure, properties, wear, and fracture of prosthetic retaining screws in fixed detachable hybrid prostheses after long-term use in vivo. This part of the overall investigation addresses whether there are differences in thread wear between the screws closest to the fulcrum and those that are farthest from the fulcrum in fixed detachable hybrid prostheses. Materials and Methods: The total number of prosthetic retaining screws used in this study was 100 (10 new and 90 used). New screws (controls) from Nobel Biocare (NB) were divided into Group 1 (slotted) and Group 2 (hexed). Ninety used screws (in service 18,120 months) were retrieved from fixed detachable hybrid prostheses in 18 patients (5 screws from each patient, 60 from NB and 30 from Sterngold). The used screws were divided into 18 groups. Additionally, each group was subdivided into A and B categories. Category A contained the middle three prosthetic screws, which were considered the farthest screws from the fulcrum line. Category B contained the most posterior two screws, which were considered the screws closest to the fulcrum line. All 100 screws were subjected to thorough, nondestructive testing. Results: Light and scanning electron microscopic examination of all used screws for each group revealed surface deterioration of the active profile of the screw threads consistent with adhesive wear. The observed thread profile deterioration ranged from mild to severe. The wear was aggressive enough to cause galling, which led to thinning of the threads and, in severe cases, to knife-edges at thread crests. In ten groups, the most anterior three screws exhibited more wear than the most posterior two screws. In addition to thread wear, severe plastic deformation was detected on the bottom part of each screw for three groups, and a long external longitudinal crack was detected in one screw of Group 2. Conclusions: The findings of this study and those presented in Parts 2,4 demonstrate that different retaining screws from the same manufacturer and/or from different manufacturers have different geometrical design, microstructures, major alloy constituents, and microhardness, and that these differences influence their preload and fractured load values. In this part of the overall investigation, the occurrence of galling as a result of wear involving prosthetic retaining screws appears to be an inevitable and unavoidable consequence of long-term use in vivo in fixed detachable hybrid prostheses regardless of the intended/original preload value. The galling rate is greater on the middle three screws compared to the most posterior two screws in fixed detachable hybrid prostheses. The wear pattern is consistent with an adhesive wear mechanism; however, this study does not provide enough data to support a definitive analysis. [source]

Magnetoimpedance (MI) in amorphous wires: new materials and applications

Larissa V. Panina
Abstract The discovery of the magnetoimpedance (MI) effect in 1994 had a strong impact on the development of magnetic sensors. Along with traditional areas of sensing applications (data storage, bio-medical electronics, robotics and security), the MI elements have a high potential for applications in smart sensory systems (self-sensing composites) operating at microwave frequencies owing to still very large MI ratios of 50,100% in Co-rich amorphous wires at GHz frequencies. Here we introduce two types of MI wire composites: 2D-arrays and mixtures of wire pieces. In such materials the effective permittivity has strong dispersion in a frequency band determined by a plasma frequency or a dipole resonance, respectively. If MI wires are used as constituent elements, this dispersion may be very sensitive to the magnetic properties of wires since the wire impedance determines the relaxation parameter of the effective permittivity. For example, increasing the wire impedance by establishing the magnetisation along the axis with an external magnetic field broadens the resonance band, decreases the reflection amplitude and may open a bandpass. Depending on the magnetic anisotropy in wires, tuning can be realized with both magnetic field and stress. It is foreseen that MI-wire composite materials could be suitable for large scale applications, in particular, for free space filters in secure wireless systems and for microwave nondestructive testing and control in civil engineering. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]