Noncompartmental Methods (noncompartmental + methods)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Pharmacodynamic differentiation of lorazepam sleepiness and dizziness using an ordered categorical measure

Mohamed A. Kamal
Abstract Categorical measures of lorazepam sleepiness and dizziness were modeled to identify differences in pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters between these adverse events (AEs). Differences in data-derived PD parameters were compared with relative incidence rates in the drug label (15.7% and 6.9%, respectively). Healthy volunteers (n,=,20) received single oral doses of 2,mg lorazepam or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over fashion. A seven-point categorical scale measuring the intensity of AEs was serially administered over 24,h. The maximum score (MaxS), and area under the effect curve (AUEC) were determined by noncompartmental methods and compared using a paired t -test. Individual scores were modeled using a logistic function implemented in NONMEM. AUEC and MaxS for sleepiness were significantly higher than dizziness (20.35 vs. 9.76, p,<,0.01) and (2.35 vs. 1.45, p,<,0.01). Model slope estimates were similar for sleepiness and dizziness (0.21,logits,×,mL/ng vs. 0.19,logits,×,mL/ng), but baseline logits were significantly higher for sleepiness (,2.81 vs. ,4.34,logits). Data-derived PD parameters were in concordance with label incidence rates. The higher intensity of sleepiness may be directly related to baseline (no drug present) while the increase in intensity as a result of drug was relatively similar for both AEs. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 99:3628,3641, 2010 [source]

Comparative serum pharmacokinetics of the fluoroquinolones enrofloxacin, difloxacin, marbofloxacin, and orbifloxacin in dogs after single oral administration

The pharmacokinetics after oral application of the fluoroquinolones (FQs), enrofloxacin, difloxacin, marbofloxacin and orbifloxacin were compared in independent crossover studies in Beagle dogs. Commercially available tablet formulations were given at common dosage recommended by the manufacturers which were 2.0 mg/kg body weight (bw) for marbofloxacin, 2.5 mg/kg bw for orbifloxacin and 5.0 mg/kg bw for enrofloxacin and difloxacin. Analysis was performed by an agar diffusion assay. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental methods. All FQs were rapidly absorbed and achieved average peak serum concentrations of 1.41, 1.11, 1.47 and 1.37 ,g/mL for enrofloxacin, difloxacin, marbofloxacin and orbifloxacin, respectively. Enrofloxacin was eliminated at a terminal half-life (t½) of 4.1 h, difloxacin at 6.9 h, orbifloxacin at 7.1 h and marbofloxacin at 9.1 h. While the area under the serum concentration,time curve of the 24-h dosing interval (AUC0,24) for marbofloxacin and orbifloxacin were similar (approximately 13 ,g · h/mL), enrofloxacin attained an AUC0,24 of 8.7 and difloxacin of 9.3 ,g · h/mL. Because of its favourable pharmacokinetics combined with excellent in vitro activity, enrofloxacin exhibited superior pharmacodynamic predictors of in vivo antimicrobial activity as Cmax/MIC (maximum serum concentration/minimum inhibitory concentration) and AUC0,24/MIC (area under the 24-h serum concentration,time curve/minimum inhibitory concentration) compared with other FQs. [source]

Simultaneous fitting of R- and S-ibuprofen plasma concentrations after oral administration of the racemate

Jörn Lötsch
Aims, To assess the pharmacokinetic equivalence of two different formulations of ibuprofen lysinate with special focus on the expected effects. Methods, Sixteen healthy volunteers received cross-over ibuprofen lysinate as either one tablet of 400 mg (,test') or two tablets of 200 mg (,reference'). Ibuprofen plasma concentrations were followed up for 10 h. Bioequivalence was assessed by standard noncompartmental methods. Ibuprofen plasma concentrations were fitted with a model that took bioinversion of R- to S-ibuprofen into account. Results, Peak plasma concentrations of R- and S-ibuprofen were 18.1 and 20 µg ml,1 (test), and 18.2 and 20 µg ml,1 (reference). Areas under the plasma concentration vs time curves were 39.7 and 67.5 µg ml,1 h (test), and 41.1 and 68.2 µg ml,1 h (reference). Clearance of R-ibuprofen was 5.2 (test) and 5 l h,1 (reference). A specific plasma concentration was reached with the test formulation about 5 min later than with the reference. Parameters from compartmental modelling were (given for R-and then for S-ibuprofen): body clearance: 4.9 and 4.64 l h,1, central volume of distribution: 2.8 and 4.1 l, intercompartment clearance: 5.1 and 5.45 l h,1, peripheral volume of distribution: 4.1 and 5.2 l. The absorption rate constant was 1.52 h,1, and the test but not the reference formulation had a lag time of 0.1 h. Simulations showed similarity between formulations of the expected effects except for a calculated delay of 6 min with the test formulation. Conclusions, Ibuprofen formulations were bioequivalent. The pharmacokinetic model may serve as a basis for future pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic calculations after administration of racemic ibuprofen. [source]

The effects of lamotrigine on the pharmacokinetics of lithium

Chao Chen
Aims The treatment of bipolar disorder often includes use of multiple drug therapies. Lithium is one of the most commonly used treatments, but has a narrow therapeutic window. Lamotrigine, an established antiepileptic drug, is emerging as a potentially important new therapy in the treatment of bipolar disorder. The objective of this two-treatment crossover study was to determine whether lamotrigine affects lithium pharmacokinetics. Methods Twenty healthy adult men completed the study. Subjects took 2 g lithium gluconate anhydrous every 12 h in the morning and evening for 5 days and in the morning of day 6, with or without 100 mg lamotrigine once daily in the morning for 6 days. Blood and urine samples were collected on day 6 of both treatments to characterize the pharmacokinetics of lithium using noncompartmental methods. Results The geometric least-square mean ratio for renal clearance of lithium between the combination treatment and lithium alone treatment was 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.85,1.02). Both treatments were well tolerated. Conclusions Lamotrigine does not cause significant change in the pharmacokinetics of lithium. [source]